Neurofeedback, Biofeedback and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) - A Matter of Mind

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation - tDCS, Neurofeedback & Neuromodulation

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Last updated: April 15, 2011.

Coming soon - "tDCS: Basic Science and Applications" with a Protocol Guide.

I have placed about 300 abstracts on tDCS here.

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Free Full Text tDCS articles



Marshall L, et al (2011) - Transcranial Electrical Currents to Probe EEG Brain Rhythms and Memory Consolidation during Sleep in Humans. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 14;6(2):e16905.


Chi RP, et al (2011) - Facilitate Insight by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 2;6(2):e16655.


Zaehle T, et al (2011) - Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates working memory performance - combined behavioural and electrophysiological evidence. BMC Neurosci. 2011 Jan 6;12:2.


Zaehle T, et al (2010) - Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Enhances Individual Alpha Activity in Human EEG. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 1;5(11):e13766.


Kim SJ, et al (2010) - Functional and Histologic Changes After Repeated Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Rat Stroke Model. J Korean Med Sci. 2010 Oct;25(10):1499-505. Epub 2010 Sep 20.


Loui P, et al (2010) - Inducing Disorders in Pitch Perception and Production - A Reverse-Engineering Approach. Proc Meet Acoust. 2010 Apr 29;9(1):50002.


Brugnoni AR, Fregni F, et al (2010) - Neuromodulation approaches for the treatment of major depression: challenges and recommendations from a working group meeting. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010 Jun;68(3):433-51. Review.


Zaghi S, Fregni F, et al (2009) - Brain stimulation for the treatment of pain - A review of costs, clinical effects, and mechanisms of treatment for three different central neuromodulatory approaches.

J Pain Manag. 2009 Aug;2(3):339-352.


Matsumoto J, et al (2010) - Modulation of mu rhythm desynchronization during motor imagery by transcranial direct current stimulation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010 Jun 11;7:27.


Penolazzi B, et al (2010) - Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Episodic Memory Related to Emotional Visual Stimuli. PLoS One. 2010 May 13;5(5):e10623.


Rothwell JC (2010) - Plasticity in the human motor system. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2010;62(4):153-7. Epub 2010 May 11.


Baker J, et al (2010) - Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to treat stroke patients with aphasia. Stroke. 2010 Jun;41(6):1229-36. Epub 2010 Apr 15.


Hecht D, et al (2010) - Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates decision making in a probabilistic guessing task. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 24;30(12):4241-5.


Vandermeeren Y, et al (2010) - Effect of tDCS with an extracephalic reference electrode on cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions. BMC Neurosci. 2010 Mar 16;11:38.


Madhavan S, et al (2010) - Focal and bi-directional modulation of lower limb motor cortex using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2010 Jan;3(1):42.


Radman T, et al (2009) - Role of Cortical Cell Type and Morphology in Sub- and Suprathreshold Uniform Electric Field Stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2009 Oct;2(4):215-28, 228.e1-3.


Datta A, et al (2010) - Gyri –precise head model of transcranial DC stimulation: Improved spatial focality using a ring electrode versus conventional rectangular pad. Brain Stimul. 2009 Oct 1;2(4):201-207.


Fumagalli M, et al (2010) - Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior - Does Gender Make the Difference. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 25;5(1):e8865.


Williams JA, Fregni F, et al (2010) - Interhemispheric Modulation Induced by Cortical Stimulation and Motor Training. Phys Ther. 2010 Mar;90(3):398-410. Epub 2010 Jan 28


Monte-Silva K, Nitsche MA, et al (2010) - Shaping the optimal repetition interval for cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). J Neurophysiol. 2010 Apr;103(4):1735-40. Epub 2010 Jan 27.


Kranz G, et al (2010) - Blepharospasm and the modulation of cortical excitability in primary and secondary motor areas. Neurology. 2009 Dec 8;73(23):2031-6.


Radman T, et al (2009) - One-dimensional representation of a neuron in a uniform electric field. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:6481-4.


Brunoni AR, et al (2009) - Pharmacological and combined interventions for the acute depressive episode - focus on efficacy and tolerability. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009;5:897-910. Epub 2009 Nov 18.


Smith DV, et al (2009) - Manipulating executive function with transcranial direct current stimulation

Front Integr Neurosci. 2009 Oct 8;3:26. No abstract available.


Jefferson S, et al (2009) - Characterizing the application of transcranial direct current stimulation in human pharyngeal motor cortex. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Dec;297(6):G1035-40. Epub 2009 Oct 8.


Roche N, et al (2009) - Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on spinal network excitability in humans. J Physiol. 2009 Dec 1;587(Pt 23):5653-64. Epub 2009 Oct 5.


Celnik P, et al (2009) - Effects of combined peripheral nerve stimulation and brain polarization on performance of a motor sequence task after chronic stroke. Stroke. 2009 May;40(5):1764-71. Epub 2009 Mar 12.



Reis J, et al (2008) - Consensus - 'Can tDCS and TMS enhance motor learning and memory formation'. Brain Stimul. 2008 Oct;1(4):363-369.


Pogosyan A, et al (2009) - Boosting Cortical Activity at Beta-Band Frequencies Slows Movement in Humans. Curr Biol. 2009 Oct 13;19(19):1637-41. Epub 2009 Oct


Jancke L, et al (2009) - Virtual reality and the role of the prefrontal cortex in adults and children. Front Neurosci. 2009 May;3(1):52-9. Epub 2009 May 1.


George MS, et al (2010) - Noninvasive techniques for probing neurocircuitry and treating illness: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Jan;35(1):301-16. Epub . Review.


Bergmann TO, et al (2009) - Acute changes in motor cortical excitability during slow oscillatory and constant anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Oct;102(4):2303-11. Epub 2009 Aug 19.


Galea JM, et al (2009) - Modulation of cerebellar excitability by polarity-specific noninvasive direct current stimulation. J Neurosci. 2009 Jul 15;29(28):9115-22.


Galea JM, et al (2009) - Brain polarization enhances the formation and retention of motor memories. J Neurophysiol 102:294-301, 2009


Elmer S, et al (2009) - Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns. Behav Brain Funct. 2009 Jul 15;5:29


Paulus W (2009) - International Conference on Transcranial Magnetic and Direct Current Stimulation.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Feb;106(9):143-4. Epub 2009 Feb 27.


Sparing R, et al (2009) - Bidirectional alterations of interhemispheric parietal balance by non-invasive cortical stimulation. Brain. 2009 Nov;132(Pt 11):3011-20. Epub 2009 Jun 15.


Dockery CA, et al (2009) - Enhancement of planning ability by transcranial direct current stimulation. J Neurosci. 2009 Jun 3;29(22):7271-7.


Tanaka S, et al (2009) - Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. Exp Brain Res. 2009 Jul;196(3):459-65. Epub 2009 May 29.


Monte-Silva K, et al (2009) - Dose-dependent inverted U-shaped effect of dopamine (D2-like) receptor activation on focal and nonfocal plasticity in humans. J Neurosci. 2009 May 13;29(19):6124-31.


Miranda PC, et al (2009) - What does the ratio of injected current to electrode area tell us about current density in the brain during tDCS. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Jun;120(6):1183-7. Epub 2009 May 6.


Hunter T, et al (2009) - Modulation of internal model formation during force field-induced motor learning by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of primary motor cortex. J Physiol. 2009 Jun 15;587(Pt 12):2949-61. Epub 2009 Apr 29.


Bikson M, et al (2009) - Establishing safety limits for transcranial direct current stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Jun;120(6):1033-4. Epub 2009 Apr 24.


Stagg CJ, et al (2009) - Polarity-sensitive modulation of cortical neurotransmitters by transcranial stimulation. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 22;29(16):5202-6.


Williams JA, et al (2009) - Updates on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation in physical and rehabilitation medicine. J Rehabil Med. 2009 Apr;41(5):305-11. Review.


Boggio PS, et al (2009) - Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories. PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4959. Epub 2009 Mar 25.


Bolognini N, et al (2009) - Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2009 Mar 17;6:8. Review.


Nitsche MA, et al (2009) - D1-receptor impact on neuroplasticity in humans. J Neurosci. 2009 Feb 25;29(8):2648-53.


Reis J, et al (2009) - Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 3;106(5):1590-5. Epub 2009 Jan 21.


Rosen AC, et al (2009) - Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.


Valle A, et al (2009) - Efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, sham-controlled longitudinal clinical trial. J Pain Manag. 2009;2(3):353-361.


Arul-Anandam AP, et al (2009) - Transcranial direct current stimulation - what is the evidence for its efficacy and safety. F1000 Med Rep. 2009 Jul 27;1. pii: 58.


Terney D, et al (2008) - Increasing human brain excitability by transcranial high-frequency random noise stimulation. J Neurosci. 2008 Dec 24;28(52):14147-55.


Ozen S, et al (2010) - Transcranial Electric Stimulation Entrains Cortical Neuronal Populations in Rats.

The Journal of Neuroscience, August 25, 2010 • 30(34):11476 –11485


Schlaug G, et al (2008) - Transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke recovery. Arch Neurol. 2008 Dec;65(12):1571-6.


Koenigs M, et al (2009) - Bilateral frontal transcranial direct current stimulation: Failure to replicate classic findings in healthy subjects. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Jan;120(1):80-4. Epub 2008 Nov 21.


Vines BW, et al (2008) - Dual-hemisphere tDCS facilitates greater improvements for healthy subjects' non-dominant hand compared to uni-hemisphere stimulation. BMC Neurosci. 2008 Oct 28;9:103.


Cerruti C, et al (2010) - Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex enhances complex verbal associative thought. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Oct;21(10):1980-7.


Cheeran B, et al (2008) - A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS. J Physiol. 2008 Dec 1;586(Pt 23):5717-25. Epub 2008 Oct 9.


Beeli G, et al (2008) - Brain stimulation modulates driving behavior. Behav Brain Funct. 2008 Aug 6;4:34.


Beeli G, et al (2008) - Modulating presence and impulsiveness by external stimulation of the brain. Behav Brain Funct. 2008 Aug 4;4:33.


Antal A, et al (2008) - Homeostatic metaplasticity of the motor cortex is altered during headache-free intervals in migraine with aura. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Nov;18(11):2701-5. Epub 2008 Mar 27.


Ragert P, et al (2008) - Improvement of spatial tactile acuity by transcranial direct current stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Apr;119(4):805-11. Epub 2008 Jan 18.


Kuo M-F, et al (2007) - Focusing effect of acetylcholine on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26;27(52):14442-7.


Knoch D, et al (2008) - Studying the neurobiology of social interaction with transcranial direct current stimulation--the example of punishing unfairness. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Sep;18(9):1987-90. Epub 2007 Dec 24.


Lang N, et al (2007) - Bidirectional modulation of primary visual cortex excitability: a combined tDCS and rTMS study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Dec;48(12):5782-7.


Fecteau S, et al (2007) - Diminishing risk-taking behavior by modulating activity in the prefrontal cortex: a direct current stimulation study. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 14;27(46):12500-5.


Kuo MF, et al (2008) - Boosting focally-induced brain plasticity by dopamine. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Mar;18(3):648-51. Epub 2007 Jun 24.


Priori A, et al (2008) - Lie-specific involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in deception. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Feb;18(2):451-5. Epub 2007 Jun 21.


Fecteau S, et al (2007) - Activation of prefrontal cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation reduces appetite for risk during ambiguous decision making. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 6;27(23):6212-8.


Nitsche MA, et al (2007) - Timing-dependent modulation of associative plasticity by general network excitability in the human motor cortex. J Neurosci. 2007 Apr 4;27(14):3807-12.


Nitsche MA, et al (2007) - Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Apr;97(4):3109-17. Epub 2007 Jan 24.


Feredoes E, et al (2006) - Direct evidence for a prefrontal contribution to the control of proactive interference in verbal working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 19;103(51):19530-4. Epub 2006 Dec 6.


Fregni F, et al 92006) - A randomized, sham-controlled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Dec;54(12):3988-98.


Power HA, et al (2006) - Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex affects cortical drive to human musculature as assessed by intermuscular coherence.  J Physiol. 2006 Dec 15;577(Pt 3):795-803. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Erratum in: J Physiol. 2007 Aug 15;583(Pt 1):409.


Vines BW, et al (2006) - Testing for causality with transcranial direct current stimulation: pitch memory and the left supramarginal gyrus. Neuroreport. 2006 Jul 17;17(10):1047-50.


Sachdev P (2005) - Transcranial direct current stimulation in developing countries. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;187:191-2; author reply 192.


Ardolino G, et al (2005) - Non-synaptic mechanisms underlie the after-effects of cathodal transcutaneous direct current stimulation of the human brain. J Physiol. 2005 Oct 15;568(Pt 2):653-63. Epub 2005 Jul 21.


Nitsche MA, et al (2005) - Modulating parameters of excitability during and after transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex. J Physiol. 2005 Oct 1;568(Pt 1):291-303. Epub 2005 Jul 7.


Quartarone A, et al (2005) - Homeostatic-like plasticity of the primary motor hand area is impaired in focal hand dystonia. Brain. 2005 Aug;128(Pt 8):1943-50. Epub 2005 May 4.


Fregni F, et al (2005) - Transcranial direct current stimulation. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 May;186:446-7.


Marshall L, et al (2005) - Bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation slows reaction time in a working memory task. BMC Neurosci. 2005 Apr 8;6:23.


Hummel F, et al (2005) - Effects of non-invasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke. Brain. 2005 Mar;128(Pt 3):490-9. Epub 2005 Jan 5.


Marshall L, et al (2004) - Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory. J Neurosci. 2004 Nov 3;24(44):9985-92. Erratum in: J Neurosci. 2005 Jan 12;25(2):1 p following 531.


Nitsche MA, et al (2004) - Consolidation of human motor cortical neuroplasticity by D-cycloserine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Aug;29(8):1573-8.


Nitsche MA, et al (2004) - Catecholaminergic consolidation of motor cortical neuroplasticity in humans. Cereb Cortex. 2004 Nov;14(11):1240-5. Epub 2004 May 13.


Siebner HR, et al (2004) - Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 31;24(13):3379-85.


Nekhendzy V, et al (2004) - The antinociceptive effect of transcranial electrostimulation with combined direct and alternating current in freely moving rats. Anesth Analg. 2004 Mar;98(3):730-7


Antal A, et al (2004) - Excitability changes induced in the human primary visual cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation: direct electrophysiological evidence. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Feb;45(2):702-7.


Nitsche MA, et al (2003) - Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability shifts induced by transcranial direct current stimulation in humans. J Physiol. 2003 Nov 15;553(Pt 1):293-301. Epub 2003 Aug 29.


Liebetanz D, et al (2002) - Pharmacological approach to the mechanisms of transcranial DC-stimulation-induced after-effects of human motor cortex excitability. Brain. 2002 Oct;125(Pt 10):2238-47.


Nitsche MA, et al (2000) - Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. J Physiol. 2000 Sep 15;527 Pt 3:633-9.