Neurofeedback abstracts presented by
A Matter of Mind - Self-Regulation & Mindfulness Training
Neurofeedback and QEEG
growing.com/mind - (408) 984-3333 - mind@growing.com

 

[ updated January 2008 ]

 

Hum Brain Mapp. 2008 Feb;29(2):157-66.

Atlas-based multichannel monitoring of functional MRI signals in real-time: Automated approach.

Lee JH, O'Leary HM, Park H, Jolesz FA, Yoo SS.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts.

We report an automated method to simultaneously monitor blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MR signals from multiple cortical areas  in real-time. Individual brain anatomy was normalized and registered to a pre-segmented atlas in standardized anatomical space. Subsequently, using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) data acquisition, localized BOLD signals were measured and displayed from user-selected areas labeled with anatomical and Brodmann's Area (BA) nomenclature. The method was tested on healthy volunteers during the performance of hand motor and internal speech generation tasks employing a trial-based design. Our data normalization and registration algorithm, along with image reconstruction, movement correction and a data display routine were executed with enough processing and communication bandwidth necessary for real-time operation. Task-specific BOLD signals were observed from the hand motor and language areas. One of the study participants was allowed to freely engage in hand clenching tasks, and associated brain activities were detected from the motor-related neural substrates without prior knowledge of the task onset time. The proposed method may be applied to various applications such as neurofeedback, brain-computer-interface, and functional mapping for surgical planning where real-time monitoring of region-specific brain activity is needed. Hum Brain Mapp  2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 17370340 [PubMed - in process]

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]

EEG Biofeedback as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: Review, Rating of Efficacy, and Recommendations for Further Research.

Sokhadze TM, Cannon RL, Trudeau DL.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA, tato.sokhadze@louisville.edu.

Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has been employed in substance use disorder (SUD) over the last three decades. The SUD is a complex series of disorders with frequent comorbidities and EEG abnormalities of several types. EEG biofeedback has been employed in conjunction with other therapies and may be useful in enhancing certain outcomes of therapy. Based on published clinical studies and employing efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neurofeedback  and Research, alpha theta training-either alone for alcoholism or in combination  with beta training for stimulant and mixed substance abuse and combined with residential treatment programs, is probably efficacious. Considerations of further research design taking these factors into account are discussed and descriptions of contemporary research are given.

PMID: 18214670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

BMC Biol. 2008 Jan 16;6(1):4 [Epub ahead of print]

Transient reduction of tinnitus intensity is marked by concomitant reductions of  delta band power.

Kahlbrock N, Weisz N.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon, characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. So far its causes are not well understood. Previous research found altered patterns of spontaneous brain activity in chronic tinnitus sufferers compared to healthy controls, yet it is unknown whether these abnormal oscillatory patterns are causally related to the tinnitus sensation. Partial support for this notion comes from a neurofeedback approach developed by our group in which significant reductions in tinnitus loudness could be achieved in patients who successfully normalized their patterns of spontaneous brain activity. The current work attempts to complement these studies by scrutinizing how modulations of tinnitus  intensity alter ongoing oscillatory activity. RESULTS: In the present study the relation between tinnitus sensation and spontaneous brain activity was investigated using residual inhibition (RI) to reduce tinnitus intensity and source-space projected magnetencephalographic (MEG) data to index brain activity. RI is the sustained reduction (criteria here: 50% for at least 30 seconds) in tinnitus loudness after cessation of a tonal tinnitus masker. A pilot study (n =  38) identified ten patients who showed RI. A significant reduction of power in the delta (1.3 - 4.0 Hz) frequency band was observed in temporal regions during RI (p [less than or equal to] 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that changes of tinnitus intensity induced by RI are mediated by alterations in the pathological patterns of spontaneous brain activity, specifically a reduction of delta activity. Delta activity is a characteristic oscillatory activity generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks. This implies that RI effects might reflect the transient reestablishment of balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal assemblies via reafferentation, that has been perturbed (in most tinnitus individuals) by a hearing damage. Since enhancements have been  reported in the delta frequency band for tinnitus at rest, this result conforms to our assumption that a normalization of oscillatory properties of cortical networks is a prerequisite for attenuating the tinnitus sensation. For RI to have therapeutic significance however, this normalization would have to be stabilized.

PMID: 18199318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Jan;94(1):1-15.

Left frontal cortical activation and spreading of alternatives: Tests of the action-based model of dissonance.

Harmon-Jones E, Harmon-Jones C, Fearn M, Sigelman JD, Johnson P.

Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University.

The action-based model of dissonance predicts that following decisional commitment, approach-oriented motivational processes occur to assist in translating the decision into effective and unconflicted behavior. Therefore, the modulation of these approach-oriented processes should affect the degree to which individuals change their attitudes to be more consistent with the decisional commitment (spreading of alternatives). Experiment 1 demonstrated that a neurofeedback-induced decrease in relative left frontal cortical activation, which has been implicated in approach motivational processes, caused a reduction  in spreading of alternatives. Experiment 2 manipulated an action-oriented mindset following a decision and demonstrated that the action-oriented mindset caused increased activation in the left frontal cortical region as well as increased spreading of alternatives. Discussion focuses on how this integration of neuroscience and dissonance theory benefits both parent literatures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 18179314 [PubMed - in process]

 

J Pain. 2007 Dec 18 [Epub ahead of print]

New Insights Into Neuromodulatory Approaches for the Treatment of Pain.

Jensen MP, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH, Fregni F.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Two lines of evidence about the association between the experience of pain and brain state (measured via electroencephalogram or EEG) have recently come to light. First, research from a number of sources suggests a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Specifically, this research suggests that the subjective experience of pain is associated with relatively lower amplitudes  of slower wave (delta, theta, and alpha) activity and relatively higher amplitudes of faster wave (beta) activity. Second, there has been a recent increase in interest in interventions that impact the cortical neuromodulation of pain, including behavioral treatments (such as self-hypnosis training and neurofeedback) and both invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation. Although a direct causal link between experience of pain and brain activity as measured by EEG has not been established, the targeting of pain treatment at a cortical level by trying to affect EEG rhythms directly is an intriguing possibility. PERSPECTIVE: Preliminary evidence suggests the possibility, which has not yet adequately tested or proven, that the experience of chronic pain is linked to cortical activity as assessed via an electroencephalogram. Support for this hypothesis would have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie a number of pain treatments, and for developing new innovative treatments for chronic pain management.

PMID: 18096437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Dec;32(3-4):169-83. Epub 2007 Nov 3.

Changes in EEG current sources induced by neurofeedback in learning disabled children. An exploratory study.

Fernández T, Harmony T, Fernández-Bouzas A, Díaz-Comas L, Prado-Alcalá RA, Valdés-Sosa P, Otero G, Bosch J, Galán L, Santiago-Rodríguez E, Aubert E, García-Martínez F.

Departamento de Neurobiología Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiología, Campus UNAM-UAQ, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla #  3001, Juriquilla, Querétaro, 76230, Mexico. thalia@servidor.unam.mx

The objective of this work was to explore Neurofeedback (NFB) effects on EEG current sources in Learning Disabled (LD) children, and to corroborate its beneficial consequences on behavioral and cognitive performance. NFB was given in twenty 30-min sessions to 11 LD children to reduce their abnormally high theta/alpha ratios (Experimental Group). Another five LD children with the same characteristics received a placebo treatment (Control Group). In the Control Group no changes in behavior or EEG current source were observed. In the Experimental Group, immediately after treatment children showed behavioral and cognitive improvements, but current source analysis showed few modifications; however, 2 months after treatment many changes occurred: a decrease in current of frequencies within the theta band, mainly in left frontal and cingulate regions,  and enhancement in current of frequencies within the alpha band, principally in the right temporal lobe and right frontal regions, and of frequencies within the  beta band, mainly in left temporal, right frontal and cingulate cortex regions. In conclusion, NFB is a possibly efficacious treatment for LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio in any lead. The changes observed in EEG current sources may reflect the neurophysiological bases of the improvement that  children experienced in their behavioral and cognitive activities.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17978869 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

PLoS ONE. 2007 Oct 31;2(10):e1094.

A Blueprint for Real-Time Functional Mapping via Human Intracranial Recordings.

Lachaux JP, Jerbi K, Bertrand O, Minotti L, Hoffmann D, Schoendorff B, Kahane P.

INSERM, U821, Lyon, F-69500, France.

BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of patients with intractable epilepsy is preceded by a pre-surgical evaluation period during which intracranial EEG recordings are performed to identify the epileptogenic network and provide a functional map of eloquent cerebral areas that need to be spared to minimize the  risk of post-operative deficits. A growing body of research based on such invasive recordings indicates that cortical oscillations at various frequencies,  especially in the gamma range (40 to 150 Hz), can provide efficient markers of task-related neural network activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel real-time investigation framework for mapping human brain functions based on online visualization of the spectral power of the ongoing intracranial activity. The results obtained with the first two implanted epilepsy patients who used the proposed online system illustrate its feasibility and utility both for clinical applications, as a complementary tool to electrical stimulation for presurgical mapping purposes, and for basic research, as an exploratory tool used to detect correlations between behavior and oscillatory power modulations. Furthermore, our findings suggest a putative role for high gamma oscillations in  higher-order auditory processing involved in speech and music perception. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed real-time setup is a promising tool for presurgical mapping, the investigation of functional brain dynamics, and possibly for neurofeedback training and brain computer interfaces.

PMID: 17971857 [PubMed - in process]

 

Behav Brain Funct. 2007 Jul 26;3:35.

Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen HC, Brandeis D.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Switzerland. renate.drechsler@kjpd.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although several promising studies on neurofeedback training in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been performed in recent years, the specificity of positive treatment effects continues to be challenged. METHODS: To evaluate the specificity of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials, a twofold strategy was pursued: First, the efficacy of  neurofeedback training was compared to a group training program for children with ADHD. Secondly, the extent of improvements observed in the neurofeedback group in relation to successful regulation of cortical activation was examined. Parents and teachers rated children's behaviour and executive functions before and after  treatment. In addition, children underwent neuropsychological testing before and  after training. RESULTS: According to parents' and teachers' ratings, children of the neurofeedback training group improved more than children who had participated in a group therapy program, particularly in attention and cognition related domains. On neuropsychological measures children of both groups showed similar improvements. However, only about half of the neurofeedback group learned to regulate cortical activation during a transfer condition without direct feedback. Behavioural improvements of this subgroup were moderately related to neurofeedback training performance, whereas effective parental support accounted  better for some advantages of neurofeedback training compared to group therapy according to parents' and teachers' ratings. CONCLUSION: There is a specific training effect of neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials due to enhanced cortical control. However, non-specific factors, such as parental support, may also contribute to the positive behavioural effects induced by the neurofeedback  training.

PMID: 17655749 [PubMed - in process]

 

Agri. 2007 Jul;19(3):47-53.

Neurofeedback in fibromyalgia syndrome.

Kayıran S, Dursun E, Ermutlu N, Dursun N, Karamürsel S.

Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kocaeli, Turkey.

EEG Biofeedback (Neurofeedback-NFB) is a learning strategy that enables people to alter their brainwaves. In the present case study, we applied a NFB protocol on three patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS). The existing symptoms and clinical conditions of the patients attributed to FMS, Visual Analog Scale for pain and fatigue, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Inventory Scales, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory Scales, and SF-36 were recorded before and after NFB training. Most of the symptoms were decreased after ten sessions. There was also improvement in all of the scales after the treatment. The results of the present study may suggest NFB training as a novel treatment method in FMS.

PMID: 18095199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 15;35(3):1238-46. Epub 2007 Jan 31.

Regulation of anterior insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI.

Caria A, Veit R, Sitaram R, Lotze M, Weiskopf N, Grodd W, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. andrea.caria@uni-tuebingen.de <andrea.caria@uni-tuebingen.de>

Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisition  and processing techniques have made real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) of localized brain areas feasible, reliable and less susceptible to artefacts. Previous studies have shown that healthy subjects learn to control local brain activity with operant training by using rtfMRI-based neurofeedback. In the present study, we investigated whether healthy subjects could voluntarily gain control over right anterior insular activity. Subjects were provided with continuously updated information of the target ROI's level of activation by visual feedback. All participants were able to successfully regulate BOLD-magnitude in the right anterior insular cortex within three sessions of 4 min each. Training resulted in a significantly increased activation cluster in the anterior portion of the right insula across sessions. An increased activity was also found in the left anterior insula but the percent signal change was lower than in the target ROI. Two different control conditions intended to assess the effects of non-specific feedback and mental imagery demonstrated that the training effect was not due to  unspecific activations or non feedback-related cognitive strategies. Both control groups showed no enhanced activation across the sessions, which confirmed our main hypothesis that rtfMRI feedback is area-specific. The increased activity in  the right anterior insula during training demonstrates that the effects observed  are anatomically specific and self-regulation of right anterior insula only is achievable. This is the first group study investigating the volitional control of emotionally relevant brain region by using rtfMRI training and confirms that self-regulation of local brain activity with rtfMRI is possible.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17336094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;1:2485-8.

The role of attention in the tinnitus decompensation: reinforcement of a large-scale neural decompensation measure.

Low YF, Trenado C, Delb W, Corona-Strauss FI, Strauss DJ.

Computational Diagnostics and Biocybernetics Unit, Saarland University; Saarland  University of Applied Sciences, Homburg/Saarbruecken, Germany. yinfen@cdb-unit.de.

Large-scale neural correlates of the tinnitus decompensation have been identified by using wavelet phase stability criteria of single sweep sequences of auditory late responses (ALRs). The suggested measure provided an objective quantification of the tinnitus decompensation and allowed for a reliable discrimination between  a group of compensated and decompensated tinnitus patients. By interpreting our results with an oscillatory tinnitus model, our synchronization stability measure of ALRs can be linked to the focus of attention on the tinnitus signal. In the following study, we examined in detail the correlates of this attentional mechanism in healthy subjects. The results support our previous findings of the phase synchronization stability measure that reflected neural correlates of the fixation of attention to the tinnitus signal. In this case, enabling the differentiation between the attended and unattended conditions. It is concluded that the wavelet phase synchronization stability of ALRs single sweeps can be used as objective tinnitus decompensation measure and can be interpreted in the framework of the Jastreboff tinnitus model and adaptive resonance theory. Our studies confirm that the synchronization stability in ALR sequences is linked to  attention. This measure is not only able to serve as objective quantification of  the tinnitus decompensation, but also can be applied in all online and real time  neurofeedback therapeutic approach where a direct stimulus locked attention monitoring is compulsory as if it based on a single sweeps processing.

PMID: 18002498 [PubMed - in process]

 

Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:473-85.

Neurofeedback for treating tinnitus.

Dohrmann K, Weisz N, Schlee W, Hartmann T, Elbert T.

University of Konstanz, Department of Psychology, Konstanz, Germany. katalin.dohrmann@uni-konstanz.de

Many individuals with tinnitus have abnormal oscillatory brain activity. Led by this finding, we have developed a way to normalize such pathological activity by  neurofeedback techniques (Weisz et al. (2005). PLoS Med., 2: e153). This is achieved mainly through enhancement of tau activity, i.e., oscillatory activity produced in perisylvian regions within the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) and concomitant reduction in delta power range (0.5-4 Hz). This activity is recorded  from electrodes placed on the frontal scalp. We have found that modification of the tau-to-delta ratio significantly reduces tinnitus intensity. Participants who successfully modified their oscillatory pattern profited from the treatment to the extent that the tinnitus sensation became completely abolished. Overall, this neurofeedback training was significantly superiorin reducing tinnitus-related distress than frequency discrimination training.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 17956812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007;25(3-4):371-8.

Tuning the tinnitus percept by modification of synchronous brain activity.

Dohrmann K, Elbert T, Schlee W, Weisz N.

University of Konstanz, Department of Psychology, Box D 25, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. Katalin.Dohrmann@uni-konstanz.de

PURPOSE: Tinnitus, the perception of sound without the presence of a physical stimulus, provides the opportunity to study neural codes of percepts without simultaneous processing of stimuli. Previously, we have found that tinnitus is associated with enhanced delta- and reduced tau-power in temporal brain regions.  By operantly modifying corresponding aspects of spontaneous EEG activity, the aim of the present study was to corroborate the assumption that tinnitus should be reduced if patterns of ongoing synchronous brain activity are normalised. METHODS: In response to different variants of neurofeedback, a total of twenty-one patients produced significant changes in EEG frequency bands. RESULTS: Simultaneous alteration of both frequency bands was strongly related to changes in tinnitus intensity matched before and after the intervention (r=-0.74). In those two patients with the greatest modulatory success, the tinnitus sensation resided completely in response to the treatment. Comparing the neurofeedback-treated patients with a group of patients trained with a frequency  discrimination task (n=27), the tinnitus relief in the neurofeedback group was significantly stronger. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the notion that altered  patterns of intrinsic ongoing brain activity lead to phantom percepts and offer new routes to the treatment of tinnitus.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17943012 [PubMed - in process]

 

J Neuroengineering Rehabil. 2007 Oct 17;4(1):40

A brain-computer interface with vibrotactile biofeedback for haptic information.

Chatterjee A, Aggarwal V, Ramos A, Acharya S, Thakor NV.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI)  may one day be suitable for controlling a neuroprosthesis. For closed-loop operation of BCI, a tactile feedback channel that is compatible with neuroprosthetic applications is desired. Operation of an EEG-based BCI using only vibrotactile feedback, a commonly used method to convey haptic senses of contact  and pressure, is demonstrated with a high level of accuracy. METHODS: A Mu-rhythm based BCI using a motor imagery paradigm was used to control the position of a virtual cursor. The cursor position was shown visually as well as transmitted haptically by modulating the intensity of a vibrotactile stimulus to the upper limb. A total of six subjects operated the BCI in a two-stage targeting task, receiving only vibrotactile biofeedback of performance. The location of the vibration was also systematically varied between the left and right arms to investigate location-dependent effects on performance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Subjects are able to control the BCI using only vibrotactile feedback with an average accuracy of 56% and as high as 72%. These accuracies are significantly higher than the 15% predicted by random chance if the subject had no voluntary control of their Mu-rhythm. The results of this study demonstrate that vibrotactile feedback is an effective biofeedback modality to operate a BCI using motor imagery. In addition, the study shows that placement of the vibrotactile stimulation on the biceps ipsilateral or contralateral to the motor imagery introduces a significant bias in the BCI accuracy. This bias is consistent with a drop in performance generated by stimulation of the contralateral limb. Users demonstrated the capability to overcome this bias with training.

PMID: 17941986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):24-32.

[Biofeedback for the optimization of psychomotor reactivity: Communication I. Comparative analysis of biofeedback and common performance practice]

[Article in Russian]

Bazanova OM, Shtark MB.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17853818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Top Stroke Rehabil. 2007 Jul-Aug;14(4):59-66.

The role of biofeedback in stroke rehabilitation: past and future directions.

Nelson LA.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle,  Washington, USA.

Biofeedback has been applied to many aspects of stroke rehabilitation, with mixed results. This is largely due to the varying modalities, differences between study designs, and methods of measuring success and progress. How well biofeedback works appears to be inversely related to the direct observability of the function about which information is being provided. The more covert the function (e.g., swallowing muscle activity, attention, cortical functioning, etc.), the more helpful biofeedback is likely to be. However, biofeedback in general can have a very positive impact, even through indirect means. Improvements in self confidence, shifting of locus of control, and instantly being provided information regarding changes in one's physical functioning as a result of mental activity can be helpful in setting the tone for success in rehabilitation more generally.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17698458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97(Pt 2):555-9.

Brain-computer interface: a reciprocal self-regulated neuromodulation.

Angelakis E, Hatzis A, Panourias IG, Sakas DE.

P.S. Kokkalis Hellenic Center for Neurosurgical Research, Athens, Greece. angelakis@acgmail.gr

Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system that records brain activity and process it through a computer, allowing the individual whose activity is recorded to monitor this activity at the same time. Applications of BCIs include assistive modules for severely paralyzed patients to help them control external devices or  to communicate, as well as brain biofeedback to self regulate brain activity for  treating epilepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and  other psychiatric conditions, or to enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals. The vast majority of BCIs utilizes non-invasive scalp recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, but other techniques like invasive intracortical EEG, or near-infrared spectroscopy measuring brain blood oxygenation are tried experimentally.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17691347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Altern Med Rev. 2007 Jun;12(2):146-51.

EEG biofeedback in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Friel PN.

Washington State Toxicology Laboratory, Forensic Laboratory Services Bureau Suit  360, 2203 Airport Way South, Seattle, WA 98134, USA. Pat.Friel@wsp.wa.gov

Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, also known as neurofeedback, is a promising alternative treatment for patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). EEG biofeedback therapy rewards scalp EEG frequencies that are  associated with relaxed attention, and suppresses frequencies associated with under- or over-arousal. In large-scale clinical trials, the efficacy of EEG biofeedback for AD/HD is comparable to that of stimulant medications. Many different EEG biofeedback protocols for AD/HD are available. Single-channel protocols developed by Lubar and interhemispheric protocols developed by the Othmers are widely practiced and supported by large-scale clinical studies.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17604459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Dec;21(12):973-975. Epub 2007 May 31.

Biofeedback treatment of prehypertension: analyses of efficacy, heart rate variability and EEG approximate entropy.

Xu XY, Gao J, Ling D, Wang TH.

1Laboratory of Biofeedback, Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.

PMID: 17541386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

Expert Rev Neurother. 2007 Apr;7(4):315-9.

Place of electroencephalograpic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Hirshberg LM.

Publication Types:      Editorial     Review

PMID: 17425483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hippocampus. 2007;17(6):413-9.

Human neocortical and hippocampal near-DC shifts are interconnected.

Fell J, Fritz NE, Burr W, Ludowig E, Axmacher N, Elger CE, Helmstaedter C.

Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, D-53105 Bonn, Germany. juergen.fell@ukb.uni-bonn.de

Hippocampal DC shifts have been observed under various physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we studied the interconnection of slow shifts (0.01 Hz high-pass) in surface EEG and hippocampal shifts as emerging in an event-related EEG biofeedback paradigm. Hippocampal EEG activity was monitored by depth electrodes implanted in four epilepsy patients for presurgical evaluation.  Trials were sorted according to the near-DC shifts occurring at the surface position Cz, which was the feedback electrode, into positive, indistinct (i.e., small or biphasic) and negative shifts. We found significant hippocampal near-DC  shifts being positively or negatively correlated to the shifts in surface EEG in  all four patients. The amplitudes of the hippocampal near-DC shifts were several  times larger than the surface shifts. The polarity of the shifts appears to depend on the location of the electrode contacts with respect to the hippocampal  subfields. The finding that neocortical and hippocampal near-DC shifts are interconnected may open new perspectives for the prediction and control of mediotemporal lobe seizures. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 17372976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neuropsychol. 2007 Jan;21(1):110-29.

EEG neurofeedback: a brief overview and an example of peak alpha frequency training for cognitive enhancement in the elderly.

Angelakis E, Stathopoulou S, Frymiare JL, Green DL, Lubar JF, Kounios J.

Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192, USA.

Neurofeedback (NF) is an electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback technique for  training individuals to alter their brain activity via operant conditioning. Research has shown that NF helps reduce symptoms of several neurological and psychiatric disorders, with ongoing research currently investigating applications to other disorders and to the enhancement of non-disordered cognition. The present article briefly reviews the fundamentals and current status of NF therapy and research and illustrates the basic approach with an interim report on a pilot study aimed at developing a new NF protocol for improving cognitive function in the elderly. EEG peak alpha frequency (PAF) has been shown to correlate positively with cognitive performance and to correlate negatively with age after  childhood. The present pilot study used a double-blind controlled design to investigate whether training older individuals to increase PAF would result in improved cognitive performance. The results suggested that PAF NF improved cognitive processing speed and executive function, but that it had no clear effect on memory. In sum, the results suggest that the PAF NF protocol is a promising technique for improving selected cognitive functions.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Review

PMID: 17366280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Neurosci. 2007 Mar;117(3):337-57.

The effects of neurofeedback training in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus.

Cannon R, Lubar J, Congedo M, Thornton K, Towler K, Hutchens T.

Psychology Program, University of Tennessee, Brain Research and Neuropsychology Lab, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA. rcannon2@utk.edu

This study examines the efficacy of neurofeedback training in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus and describes its relationship with cortical regions known to be involved in executive functions. This study was conducted with eight non-clinical students, four male and four female, with a mean age of twenty-two. Learning occurred in the ACcd at significant levels over  sessions and in the anterior regions that receive projections from the AC. There  appears to be a multidimensional executive circuit that increases in the same frequency in apparent synchrony with the AC and it may be possible to train this  sub-cortical region using LNFB.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 17365119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Jun;32(2):73-88. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: a comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta protocols.

Leins U, Goth G, Hinterberger T, Klinger C, Rumpf N, Strehl U.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tübingen, Osianderstrasse 24, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. Ulrike.leins@med.uni-tuebingen.de

Behavioral and cognitive improvements in children with ADHD have been consistently reported after neurofeedback-treatment. However, neurofeedback has not been commonly accepted as a treatment for ADHD. This study addresses previous methodological shortcomings while comparing a neurofeedback-training of Theta-Beta frequencies and training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs). The study aimed at answering (a) whether patients were able to demonstrate learning of cortical self-regulation, (b) if treatment leads to an improvement in cognition and behavior and (c) if the two experimental groups differ in cognitive and behavioral outcome variables. SCP participants were trained to produce positive and negative SCP-shifts while the Theta/Beta participants were trained to suppress Theta (4-8 Hz) while increasing Beta (12-20 Hz). Participants were blind to group assignment. Assessment included potentially confounding variables. Each  group was comprised of 19 children with ADHD (aged 8-13 years). The treatment procedure consisted of three phases of 10 sessions each. Both groups were able to intentionally regulate cortical activity and improved in attention and IQ. Parents and teachers reported significant behavioral and cognitive improvements.  Clinical effects for both groups remained stable six months after treatment. Groups did not differ in behavioural or cognitive outcome.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17356905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroreport. 2007 Jan 8;18(1):39-43.

Processing speed in recurrent visual networks correlates with general intelligence.

Jolij J, Huisman D, Scholte S, Hamel R, Kemner C, Lamme VA.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. j.jolij@exeter.ac.uk

Studies on the neural basis of general fluid intelligence strongly suggest that a smarter brain processes information faster. Different brain areas, however, are interconnected by both feedforward and feedback projections. Whether both types of connections or only one of the two types are faster in smarter brains remains  unclear. Here we show, by measuring visual evoked potentials during a texture discrimination task, that general fluid intelligence shows a strong correlation with processing speed in recurrent visual networks, while there is no correlation with speed of feedforward connections. The hypothesis that a smarter brain runs faster may need to be refined: a smarter brain's feedback connections run faster.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17259858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 1;35(2):968-78. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

Reward expectation modulates feedback-related negativity and EEG spectra.

Cohen MX, Elger CE, Ranganath C.

Department of Epilepsy and Center for Life and Brain, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, Bonn 53105, Germany. mcohen@ucdavis.edu

The ability to evaluate outcomes of previous decisions is critical to adaptive decision-making. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an event-related potential (ERP) modulation that distinguishes losses from wins, but little is known about the effects of outcome probability on these ERP responses. Further, little is known about the frequency characteristics of feedback processing, for example, event-related oscillations and phase synchronizations. Here, we report an EEG experiment designed to address these issues. Subjects engaged in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in which we manipulated, across blocks, the probability of winning and losing to each of two possible decision options. Behaviorally, all subjects quickly adapted their decision-making to maximize rewards. ERP analyses revealed that the probability of reward modulated neural responses to wins, but not to losses. This was seen both across blocks as well as within blocks, as learning progressed. Frequency decomposition via complex wavelets revealed that EEG responses to losses, compared to wins, were associated with enhanced power and phase coherence in the theta frequency band. As in the ERP analyses, power and phase coherence values following wins but not losses were modulated by reward probability. Some findings between ERP and frequency analyses diverged, suggesting that these analytic approaches provide complementary insights into neural processing. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms of feedback processing may differ between wins and losses.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 17257860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan;48(1):3-16.

Annotation: neurofeedback - train your brain to train behaviour.

Heinrich H, Gevensleben H, Strehl U.

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany. hheinri@arcor.de

BACKGROUND: Neurofeedback (NF) is a form of behavioural training aimed at developing skills for self-regulation of brain activity. Within the past decade,  several NF studies have been published that tend to overcome the methodological shortcomings of earlier studies. This annotation describes the methodical basis of NF and reviews the evidence base for its clinical efficacy and effectiveness in neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: In NF training, self-regulation of specific aspects of electrical brain activity is acquired by means of immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. In frequency training, activity in different EEG frequency bands has to be decreased or increased. Training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) addresses the regulation of cortical excitability. RESULTS: NF  studies revealed paradigm-specific effects on, e.g., attention and memory processes and performance improvements in real-life conditions, in healthy subjects as well as in patients. In several studies it was shown that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improved behavioural and cognitive variables after frequency (e.g., theta/beta) training or SCP training.  Neurophysiological effects could also be measured. However, specific and unspecific training effects could not be disentangled in these studies. For drug-resistant patients with epilepsy, significant and long-lasting decreases of  seizure frequency and intensity through SCP training were documented in a series  of studies. For other child psychiatric disorders (e.g., tic disorders, anxiety,  and autism) only preliminary investigations are available. CONCLUSIONS: There is  growing evidence for NF as a valuable treatment module in neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, controlled studies are necessary to establish clinical efficacy and effectiveness and to learn more about the mechanisms underlying successful training.

PMID: 17244266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Physiol. 2007 Mar 15;579(Pt 3):571-9. Epub 2007 Jan 18.

Volitional control of neural activity: implications for brain-computer interfaces.

Fetz EE.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7290, USA. fetz@u.washington.edu

Successful operation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and brain-machine interfaces (BMI) depends significantly on the degree to which neural activity can be volitionally controlled. This paper reviews evidence for such volitional control in a variety of neural signals, with particular emphasis on the activity  of cortical neurons. Some evidence comes from conventional experiments that reveal volitional modulation in neural activity related to behaviours, including  real and imagined movements, cognitive imagery and shifts of attention. More direct evidence comes from studies on operant conditioning of neural activity using biofeedback, and from BCI/BMI studies in which neural activity controls cursors or peripheral devices. Limits in the degree of accuracy of control in the latter studies can be attributed to several possible factors. Some of these factors, particularly limited practice time, can be addressed with long-term implanted BCIs. Preliminary observations with implanted circuits implementing recurrent BCIs are summarized.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Review

PMID: 17234689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Dec;14(4):401-9.

Suitability of the cingulate cortex for neural control.

Marzullo TC, Miller CR, Kipke DR.

Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. tmarzull@umich.edu

Recent neuroprosthetic work has focused on the motor cortex as a source of voluntary control signals. However, the motor cortex can be damaged in upper motor neuron degenerative diseases such as primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The possibility exists that prefrontal areas may also be used in neuroprosthetic devices. Here, we report the use of the cingulate cortex in a neuroprosthetic model. Seven rats were able to significantly modulate spiking activity in the cingulate cortex in order to receive reward. Furthermore, experiments with single neurons provide evidence that the cingulate cortex neuronal modulation is highly flexible and thus useful for a neuroprosthetic device.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17190032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 2006 Nov-Dec;32(6):28-32.

[Correction of psychoemotional disturbances during pregnancy by the method of adaptive bioregulation with feedback according to EEG]

[Article in Russian]

Fedotchev AI, Kim EV.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17180887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2006 Oct-Dec;37(4):82-92.

[Utilization of feedback signals from patient's own endogenous rhythms for non-drug correction of human functional disturbances]

[Article in Russian]

Fedotchev AI, Bondar' AT, Matrusov SG, Semenov VS, Soin AG.

The most advanced approach to non-drug correction of human functional disturbances via utilization of feedback signals from patient's own endogenous rhythms, i.e., EEG rhythms, respiratory and heart rate is presented and substantiated. The advantages of its application to biofeedback training procedures are reviewed. Alternative way to utilize the feedback signals through  automatic modulation of stimulation parameters by patient's endogenous rhythms is analyzed. The author's own contributions to the field are presented and the most  promising ways of further approach development are delineated.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 17140002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 Oct;28(10):1033-44.

Real-time fMRI using brain-state classification.

LaConte SM, Peltier SJ, Hu XP.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. slaconte@bme.emory.edu

We have implemented a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging system based on multivariate classification. This approach is distinctly different from  spatially localized real-time implementations, since it does not require prior assumptions about functional localization and individual performance strategies,  and has the ability to provide feedback based on intuitive translations of brain  state rather than localized fluctuations. Thus this approach provides the capability for a new class of experimental designs in which real-time feedback control of the stimulus is possible-rather than using a fixed paradigm, experiments can adaptively evolve as subjects receive brain-state feedback. In this report, we describe our implementation and characterize its performance capabilities. We observed approximately 80% classification accuracy using whole brain, block-design, motor data. Within both left and right motor task conditions, important differences exist between the initial transient period produced by task switching (changing between rapid left or right index finger button presses) and the subsequent stable period during sustained activity. Further analysis revealed that very high accuracy is achievable during stable task periods, and that the responsiveness of the classifier to changes in task condition can be much faster than signal time-to-peak rates. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of this implementation with respect to behavioral task, suggesting that our results are applicable across a spectrum of cognitive domains. Beyond basic research, this technology can complement electroencephalography-based brain computer interface research, and has potential applications in the areas of biofeedback rehabilitation, lie detection, learning  studies, virtual reality-based training, and enhanced conscious awareness. Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17133383 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

Brain Res Bull. 2006 Dec 11;71(1-3):83-90. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Relaxation strategies and enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility: EEG neurofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation and self-hypnosis.

Batty MJ, Bonnington S, Tang BK, Hawken MB, Gruzelier JH.

Imperial College, London W6 8RP, UK.

Hypnosis has been shown to be efficacious in a range of clinical conditions, including the management of chronic pain. However, not all individuals are able to enter a hypnotic state, thereby limiting the clinical utility of this technique. We sought to determine whether hypnotic susceptibility could be increased using three methods thought to facilitate relaxation, with particular interest in an EEG neurofeedback protocol which elevated the theta to alpha ratio. This was compared with progressive muscle relaxation and self-hypnosis. Ten subjects with moderate levels of susceptibility (2-7/12) were randomly assigned to each condition and assessed for hypnotic susceptibility prior to and  upon completion of 10 sessions of training. Hypnotic susceptibility increased post-training in all groups, providing further evidence that operant control over the theta/alpha ratio is possible, but contrary to our predictions, elevation of  the theta/alpha ratio proved no more successful than the other interventions. Nonetheless, all three techniques successfully enhanced hypnotic susceptibility in over half of the participants (17/30), a similar incidence to that reported using other methods. As previously reported, the majority who were not susceptible to modification were at the lower levels of susceptibility, and the greater increases tended to occur in the more susceptible subjects. However, here enhancement was disclosed in some at low levels, and capability was found of reaching high levels, both features not typically reported. Further research is warranted.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17113932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prog Brain Res. 2006;159:421-31.

Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance.

Gruzelier J, Egner T, Vernon D.

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, Lewisham Way, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, UK. j.gruzelier@gold.ac.uk

The field of neurofeedback training has largely proceeded without validation. Here we review our studies directed at validating SMR, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, mood and music and dance performance in healthy participants. Important benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and  neurophysiological measures which were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback, but much remains to be done.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 17071246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroreport. 2006 Oct 23;17(15):1649-53.

Brain potentials associated with outcome expectation and outcome evaluation.

Yu R, Zhou X.

Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Feedback-related negativity is a negative deflection in brain potentials associated with feedback indicating monetary losses or response errors. Feedback-related negativity is studied primarily in paradigms in which participants experience negative outcomes that appear to be contingent upon their previous choices. This study investigated whether feedback-related negativity can be elicited by a randomly assigned cue indicating potential monetary loss. The expected loss or win can be materialized or averted depending on participants' performance in a subsequent game. Compared with the win cue, the loss cue elicited a weak but significant feedback-related negativity-like effect. It is suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex, which generates feedback-related negativity, may function as a pre-warning system that alerts the brain to get ready for future events.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17001286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin EEG Neurosci. 2006 Jul;37(3):198-203.

Follow-up study of learning-disabled children treated with neurofeedback or placebo.

Becerra J, Fernández T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, García F, Fernández-Bouzas A, Santiago-Rodríguez E, Prado-Alcalá RA.

Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Mexico.

This report is a 2-year follow-up to a previous study describing positive behavioral changes and a spurt of EEG maturation with theta/alpha neurofeedback (NFB) training in a group of Learning Disabled (LD) children. In a control paired group, treated with placebo, behavioral changes were not observed and the smaller maturational EEG changes observed were easily explained by increased age. Two years later, the EEG maturational lag in Control Group children increased, reaching abnormally high theta Relative Power values; the absence of positive behavioral changes continued and the neurological diagnosis remained LD. In contrast, after 2 years EEG maturation did continue in children who belonged to the Experimental Group with previous neurofeedback training; this was accompanied by positive behavioral changes, which were reflected in remission of LD symptoms.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 16929704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cereb Cortex. 2007 Jun;17(6):1314-22. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

Time-frequency intracranial source localization of feedback-related EEG activity  in hypothesis testing.

Papo D, Douiri A, Bouchet F, Bourzeix JC, Caverni JP, Baudonnière PM.

Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, CNRS UMR 6146, Université de Provence, Marseille, France. david.papo@jussieu.fr

The neural correlates of the response to performance feedback have been the object of numerous neuroimaging studies. However, the precise timing and functional meaning of the resulting activations are poorly understood. We studied the electroencephalographic response time locked to positive and negative performance feedback in a hypothesis testing paradigm. The signal was convoluted  with a family of complex wavelets. Intracranial sources of activity at various narrow-band frequencies were estimated in the 100- to 400-ms time window following feedback onset. Positive and negative feedback were associated to 1) early parahippocampo-cingular sources of alpha oscillations, more posteriorly located and long lasting for negative feedback and to 2) late partially overlapping neural circuits comprising regions in prefrontal, cingular, and temporal cortices but operating at feedback-specific latencies and frequencies. The results were interpreted in the light of neurophysiological models of feedback and were used to discuss methodological issues in the study of high-level cognitive functions, including reasoning and decision making.

PMID: 16885204 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2006;55(5):384-407.

[Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: a comparison of SCP- and theta/beta-protocols]

[Article in German]

Leins U, Hinterberger T, Kaller S, Schober F, Weber C, Strehl U.

Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universität Tübingen. ulrike.leins@med.uni-tuebingen.de

Research groups have consistently reported on behavioral and cognitive improvements of children with ADHD after neurofeedback. However, neurofeedback has not been commonly accepted as a treatment for ADHD. This is due, in part, to  several methodological limitations. The neurofeedback literature is further complicated by having several different training protocols. Differences between the clinical efficacy of such protocols have not been examined. This study addresses previous methodological shortcomings while comparing the training of theta-beta-frequencies (theta-beta-group) with the training of slow cortical potentials (SCP-group). Each group comprised of 19 children with ADHD that were blind to group assignment. The training procedure consisted of 30 sessions and a  six months follow-up training. Pre-/post measures at pretest, the end of the training and the follow-up included tests of attention, intelligence and behavioral variables. After having already reported intermediate data (Strehl et  al. 2004), this paper gives account on final results: Both groups are able to voluntarily regulate cortical activity, with the extent of learned self-regulation depending on task and condition. Both groups improve in attention and IQ. Parents and teachers report significant behavioral and cognitive improvements. Clinical effects for both groups remain stable six months after training. Groups do not differ in behavioral or cognitive outcome variables.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 16869483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Trends Neurosci. 2006 Sep;29(9):536-46. Epub 2006 Jul 21.

Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future.

Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA.

Department of Neurobiology and Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Since the original demonstration that electrical activity generated by ensembles  of cortical neurons can be employed directly to control a robotic manipulator, research on brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has experienced an impressive growth. Today BMIs designed for both experimental and clinical studies can translate raw  neuronal signals into motor commands that reproduce arm reaching and hand grasping movements in artificial actuators. Clearly, these developments hold promise for the restoration of limb mobility in paralyzed subjects. However, as we review here, before this goal can be reached several bottlenecks have to be passed. These include designing a fully implantable biocompatible recording device, further developing real-time computational algorithms, introducing a method for providing the brain with sensory feedback from the actuators, and designing and building artificial prostheses that can be controlled directly by brain-derived signals. By reaching these milestones, future BMIs will be able to  drive and control revolutionary prostheses that feel and act like the human arm.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16859758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Jun;31(2):97-114. Epub 2006 Jul 15.

The significance of sigma neurofeedback training on sleep spindles and aspects of declarative memory.

Berner I, Schabus M, Wienerroither T, Klimesch W.

University of Salzburg, Division of Physiological Psychology, Hellbrunnerstrasse  34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria. iris.berner@gmx.net

The functional significance of sleep spindles for overnight memory consolidation  and general learning aptitude as well as the effect of four 10-minute sessions of spindle frequency (11.6-16 Hz, sigma) neurofeedback-training on subsequent sleep  spindle activity and overnight performance change was investigated. Before sleep, subjects were trained on a paired-associate word list task after having received  either neurofeedback training (NFT) or pseudofeedback training (PFT).Although NFT had no significant impact on subsequent spindle activity and behavioral outcomes, there was a trend for enhanced sigma band-power during NREM (stage 2 to 4) sleep  after NFT as compared to PFT. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between spindle activity during slow wave sleep (in the first night half) and overall memory performance was revealed. The results support the view that the considerable inter-individual variance in sleep spindle activity can at least be  partly explained by differences in the ability to acquire new declarative information.We conclude that the short NFT before sleep was not sufficient to efficiently enhance phasic spindle activity and/or to influence memory processing. NFT was, however, successful in increasing sigma power, presumably because sigma NFT effects become more easily evident in actually trained frequency bands than in associated phasic spindle activity.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 16845599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Sleep Med Rev. 2006 Aug;10(4):255-66. Epub 2006 Jun 27.

Neurophysiological aspects of primary insomnia: implications for its treatment.

Cortoos A, Verstraeten E, Cluydts R.

Department of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. acortoos@vub.ac.be

Insomnia has usually been studied from a behavioral perspective. Somatic and/or cognitive conditioned arousal was shown to play a central role in sleep complaints becoming chronic, and was used as a starting point for the development of treatment modalities. The introduction of the neurocognitive perspective, with its focus on cortical or CNS arousal, has given rise to a renewed interest in the neurophysiological characteristics of insomnia. Recent research, using quantitative EEG, neuroimaging techniques and the study of the microstructure of  sleep, suggests a state of hyperarousal with a biological basis. Furthermore, insomnia might not be restricted to sleep complaints alone because it appears to  be a 24-h disorder, affecting several aspects of daytime functioning as well. These new findings have implications for the treatments used and indicate that a  focus on cortical or CNS arousal should be pursued. As such, the use of EEG neurofeedback, a self-regulation method based on the paradigm of operant conditioning, might be a promising treatment modality. Preliminary results for insomnia and successful applications for other disorders suggest that this treatment can have the necessary stabilizing effects on the EEG activity, possibly resulting in a normalizing effect on daytime as well as nighttime functioning.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 16807007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Jun;14(2):225-9.

Brain-computer interfaces for 1-D and 2-D cursor control: designs using volitional control of the EEG spectrum or steady-state visual evoked potentials.

Trejo LJ, Rosipal R, Matthews B.

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ltrejo@quasarusa.com

We have developed and tested two electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer  interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system  uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification  (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device  control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KPLS classifier to map power spectra of 62-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on  a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject's average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements  online control of two artifact sources: 1) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal electrooculograms (EOG) signals, 2) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of  the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from 12 electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the  SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display.  The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle artifact is controlled via adaptive normalization of the SSVEP. Training of the classifier requires about 3  min. We have tested our system in real-time operation in three human subjects. Across subjects and sessions, control accuracy ranged from 80% to 100% correct with lags of 1-5 s for movement initiation and turning. We have also developed a  realistic demonstration of our system for control of a moving map display (http://ti.arc.nasa.gov/).

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 16792300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):e1530-40. Epub 2006 Oct 23.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: a new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Strehl U, Leins U, Goth G, Klinger C, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. ute.strehl@uni-tuebingen.de

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of self-regulation of slow cortical potentials for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Slow cortical potentials are slow event-related direct-current shifts of the electroencephalogram. Slow cortical potential shifts in the electrical negative direction reflect the depolarization of large cortical cell assemblies, reducing  their excitation threshold. This training aims at regulation of cortical excitation thresholds considered to be impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Electroencephalographic data from the training and the 6-month follow-up are reported, as are changes in behavior and cognition. METHOD: Twenty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder aged between 8 and 13 years received 30 sessions of self-regulation training of slow cortical potentials in 3 phases of 10 sessions each. Increasing  and decreasing slow cortical potentials at central brain regions was fed back visually and auditorily. Transfer trials without feedback were intermixed with feedback trials to allow generalization to everyday-life situations. In addition  to the neurofeedback sessions, children exercised during the third training phase to apply the self-regulation strategy while doing their homework. RESULTS: For the first time, electroencephalographic data during the course of slow cortical potential neurofeedback are reported. Measurement before and after the trials showed that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder learn to regulate negative slow cortical potentials. After training, significant improvement in behavior, attention, and IQ score was observed. The behavior ratings included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria,  number of problems, and social behavior at school and were conducted by parents and teachers. The cognitive variables were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and with a computerized test battery that measures several components of attention. All changes proved to be stable at 6 months' follow-up after the end of training. Clinical outcome was predicted by the ability to produce negative potential shifts in transfer sessions without feedback. CONCLUSIONS: According to the guidelines of the efficacy of treatments, the evidence of the efficacy of slow cortical potential feedback found in this study reaches level 2: "possibly efficacious." In the absence of a control group, no causal relationship between observed improvements and the ability to regulate  brain activity can be made. However, it could be shown for the first time that good performance in self-regulation predicts clinical outcome. "Good performance" was defined as the ability to produce negative potential shifts in trials without feedback, because it is known that the ability to self-regulate without feedback  is impaired in children and adults with attention problems. Additional research should focus on the control of unspecific effects, medication, and subtypes to confirm the assumption that slow cortical potential feedback is a viable treatment option for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regulation of slow cortical potentials may involve similar neurobiological pathways as medical treatment. It is suggested that regulation of frontocentral negative slow cortical potentials affects the cholinergic-dopaminergic balance and allows children to adapt to task requirements more flexibly.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17060480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Magn Reson Med Sci. 2006 Oct;5(3):157-65.

Real-time functional MRI: development and emerging applications.

Bagarinao E, Nakai T, Tanaka Y.

Grid Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan. baggy@ni.aist.go.jp

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an emerging technique for assessing the dynamic and robust changes in brain activation during an ongoing experiment. Real-time fMRI allows measurement of several processes within the brain as they occur. The extracted information can be used to monitor the quality of acquired data sets, serve as the basis for neurofeedback training, and manipulate scans for interactive paradigm designs. Although more work is needed,  recent results have demonstrated a variety of potential applications for real-time fMRI for research and clinical use. We discuss these developments and focus on methods enabling real-time analysis of fMRI data sets, novel research applications arising from these approaches, and potential use of real-time fMRI in clinical settings.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17139142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Neuroreport. 2006 Aug 21;17(12):1273-8.

Increasing cortical activity in auditory areas through neurofeedback functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Yoo SS, O'Leary HM, Fairneny T, Chen NK, Panych LP, Park H, Jolesz FA.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. yoo@bwh.harvard.edu

We report a functional magnetic resonance imaging method to deliver task-specific brain activities as biofeedback signals to guide individuals to increase cortical activity in auditory areas during sound stimulation. A total of 11 study participants underwent multiple functional magnetic resonance imaging scan sessions, while the changes in the activated cortical volume within the primary and secondary auditory areas were fed back to them between scan sessions. On the  basis of the feedback information, participants attempted to increase the number  of significant voxels during the subsequent trial sessions by adjusting their level of attention to the auditory stimuli. Results showed that the group of individuals who received the feedback were able to increase the activation volume and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal to a greater degree than the control group.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16951568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Mol Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;11(6):528-38.

How psychotherapy changes the brain--the contribution of functional neuroimaging.

Linden DE.

School of Psychology, University of Wales Bangor, Bangor, UK. d.linden@bangor.ac.uk

A thorough investigation of the neural effects of psychotherapy is needed in order to provide a neurobiological foundation for widely used treatment protocols. This paper reviews functional neuroimaging studies on psychotherapy effects and their methodological background, including the development of symptom provocation techniques. Studies of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) effects in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were consistent in showing decreased metabolism in the right caudate nucleus. Cognitive behavioural therapy in phobia  resulted in decreased activity in limbic and paralimbic areas. Interestingly, similar effects were observed after successful intervention with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in both diseases, indicating commonalities in the biological mechanisms of psycho- and pharmacotherapy. These findings are discussed in the context of current neurobiological models of anxiety disorders.  Findings in depression, where both decreases and increases in prefrontal metabolism after treatment and considerable differences between pharmacological and psychological interventions were reported, seem still too heterogeneous to allow for an integrative account, but point to important differences between the  mechanisms through which these interventions attain their clinical effects. Further studies with larger patient numbers, use of standardised imaging protocols across studies, and ideally integration with molecular imaging are needed to clarify the remaining contradictions. This effort is worthwhile because functional imaging can then be potentially used to monitor treatment effects and  aid in the choice of the optimal therapy. Finally, recent advances in the functional imaging of hypnosis and the application of neurofeedback are evaluated for their potential use in the development of psychotherapy protocols that use the direct modulation of brain activity as a way of improving symptoms.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16520823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):85-94.

Deactivation of brain areas during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in seizure patients.

Strehl U, Trevorrow T, Veit R, Hinterberger T, Kotchoubey B, Erb M, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. ute.strehl@uni-tuebingen.de

This study investigates the neurophysiological basis of EEG feedback for patients with epilepsy. Brain areas are identified that become hemodynamically deactivated when epilepsy patients, trained in EEG self-regulation, generate positive slow cortical potentials (SCPs). Five patients were trained in producing positive SCPs, using a training protocol previously established to reduce seizure frequency in patients with drug refractory epilepsy. Patients attempted to produce positive SCP shifts in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Two patients were able to reliably produce positive SCP shifts. When these successful regulators were prompted to produce positive SCPs, blood oxygen  level-dependent (BOLD) response indicated deactivation, in comparison to a control state, around the recording electrode, frontal lobe, and thalamus. Unsuccessful regulators' BOLD response indicated no deactivation in cortical areas proximal to the active electrode. No thalamic deactivation was found in poor regulators. Decreased seizure frequency from SCP training may be the result  of positively reinforced inhibition in cortical areas proximal to active electrode placement, the frontal cortex, and the thalamus.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 16752105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Apr;6(4):533-40.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and adolescence.

Holtmann M, Stadler C.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschordenstrasse 50, D-60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. holtmann@em.uni-frankfurt.de

Considerable scientific effort has been directed at developing effective treatments for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Among alternative treatment approaches, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has gained promising empirical support in recent years. Short-term effects were shown to be  comparable to those of stimulant medication at the behavioral and neuropsychological level, leading to significant decreases of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In addition, EEG biofeedback results in concomitant improvement of neurophysiological patterns. EEG biofeedback may already be used within a multimodal setting, providing affected children and adolescents with a means of learning to counterbalance their ADHD symptoms without side effects. However, there is still a strong need for more empirically  and methodologically sound evaluation studies.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16623652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):21-35.

Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy.

Sterman MB, Egner T.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, UCLA, USA. msterman@ucla.edu

This review provides an updated overview of the neurophysiological rationale, basic and clinical research literature, and current methods of practice pertaining to clinical neurofeedback. It is based on documented findings, rational theory, and the research and clinical experience of the authors. While considering general issues of physiology, learning principles, and methodology, it focuses on the treatment of epilepsy with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) training,  arguably the best established clinical application of EEG operant conditioning. The basic research literature provides ample data to support a very detailed model of the neural generation of SMR, as well as the most likely candidate mechanism underlying its efficacy in clinical treatment. Further, while more controlled clinical trials would be desirable, a respectable literature supports  the clinical utility of this alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the skilled practice of clinical neurofeedback requires a solid understanding of the  neurophysiology underlying EEG oscillation, operant learning principles and mechanisms, as well as an in-depth appreciation of the ins and outs of the various hardware/software equipment options open to the practitioner. It is suggested that the best clinical practice includes the systematic mapping of quantitative multi-electrode EEG measures against a normative database before and after treatment to guide the choice of treatment strategy and document progress towards EEG normalization. We conclude that the research literature reviewed in this article justifies the assertion that neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy/seizure disorders constitutes a well-founded and viable alternative to anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16614940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Mar;14(1):30-7.

Steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials: suitable brain signals for brain-computer interfaces?

Müller-Putz GR, Scherer R, Neuper C, Pfurtscheller G.

Laboratory of Brain-Computer Interfaces, Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria. gernot.mueller@ieee.org

One of the main issues in designing a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to find brain patterns, which could easily be detected. One of these pattern is the steady-state evoked potential (SSEP). SSEPs induced through the visual sense have already been used for brain-computer communication. In this work, a BCI system is introduced based on steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs). Transducers have been used for the stimulation of both index fingers using tactile stimulation in the "resonance"-like frequency range of the somatosensory  system. Four subjects participated in the experiments and were trained to modulate induced SSSEPs. Two of them learned to modify the patterns in order to set up a BCI with an accuracy of between 70% and 80%. Results presented in this work give evidence that it is possible to set up a BCI which is based on SSSEPs.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 16562629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2006;106(2):31-6.

[The use of individual EEG peculiarities for increase of neurofeedback efficiency]

[Article in Russian]

Bazanova OM, Aftanas LI.

An aim of the study was to demonstrate efficiency of neurofeedback in using individual frequency ranges of electroencephalogram (EEG). The sessions of theta/beta decreasing and alpha simulating trainings were carried out in 2 outpatients: one of them with attention deficit disorder (a schoolboy) and another one with functional pain contraction (a professional musician). The neurofeedback with standard frequency did not result in any improvement of psychometric and EEG characteristics of both patients. The neurofeedback training with individual frequency of maximal peak and alpha band width improved these characteristics that suggest efficiency of the approach used.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 16548372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Feb;6(2):247-57.

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy: from basic rationale to practical application.

Egner T, Sterman MB.

Functional MRI Research Center, Columbia University, Neurological Institute, Box  108, New York, NY 10032, USA. te2111@columbia.edu

The treatment of epilepsy through operant conditioning of the sensorimotor rhythm electroencephalogram has a 35-year history. Neurophysiological studies have shown that this phasic oscillation reflects an inhibitory state of the sensorimotor system. Operant learning of sensory motor rhythm production results in an upregulation of excitation thresholds within the thalamocortical sensory and motor circuitry, which in turn is associated with reduced susceptibility to seizures. The clinical benefits derived from this neurofeedback training protocol, particularly in patients that are nonresponsive to pharmacotherapy, have been documented in many independent laboratories. Recent advances in computer technology have resulted in the availability of relatively inexpensive high-quality equipment for the application of neurofeedback therapy, thus presenting a viable and promising treatment alternative to the interested clinician.

PMID: 16466304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Mar;117(3):531-7. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

Comment in:     Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Mar;117(3):479-83.

P300-based brain computer interface: reliability and performance in healthy and paralysed participants.

Piccione F, Giorgi F, Tonin P, Priftis K, Giove S, Silvoni S, Palmas G, Beverina  F.

IRCCS, S. Camillo Hospital, Alberoni, 70, 30126 Venice, Italy. piccioneparrinello@aliceposta.it

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the use of the P300 event-related potential as a control signal in a brain computer interface (BCI) for healthy and paralysed participants. METHODS: The experimental device used the P300 wave to control the movement of an object on a graphical interface. Visual stimuli, consisting of four arrows (up, right, down, left) were randomly presented in peripheral positions on the screen. Participants were instructed to recognize only the arrow indicating a specific direction for an object to move. P300 epochs, synchronized with the stimulus, were analyzed on-line via Independent Component Analysis (ICA) with subsequent feature extraction and classification by using a neural network. RESULTS: We tested the reliability and the performance of the system in real-time. The system needed a short training period to allow task  completion and reached good performance. Nonetheless, severely impaired patients  had lower performance than healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed system is effective for use with healthy participants, whereas further research is needed before it can be used with locked-in syndrome patients. SIGNIFICANCE: The  P300-based BCI described can reliably control, in 'real time', the motion of a cursor on a graphical interface, and no time-consuming training is needed in order to test possible applications for motor-impaired patients.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 16458069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):3-20.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Beauregard M, Lévesque J.

Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. mario.beauregard@umontreal.ca

Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were undertaken to measure the effect of neurofeedback training (NFT), in AD/HD children, on the neural substrates of selective attention and response inhibition. Twenty unmedicated AD/HD children participated to these experiments. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group whereas the other five children were randomly assigned to the Control (CON) group. Only subjects in the  EXP group underwent NFT. EXP subjects were trained to enhance the amplitude of the SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta 1 activity (15-18 Hz), and decrease the amplitude of  theta activity (4-7 Hz). Subjects from both groups were scanned one week before the beginning of NFT (Time 1) and 1 week after the end of NFT (Time 2), while they performed a "Counting Stroop" task (Experiment 1) and a Go/No-Go task (Experiment 2). At Time 1, in both groups, the Counting Stroop task was associated with significant activation in the left superior parietal lobule. For  the Go/No-Go task, no significant activity was detected in the EXP and CON groups. At Time 2, in both groups, the Counting Stroop task was associated with significant activation of the left superior parietal lobule. This time, however,  there were significant loci of activation, in the EXP group, in the right ACC, left caudate nucleus, and left substantia nigra. No such activation loci were seen in CON subjects. For the Go/No-Go task, significant loci of activation were  noted, in the EXP group, in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right ACcd, left thalamus, left caudate nucleus, and left substantia nigra. No significant activation of these brain regions was measured in CON subjects. These results suggest that NFT has the capacity to functionally normalize the brain systems mediating selective attention and response inhibition in AD/HD children.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16552626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Neurosci Lett. 2006 Feb 20;394(3):216-21. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention  in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic  resonance imaging study.

Lévesque J, Beauregard M, Mensour B.

Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie Expérimentale et Cognition (CERNEC), Département de psychologie, Université de Montréal, Canada.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly characterized by impairments in cognitive functions. Functional neuroimaging studies carried out in individuals with AD/HD have shown abnormal functioning of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during tasks involving selective attention. In other respects, there is mounting evidence that neurofeedback training (NFT) can significantly improve cognitive functioning in AD/HD children. In this context, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to measure the effect of NFT on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with AD/HD. Twenty AD/HD children--not taking any psychostimulant and without co-morbidity-participated to the study. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group (NFT), whereas the other five children were assigned to the Control (CON) group (no NFT). Subjects from both groups were scanned 1 week before the beginning of the NFT (Time 1) and 1 week after the end of this training (Time 2), while they performed a Counting Stroop task. At Time 1, for both groups, the Counting Stroop task was associated with significant loci of activation in the left superior parietal lobule. No activation was noted in the ACC. At Time 2, for both groups, the Counting Stroop task was still associated with significant activation of the left superior parietal lobule. This time, however, for the EXP  group only there was a significant activation of the right ACC. These results suggest that in AD/HD children, NFT has the capacity to normalize the functioning of the ACC, the key neural substrate of selective attention.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16343769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prog Brain Res. 2006;159:151-65.

Upper alpha ERD and absolute power: their meaning for memory performance.

Klimesch W, Doppelmayr M, Hanslmayr S.

Department of Physiological Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. wolfgang.klimesch@sbg.ac.at

A variety of studies have shown that EEG alpha activity in the upper frequency range is associated with different types of cognitive processes, memory performance, perceptual performance and intelligence, but in strikingly different ways. For semantic memory performance we have found that resting or reference power is positively associated with performance, whereas during actual processing of the task, small power--reflected by a large extent of event-related desynchronization (ERD)--is related to good performance. We also have shown that  the induction of large alpha reference power by neurofeedback training or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at individual alpha frequency mimicked exactly the situation which is typical for good memory performance under normal situations: increased alpha reference power is associated with large ERD and good performance. Recent studies have demonstrated that this relationship holds true only for memory and not perceptual tasks that require the identification of simple visual stimuli under difficult conditions. In contrast to good memory performance, good perceptual performance is related to small pre-stimulus alpha power and a small ERD. We interpret this finding in terms of cortical inhibition vs. activation preceding task performance by assuming that large rhythmic alpha activity reflects inhibition. We assume that small reference alpha enhances perceptual performance because the cortex is activated and prepared to process the stimulus, whereas memory performance is enhanced if the cortex is deactivated before a task is performed because in typical memory tasks  selective processing can start only after the to-be-remembered item or cue is presented. We also suggest that conflicting results about alpha ERD and the neural efficiency hypothesis (which assumes that highly intelligent exhibit a small ERD) can also be interpreted in terms of inhibition. Only if an intelligence test actually requires the activation of (semantic) memory, a large  (because task specific) ERD can be observed. If other processing systems are required, the semantic memory system may even become suppressed, which is reflected by alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) or at least a largely decreased ERD.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 17071229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Cogn. 2005 Dec;59(3):314-21.

Effect of neurofeedback on hemispheric word recognition.

Barnea A, Rassis A, Zaidel E.

Bio-Keshev Center, Kibutz Givat Chaim Ichud, Israel.

We applied SMR/theta neurofeedback (NF) training at central sites of 20 Israeli children aged 10-12 years, half boys and half girls. Half of the subjects received C3 training and the other half C4 training, consisting of 20 half-hour sessions. We assessed the effects of training on lateralized lexical decision in  Hebrew. The lateralized lexical decision test reveals an independent contribution of each hemisphere to word recognition (Barnea, Mooshagian, & Zaidel, 2003). Training increased accuracy and sensitivity. It increased left hemisphere (LH) specialization under some conditions but it did not affect interhemispheric transfer. Training did affect psycholinguistic processing in the two hemispheres, differentially at C3 and C4. Training also increased hemispheric independence. There were surprising sex differences in the effects of training. In boys, C4 training improved LH accuracy, whereas in girls C3 training improved LH accuracy. The results suggest that the lateralized NF protocol activates asymmetric hemispheric control circuits which modify distant hemispheric networks and are organized differently in boys and girls.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 16337872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Int J Neurosci. 2005 Jun;115(6):781-802.

Unconscious operant conditioning in the paradigm of brain-computer interface based on color perception.

Kaplan AY, Lim JJ, Jin KS, Park BW, Byeon JG, Tarasova SU.

Department of Human Physiology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation. akaplan@mail.ru

This study investigate the mutual fine-tuning of ongoing EEG rhythmic features with RGB values controlling color shades of computer screen during neuro-feedback training. Fifteen participants had not been informed about the existence of neurofeedback loop (NF), but were guided only to look at the computer screen. It  was found that during such unconscious NF training, a variety of color shades on  the screen gradually changed from rather various types to the main one within the framework of color palette specified for each individual. This phenomenon was not observed in control experiments with simulated neuro-feedback. Individual color patterns induced on the screen during NF did not depend on the schema of connection between of EEG rhythms and RGB controller. It is suggested that the basic neurophysiological mechanism of described NF training consists of the directed selection of EEG patterns reinforced by comfortable color shades without conscious control.

PMID: 16019574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

PLoS Med. 2005 Jun;2(6):e153. Epub 2005 Jun 28.

Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.

Weisz N, Moratti S, Meinzer M, Dohrmann K, Elbert T.

Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany. Nathan.Weisz@uni-konstantz.de

BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tinnitus perception are  not well understood. Surprisingly, there have been no group studies comparing abnormalities in ongoing, spontaneous neuronal activity in individuals with and without tinnitus perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that the spontaneous neuronal activity of a group of individuals with tinnitus (n = 17) is characterised by a marked reduction in alpha (8-12 Hz) power together with an enhancement in delta (1.5-4 Hz) as compared to a normal hearing control group (n  = 16). This pattern was especially pronounced for temporal regions. Moreover, correlations with tinnitus-related distress revealed strong associations with this abnormal spontaneous activity pattern, particularly in right temporal and left frontal areas. Overall, effects were stronger for the alpha than for the delta frequency band. A data stream of 5 min, recorded with a whole-head neuromagnetometer under a resting condition, was sufficient to extract the marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, there are arguments that the  regional pattern of abnormal spontaneous activity we found could reflect a tinnitus-related cortical network. This finding, which suggests that a neurofeedback approach could reduce the adverse effects of this disturbing condition, could have important implications for the treatment of tinnitus.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15971936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin EEG Neurosci. 2005 Apr;36(2):99-107.

Clinical database development: characterization of EEG phenotypes.

Johnstone J, Gunkelman J, Lunt J.

Q-Metrx, Inc., Burbank, California 91506, USA. Jack@q-metrx.com

We propose development of evidence-based methods to guide clinical intervention in neurobehavioral syndromes based on categorization of individuals using both behavioral measures and quantification of the EEG (qEEG). Review of a large number of clinical EEG and qEEG studies suggests that it is plausible to identify a limited set of individual profiles that characterize the majority of the population. Statistical analysis has already been used to document "clusters" of  qEEG features seen in populations of psychiatric patients. These clusters are considered here as intermediate phenotypes, based on genetics, and are reliable indices of brain function, not isomorphic with DSM categories, and carry implications for therapeutic intervention. We call for statistical analysis methods to be applied to a broad clinical database of individuals diagnosed with  neurobehavioral disorders in order to empirically define clusters of individuals  who may be responsive to specific neurophysiologically based treatment interventions, namely administration of psychoactive medication and/or EEG neurofeedback. A tentative set of qEEG profiles is proposed based on clinical observation and experience. Implication for intervention with medication and neurofeedback for individuals with these neurophysiological profiles and specific qEEG patterns is presented.

PMID: 15999905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prilozi. 2005 Dec;26(2):35-42.

Spectrum-weighted EEG frequency ("brain-rate") as a quantitative indicator of mental arousal.

Pop-Jordanova N, Pop-Jordanov J.

Pediatric Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Skopje, R. Macedonia.

A concept of brain-rate is introduced, defining it as the weighted mean frequency of the EEG spectrum. In analogue to the blood pressure, heart-rate and temperature, used as standard preliminary indicators of corresponding general bodily activations, it is proposed to use the brain-rate as a preliminary indicator of general mental activation (mental arousal) level. In addition, along with the more specific few-band biofeedback parameters (theta-beta ratio, relative beta ratio, etc.), the brain-rate could be effectively used as a general multiband biofeedback parameter.

PMID: 16400227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Dec;30(4):365-73.

Neurofeedback: an alternative and efficacious treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Fox DJ, Tharp DF, Fox LC.

Advanced Neurotherapy Solutions, College Station, Texas 77840, USA. drfox@advancedntsolutions.com

Current research has shown that neurofeedback, or EEG biofeedback as it is sometimes called, is a viable alternative treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this article is to illustrate current treatment modalities(s), compare them to neurofeedback, and present the benefits  of utilizing this method of treatment to control and potentially alleviate the symptoms of ADHD. In addition, this article examines the prevalence rates and possible etiology of ADHD, the factors associated with ADHD and brain dysfunction, the current pharmacological treatments of ADHD, Ritalin, and the potential risks and side effects. Behavior modification and cognitive behavioral  treatment for ADHD is discussed as well. Lastly, a brief history of the study of  neurofeedback, treatment successes and clinical benefits, comparisons to medication, and limitations are presented.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16385424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Dec;30(4):347-64.

Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research.

Vernon DJ.

Department of Applied Social Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Augustine House, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom. d.j.vernon@canterbury.ac.uk

There have been many claims regarding the possibilities of performance enhancement training. The aim of such training is for an individual to complete a specific function or task with fewer errors and greater efficiency, resulting in  a more positive outcome. The present review examined evidence from neurofeedback  training studies to enhance performance in a particular area. Previous research has documented associations between specific cortical states and optimum levels of performance in a range of tasks. This information provides a plausible rationale for the use of neurofeedback to train individuals to enhance their performance. An examination of the literature revealed that neurofeedback training has been utilised to enhance performance from three main areas; sport, cognitive and artistic performance. The review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies within each of these three areas. Some suggestive  findings have been reported with regard to the use of neurofeedback training to enhance performance. However, due to a range of methodological limitations and a  general failure to elicit unambiguous changes in baseline EEG activity, a clear association between neurofeedback training and enhanced performance has yet to be established. Throughout, the review highlights a number of recommendations to aid and stimulate future research.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16385423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD002029.

Update of:     Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD002029.

Psychological treatments for epilepsy.

Ramaratnam S, Baker GA, Goldstein LH.

Apollo Hospitals, Department of Neurology, 21 Greams Lane, Off Greams Road, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India 60006. rsridharan@vsnl.com

BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions such as relaxation therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, bio-feedback and educational interventions have been used alone or in combination in the treatment of epilepsy, to reduce the seizure frequency and improve the quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the treatment of epilepsy with psychological methods is effective in reducing seizure frequency and/or leads to a better quality of life. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched  the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialized Register (July 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005), and MEDLINE (1966 to March 2005). No language restrictions were imposed. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized studies assessing one or more types of psychological or behaviour modification techniques for people with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted data. Primary analyses were by intention to treat. Outcomes included reduction in seizure frequency and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We found three small trials (50 participants) of relaxation therapy. They were of poor methodological quality and a meta-analysis was therefore not undertaken. No study found a significant effect of relaxation therapy on seizure frequency. One trial found cognitive behavioural therapy to be effective in reducing depression, among people with epilepsy with a depressed affect, whilst another did not.One trial of group cognitive therapy found no significant effect on seizure frequency. Two trials of combined relaxation and behaviour therapy and one of EEG bio-feedback and four of educational interventions did not provide sufficient information to assess their  effect on seizure frequency. One small study of galvanic skin response biofeedback reported significant reduction in seizure frequency. Combined use of  relaxation and behaviour modification was found beneficial for anxiety and adjustment in one study. In one study EEG bio-feedback was found to improve the cognitive and motor functions in individuals with greatest seizure reduction. Educational interventions were found to be beneficial in improving the knowledge  and understanding of epilepsy, coping with epilepsy, compliance to medication and social competencies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In view of methodological deficiencies and limited number of individuals studied, we have found no reliable evidence to  support the use of these treatments and further trials are needed.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16235293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2005;25(3):368-70.

A controlled study of the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training on-children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Xiong Z, Shi S, Xu H.

Department of Child Health, Hubei Maternal and Child Hospital, Wuhan 430070, China.

In order to study the treatment of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test (IVA-CPT) was clinically applied to evaluate the effectiveness of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback training. Of all the 60 children with ADHD aged more than 6 years, the effective rate of EEG biofeedback training was 91.6% after 40 sessions of EEG biofeedback training. Before and after treatment by EEG biofeedback training, the overall indexes of IVA were significantly improved among predominately inattentive, hyperactive, and combined subtype of children with ADHD (P<0.001). It was suggested that EEG biofeedback training was  an effective and vital treatment on children with ADHD.

PMID: 16201300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005 Sep;52(9):1588-96.

Visual spatial attention control in an independent brain-computer interface.

Kelly SP, Lalor EC, Finucane C, McDarby G, Reilly RB.

Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield Dublin 4, Ireland. simon.kelly@ee.ucd.ie

This paper presents a novel brain computer interface (BCI) design employing visual evoked potential (VEP) modulations in a paradigm involving no dependency on peripheral muscles or nerves. The system utilizes electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention mechanisms, the self-regulation of which is naturally developed through continuous application in everyday life. An interface involving real-time biofeedback is described, demonstrating reduced training time in comparison to existing BCIs based on self-regulation paradigms.  Subjects were cued to covertly attend to a sequence of letters superimposed on a  flicker stimulus in one visual field while ignoring a similar stimulus of a different flicker frequency in the opposite visual field. Classification of left/right spatial attention is achieved by extracting steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by the stimuli. Six out of eleven physically and neurologically healthy subjects demonstrate reliable control in binary decision-making, achieving at least 75% correct selections in at least one of only five sessions, each of approximately 12-min duration. The highest-performing subject achieved over 90% correct selections in each of four sessions. This independent BCI may provide a new method of real-time interaction for those with  little or no peripheral control, with the added advantage of requiring only brief training.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 16189972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2005;31(3):455-69.

Effects of an EEG biofeedback protocol on a mixed substance abusing population.

Scott WC, Kaiser D, Othmer S, Sideroff SI.

Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

This study examined whether an EEG biofeedback protocol could improve outcome measures for a mixed substance abusing inpatient population. METHOD: One hundred  twenty-one volunteers undergoing an inpatient substance abuse program were randomly assigned to the EEG biofeedback or control group. EEG biofeedback included training in Beta and SMR to address attentional variables, followed by an alpha-theta protocol. Subjects received a total of 40 to 50 biofeedback sessions. The control group received additional time in treatment equivalent to experimental procedure time. The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and MMPI, were administered with both tester and subject blind as to group placement to obtain unbiased baseline data. Treatment retention and abstinence rates as well as psychometric and cognitive measures were compared. RESULTS: Experimental subjects remained in treatment significantly longer than the control group (p <0.005). Of the experimental subjects completing the protocol, 77% were abstinent at 12 months, compared to 44% for the controls. Experimental subjects demonstrated significant improvement on the TOVA (p<.005) after an average of 13  beta-SMR sessions. Following alpha-theta training, significant differences were noted on 5 of the 10 MMPI-2 scales at the p<.005 level. CONCLUSIONS: This protocol enhanced treatment retention, variables of attention, and abstinence rates one year following treatment.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 16161729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prilozi. 2005 Aug;26(1):71-80.

Neurofeedback treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Pop-Jordanova N, Markovska-Simoska S, Zorcec T.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Skopje, R. Macedonia.

BACKGROUND: Biofeedback is a modern computer-related technique used for assessment and therapy of many psychophysiological disorders, especially stress-related ones. After a short overview of the basic concepts of biofeedback, in this study the application of EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) in the assessment of and therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) is presented and discussed. METHODS: The study comprised 12 children diagnosed as ADHD, selected according to ICD-10, and assessed by WISC-R, Q-EEG, neurofeedback  and Conner's questionnaire for parents and teachers. The mean age was 9.5 years (7 to 13), both sexes. Each of them participated in a five-month programme of neurofeedback training, performed two times weekly with Biograph/ProComp 2.0 protocols. RESULTS: Post-treatment results showed an improved EEG pattern expressed in increased 16-20 Hz (beta) activity and decreased 4-8 Hz (theta) activity. In parallel, higher scores on WISC-R, better school notes and improved  social adaptability and self-esteem were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: EEG biofeedback operant conditioning is a good choice for treatment of ADHD children. The method  is non-invasive and has high cost-benefit. Optimal results are obtained in children of higher age. Cooperation with family members and teachers is crucial.

PMID: 16118616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Jun;12(2):106-13.

Nonpharmacological treatment options for epilepsy.

Sheth RD, Stafstrom CE, Hsu D.

Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53792-5132, USA. sheth@neurology.wisc.edu

Approximately one third of children with epilepsy have persistent seizures despite trials of multiple antiepileptic medications. For some of these patients, epilepsy surgery may provide freedom from seizures. However, in many cases, epilepsy surgery is not a viable treatment option. Nonpharmacological approaches  are a useful adjunct to help manage seizures in these children. This review examines the role of vagus nerve stimulation, the ketogenic diet, and various forms of EEG biofeedback therapy in children with intractable epilepsy. Although  the mechanism of action is not known precisely for any of these adjunctive therapies, they add an important and evolving dimension to the management of difficult to control epilepsy in children. In addition, pyridoxine-dependent seizures are discussed as an example of an etiology of refractory seizures that responds well to replacement therapy.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16114176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Neuropsychol. 2005;12(2):64-76.

Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Loo SK, Barkley RA.

UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA. sloo@mednet.ucla.edu

Electrophysiological measures were among the first to be used to study brain processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and have been used as such for over 30 years (see  Hastings & Barkley, 1978, for an early review). More recently, electroencephalography (EEG) has been used both in research to describe and quantify the underlying neurophysiology of ADHD, but also clinically in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD. This review will first provide a brief overview of EEG and then present some of the research findings of EEG correlates in ADHD. Then, the utility of EEG in making an ADHD diagnosis and predicting stimulant response will be examined. Finally, and more controversially, we will review the results of the most recent studies on EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) as a treatment for ADHD and the issues that remain to be addressed in the research examining the efficacy this therapeutic approach.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 16083395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 2005 Apr-Jun;(2):15-9.

[Changes in brain function in patients with boderline neuropsychic disorders after therapy with electroencephalographic BFB-training]

[Article in Russian]

Zvereva ZF, Torybarov FS, Khvorostina AV.

PMID: 16078650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Neurosci. 2005 Jun;115(6):781-802.

Unconscious operant conditioning in the paradigm of brain-computer interface based on color perception.

Kaplan AY, Lim JJ, Jin KS, Park BW, Byeon JG, Tarasova SU.

Department of Human Physiology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation. akaplan@mail.ru

This study investigate the mutual fine-tuning of ongoing EEG rhythmic features with RGB values controlling color shades of computer screen during neuro-feedback training. Fifteen participants had not been informed about the existence of neurofeedback loop (NF), but were guided only to look at the computer screen. It  was found that during such unconscious NF training, a variety of color shades on  the screen gradually changed from rather various types to the main one within the framework of color palette specified for each individual. This phenomenon was not observed in control experiments with simulated neuro-feedback. Individual color patterns induced on the screen during NF did not depend on the schema of connection between of EEG rhythms and RGB controller. It is suggested that the basic neurophysiological mechanism of described NF training consists of the directed selection of EEG patterns reinforced by comfortable color shades without conscious control.

PMID: 16019574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Jun;30(2):95-114.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, LaVaque TJ.

FPI Attention Disorders Clinic, Endicott, New York 13760, USA. drmonastra@stny.rr.com

Historically, pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been considered to be the only type of interventions effective for reducing the core symptoms of this condition. However, during the past three decades, a series of case and controlled group studies examining the effects of EEG biofeedback have reported improved attention and behavioral control, increased cortical activation on quantitative electroencephalographic examination, and gains on tests of intelligence and academic achievement in response to this type of treatment. This review paper critically examines the empirical evidence, applying the efficacy guidelines jointly established by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation (ISNR). On the basis of these scientific principles, EEG biofeedback was determined to be "probably efficacious" for the treatment of ADHD. Although significant clinical improvement was reported in approximately 75% of the patients in each of the published research studies, additional randomized, controlled group studies are needed in order to provide a better estimate of the percentage of patients with ADHD who will demonstrate such gains in clinical practice.

Publication Types:      Meta-Analysis     Review

PMID: 16013783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 2006 Feb;71(2):148-54. Epub 2005 Jul 7.

The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes.

Hajcak G, Moser JS, Holroyd CB, Simons RF.

Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA. hajcak@psych.udel.edu

Electrophysiological studies have utilized event-related brain potentials to study neural processes related to the evaluation of environmental feedback. In particular, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) has been shown to reflect the evaluation of monetary losses and negative performance feedback. Two experiments  were conducted to examine whether or not the FRN is sensitive to the magnitude of negative feedback. In both experiments, participants performed simple gambling tasks in which they could receive a range of potential outcomes on each trial. Relative to feedback indicating monetary gain, feedback indicating non-rewards was associated with a FRN in both experiments; however, the magnitude of the FRN  did not demonstrate sensitivity to the magnitude of non-reward in either experiment. These data suggest that the FRN reflects the early appraisal of feedback based on a binary classification of good versus bad outcomes. These data are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of the FRN, as well as appraisal  processes implicated in emotional processing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural 

PMID: 16005561 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):93-9.

[Increase in athletes' functional capacities via biological feedback]

[Article in Russian]

Vysochin IuV, Denicenko IuP, Gordeev IuV.

PMID: 16004406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jun;21(11):3169-81.

Neuronal mechanisms underlying control of a brain-computer interface.

Hinterberger T, Veit R, Wilhelm B, Weiskopf N, Vatine JJ, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Gartenstrasse 29, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany. thilo.hinterberger@uni-tuebingen.de

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable humans or animals to communicate or control external devices without muscle activity using electric brain signals. The BCI used here is based on self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs), a skill that most people and paralyzed patients can acquire with training periods of several hours up to months. The neurophysiological mechanisms and anatomical sources of SCPs and other event-related brain potentials have been described but  the neural mechanisms underlying the self-regulation skill for the use of a BCI are unknown. To uncover the relevant areas of brain activation during regulation  of SCPs, the BCI was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The electroencephalogram was recorded inside the magnetic resonance imaging scanner in 12 healthy participants who learned to regulate their SCP with feedback and reinforcement. The results demonstrate activation of specific brain areas during  execution of the brain regulation skill allowing a person to activate an external device; a successful positive SCP shift compared with a negative shift was closely related to an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent response in the basal ganglia. Successful negativity was related to an increased blood oxygen level-dependent response in the thalamus compared with successful positivity. These results may indicate learned regulation of a cortico-striatal-thalamic loop modulating local excitation thresholds of cortical assemblies. The data support the assumption that human subjects learn the regulation of cortical excitation thresholds of large neuronal assemblies as a prerequisite for direct brain communication using an SCP-driven BCI. This skill depends critically on an intact and flexible interaction between the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15978025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jun;21(11):3161-8.

Knowing good from bad: differential activation of human cortical areas by positive and negative outcomes.

Nieuwenhuis S, Slagter HA, von Geusau NJ, Heslenfeld DJ, Holroyd CB.

Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, the Netherlands. stn20@dds.nl

Previous research has identified a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), the feedback-related negativity, that is elicited by feedback stimuli associated with unfavourable outcomes. In the present research we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to test the common hypothesis that this  component is generated in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex. The EEG results indicated that our paradigm, a time estimation task with trial-to-trial performance feedback, elicited a large feedback-related negativity (FRN). Nevertheless, the fMRI results did not reveal any area in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex that was differentially activated by positive and negative performance feedback, casting doubt on the notion that the FRN is generated in this brain region. In contrast, we found a number of brain areas outside the posterior medial frontal cortex that were activated more strongly by positive feedback than by negative feedback. These included areas in the rostral anterior  cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right superior frontal gyrus, and striatum. An anatomically constrained source model assuming equivalent dipole generators in the rostral anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and right superior frontal gyrus produced a simulated scalp distribution that corresponded  closely to the observed scalp distribution of the FRN. These results support a new hypothesis regarding the neural generators of the FRN, and have important implications for the use of this component as an electrophysiological index of performance monitoring and reward processing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15978024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2005;11(2):116-30.

Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Rojas NL, Chan E.

Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial food additives, colors, and/or preservatives; the effect of sugar on behavior in children; and the use of EEG biofeedback, have been well studied but lack support as effective sole treatments for ADHD. The initial evidence for some emerging CAM therapies, such as essential fatty acid supplementation, yoga, massage, homeopathy, and green outdoor spaces,  suggests potential benefits as part of an overall ADHD treatment plan. More rigorously designed studies are needed to evaluate their effectiveness as single  therapy for ADHD. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15977318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Rehabil Res. 2005 Jun;28(2):159-63.

Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger's syndrome.

Scolnick B.

Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Recovery, Sargent College, Boston University, 940 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. scolnick@bu.edu

This article reports the pilot study of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback to improve focusing and decrease anxiety in 10 adolescent boys diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome attending a therapeutic day school. Five of the boys dropped  out of the study before 12 sessions were completed. The analysis of pre- and post-intervention quantitative EEGs for the five students who completed the study showed a trend to "normalization", but did not reach statistical significance. All five boys who completed 24 sessions showed improved behavior as rated by parents and teachers, but other factors, such as maturation could not be ruled out as causes of the improvement. The challenges facing this research and proposals for further exploration are outlined.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15900187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Mar;30(1):64-73.

Biofeedback and dance performance: a preliminary investigation.

Raymond J, Sajid I, Parkinson LA, Gruzelier JH.

Imperial College London, St Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RF, UK.

Alpha-theta neurofeedback has been shown to produce professionally significant performance improvements in music students. The present study aimed to extend this work to a different performing art and compare alpha-theta neurofeedback with another form of biofeedback: heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Twenty-four ballroom and Latin dancers were randomly allocated to three groups, one receiving neurofeedback, one HRV biofeedback and one no intervention. Dance was assessed before and after training. Performance improvements were found in the biofeedback groups but not in the control group. Neurofeedback and HRV biofeedback benefited performance in different ways. A replication with larger sample sizes is required.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15889586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Behav Healthc Tomorrow. 2005 Apr;14(2):10.

Bio-electric approaches for youths; treating post-stroke depression.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 15887601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2005 Apr;83(4):857-64.

Stress reactivity and family relationships in the development and treatment of endometriosis.

Harrison V, Rowan K, Mathias J.

Family Health Services and Center for the Study of Natural Systems and the Family, Woman's Hospital of Texas, 7580 Fannin, Houston, TX 77054, USA. vichar@worldnet.att.net

OBJECTIVE: To examine stress physiology and facts of family functioning associated with development and course of endometriosis symptoms. DESIGN: Clinical case data and literature review. SETTING: Private practice in hospital-affiliated medical office. PATIENT(S): One woman with endometriosis, her parents, and a nonsymptomatic volunteer. INTERVENTION(S): Measures of physiologic and neural reactivity with biofeedback and neurofeedback equipment during family  history interview and while sitting quietly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Electroencephalography (EEG), digital skin temperature (DST), electrodermal response (EDR), and electromyography (EMG); facts of family history; contact with family. RESULT(S): Endometriosis symptoms were associated with DST, EDR, EMG, and EEG measures indicating prolonged stress reactions for the symptomatic woman and  her parents. Facts of family history and relationships for three generations set  the stage for stress reactions. Striking differences are evident in the physiology, family history, and contact with family of the nonsymptomatic woman.  CONCLUSION(S): Differences warrant further study, a larger sample, and additional measures using hormone assay to establish connections between stress reactions in the family, endometriosis symptoms, and response to treatment. Further research will document changes in physiology and in symptoms that accompany interruption of stress reactions with self-regulation training and family systems psychotherapy.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Review

PMID: 15820791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005 May;23(2-3):287-92.

The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood.

Raymond J, Varney C, Parkinson LA, Gruzelier JH.

Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, St  Dunstan's Road, London, W6 8RF, England.

Alpha/theta neurofeedback has been shown to be successful both in treating addictions and in enhancing artistry in music students. How its effects are mediated are not yet clear. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that alpha/theta neurofeedback works inter alia by normalising extreme personality and raising feelings of well being. 12 participants with high scores for Withdrawal (as measured by the PSQ) were given either alpha/theta neurofeedback or mock feedback and their personality and mood were assessed. Withdrawal scores on the PSQ-80 were not found to change in either group but significant effects were found for the Profile Of Mood States (POMS), with real feedback producing higher  overall scores than mock feedback (P = 0.056). Real feedback caused participants  to feel significantly more energetic (P < 0.01) than did mock feedback. Sessions  of real feedback made participants feel more composed (P < 0.01), agreeable (P <  0.01), elevated (P < 0.01) and confident (P < 0.05), whilst sessions of mock feedback made participants feel more tired (P < 0.05), yet composed (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that, whilst 9 sessions of alpha/theta neurofeedback was insufficient to change personality, improvements in mood may provide a partial explanation for the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15820636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):163-76, viii.

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy.

Walker JE, Kozlowski GP.

Neurotherapy Center of Dallas, 12870 Hillcrest Road, Suite 201, Dallas, TX 75230, USA. neurotherapycenter@sbcglobal.net

With electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (or neurofeedback), it is possible to train the brain to de-emphasize rhythms that lead to generation and propagation of seizure and emphasize rhythms that make seizures less likely to occur. With recent improvements in quantitative EEG measurement and improved neurofeedback protocols, it has become possible in clinical practice to eliminate seizures or reduce the amount of medication required to control them. In this article, the history of neurofeedback for epilepsy is presented followed by discussions of the relevant neurophysiology of epilepsy. A model of how neurofeedback might raise the seizure threshold is then presented. Clinical experience using a quantitative EEG-guided approach is described, including a representative case study.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Mar;30(1):1-10.

Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects.

Hanslmayr S, Sauseng P, Doppelmayr M, Schabus M, Klimesch W.

Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

The hypothesis was tested of whether neurofeedback training (NFT)--applied in order to increase upper alpha but decrease theta power--is capable of increasing  cognitive performance. A mental rotation task was performed before and after upper alpha and theta NFT. Only those subjects who were able to increase their upper alpha power (responders) performed better on mental rotations after NFT. Training success (extent of NFT-induced increase in upper alpha power) was positively correlated with the improvement in cognitive performance. Furthermore, the EEG of NFT responders showed a significant increase in reference upper alpha  power (i.e. in a time interval preceding mental rotation). This is in line with studies showing that increased upper alpha power in a prestimulus (reference) interval is related to good cognitive performance.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15889581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;5:5362-4.

Development of EEG biofeedback system based on virtual reality environment.

Mingyu L, Jue W, Nan Y, Qin Y.

Key Lab. of Biomed. Inf. Eng. of Ministry of Educ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.

A noninvasive EEG biofeedback system based on virtual reality (VR) environment is developed. The system translates EEG signals into movement and interaction. VR environment provides an ideal medium to represent the spatial and temporal nature of electrical activity emanating from the brain. The VR environment is developed  based on MS DirectX technique. SMR-component based biofeedback training in three  normal male subjects and two female subjects are reported. The difficulties in biofeedback research and our future research interests are discussed.

PMID: 17281463 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;5:4568-71.

Nonlinear analysis in treatment of intractable epilepsy with EEG biofeedback.

Zhao L, Liang Z, Hu G, Wu W.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

About 25% epilepsy patients are suffering from medically intractable epileptic seizure. Many studies have shown that electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback therapy has the exciting potential for seizure control. In this paper, five patients with intractable epilepsy were trained to increase the production of sensorimotor (12~15Hz) activity and decrease the production of slow theta (4~7Hz) activity. Nonlinear analysis are proposed to evaluate the effect of biofeedback training. In all the five patients, the complexity and approximate entropy of EEG increased significantly (P<0.05) after (about 1-month) the biofeedback treatment.

PMID: 17281256 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 2005 May;56(2):143-55. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

Alpha-contingent EEG feedback reduces SPECT rCBF variability.

McLaughlin T, Steinberg B, Mulholland T, Friberg L.

Lawrence General Hospital, 1 General Street, Lawrence, MA 01841, USA.

EEG feedback methods, which link the occurrence of alpha to the presentation of repeated visual stimuli, reduce the relative variability of subsequent, alpha-blocking event durations. The temporal association between electro-cortical field activation and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) led us to investigate whether the reduced variability of alpha-blocking durations with feedback is associated with a reduction in rCBF variability. Reduced variability in the rCBF  response domain under EEG feedback control might have methodological implications for future brain-imaging studies. Visual stimuli were randomly presented to seven subjects, contingent upon the occurrence of alpha (alpha-contingent stimulation (ACS)) or alpha-blocking (not-alpha-blocking-contingent stimulation (NACS)) events. We employed a within-subjects design. rCBF was measured from multiple, cortical and sub-cortical regions. The primary dependent variables were the Mean, Standard Deviation and the ratio of Mean/Standard Deviation of: 1) the alpha-blocking response durations and 2) the temporally summated rCBF responses within the Visual Associative regions of interest (ROIs). Additional within-subjects rCBF measures were derived to quantify the variance-reducing effects of ACS across multiple, distributed areas of the brain. Both EEG and rCBF measures demonstrated decreased variability under ACS. This improved control was  seen for localized as well as anatomically distributed rCBF measures.

PMID: 15804449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 2005 Mar;42(2):180-90.

Fine-tuning of auditory cortex during speech production.

Heinks-Maldonado TH, Mathalon DH, Gray M, Ford JM.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

The cortex suppresses sensory information when it is the result of a self-produced motor act, including the motor act of speaking. The specificity of  the auditory cortical suppression to self-produced speech, a prediction derived from the posited operation of a precise forward model system, has not been established. We examined the auditory N100 component of the event-related brain potential elicited during speech production. While subjects uttered a vowel, they heard real-time feedback of their unaltered voice, their pitch-shifted voice, or  an alien voice substituted for their own. The subjects' own unaltered voice feedback elicited a dampened auditory N100 response relative to the N100 elicited by altered or alien auditory feedback. This is consistent with the operation of a precise forward model modulating the auditory cortical response to self-generated speech and allowing immediate distinction of self and externally generated auditory stimuli.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15787855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 2005 Mar;42(2):161-70.

Brain potentials associated with expected and unexpected good and bad outcomes.

Hajcak G, Holroyd CB, Moser JS, Simons RF.

Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA. hajcak@psych.udel.edu

The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related brain potential observed when subjects receive feedback indicating errors or monetary losses. Evidence suggests that the ERN is larger for unexpected negative feedback. The P300 has also been shown to be enhanced for unexpected feedback, but does not appear to be sensitive to feedback valence. The present study evaluated the role of expectations on the ERN and P300 in two experiments that manipulated the probability of negative feedback (25%, 50%, or 75%) on a trial-by-trial basis in  experiment 1, and by varying the frequency of positive and negative feedback across blocks of trials in experiment 2. In both experiments, P300 amplitude was  larger for unexpected feedback; however, the ERN was equally large for expected and unexpected negative feedback. These results are discussed in terms of the potential role of expectations in processing errors and negative feedback.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15787853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 2005 May;61(5):621-5.

Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Butnik SM.

ADDVANTAGE, PLLC, Richmond, VA 23226, USA. sbutnik@gmail.com

Neurofeedback is being utilized more commonly today in treating individuals who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurofeedback, which is based on theories that recognize the organic basis of ADHD, utilizes biofeedback  to guide individuals to regulate their brain activity. Neurofeedback relies on research that has demonstrated that most individuals who have ADHD, as compared to matched peers, have excess slow wave activity and reduced fast wave activity.  It provides immediate feedback to the individual about his or her brain wave activity in the form of a video game, whose action is influenced by the individual's meeting predetermined thresholds of brain activity. Over several sessions of using the video and auditory feedback, individuals reduce their slow  wave activity and/or increase their fast wave activity. Individuals who complete  a course of training sessions often show reduced primary ADHD symptoms. Research  has shown that neurofeedback outcomes compare favorably to those of stimulant medication. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Comparative Study      Review

PMID: 15723361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsy Behav. 2005 Mar;6(2):156-66.

Predictors of seizure reduction after self-regulation of slow cortical potentials as a treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

Strehl U, Kotchoubey B, Trevorrow T, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. ute.strehl@uni-tuebingen.de

Variables were identified that predict seizure reduction following self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) as part of a behavioral self-management program. A sequence analysis across 52 weeks determined 14 patients to have greater than 50% seizure reduction, 8 patients with less than 50% reduction, and 12 patients without improvement. Three variables accounted for 70% of treatment success: (1) cortical excitability at the beginning of training, (2) epileptic focus, and (3) personality variables. Reduction of complex partial  and secondary generalized seizures covaried with SCP control attained in the last training session. EEG spectral parameters and cognitive function appeared unrelated to treatment outcome. Successful patients may be those without large negative SCP amplitudes at the beginning of training, without a left temporal epileptic focus, and who score low on life satisfaction and are highly reactive to stress. Patients with complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures may be more likely to experience seizure reduction if they demonstrate good SCP control at the end of their training.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15710298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Dec;29(4):233-43.

The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: part II. Replication.

Rossiter T.

t.rossiter@worldnet.att.net

This study replicated T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) with a larger sample, expanded age range, and improved statistical analysis. Thirty-one ADIHD patients who chose stimulant drug (MED) treatment were matched with 31 patients who chose a neurofeedback (EEG) treatment program. EEG patients received either office (n = 14) or home (n = 17) neurofeedback. Stimulants for MED patients were  titrated using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). EEG (effect size [ES] = 1.01-1.71) and MED (ES = 0.80-1.80) groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvement on TOVA measures of attention, impulse control, processing speed, and variability in attention. The EEG group demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement on behavioral measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children, ES = 1.16-1.78, and Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scales, ES = 1.59). TOVA gain scores for the EEG and MED groups  were not significantly different. More importantly, confidence interval and nonequivalence null hypothesis testing confirmed that the neurofeedback program produced patient outcomes equivalent to those obtained with stimulant drugs. An effectiveness research design places some limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 15707253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jan;24(1):139-42.

Biographics art "I know me": image generation aiming at EEG control by biofeedback.

Matsunaga K, Genda E.

Graduate School of Design, Faculty of Design, Department of Visual Image Design,  Kyushu Institute of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. kosuke@rms.kyushu-id.ac.jp

"I know me" is an interactive artwork that produces images based on EEG measurements from human participants. Although artists have previously made some  interactive image works, we considered using human physiological information as input because it reflects human feelings better. In this research we were interested in information about human's mental states, such as anger or sadness.  Brain activity was observed with EEG, subjected to Fourier analysis and converted into an animation based on a Lissajous curve.We generated images corresponding to alpha or beta waves activity in real time and showed them to the observer. The observer understood his own mental condition from looking at the images, and could potentially control his own mental state with this interactive device.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15684560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004 Oct;7(5):519-26.

Neurofeedback training with virtual reality for inattention and impulsiveness.

Cho BH, Kim S, Shin DI, Lee JH, Lee SM, Kim IY, Kim SI.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

In this research, the effectiveness of neurofeedback, along with virtual reality  (VR), in reducing the level of inattention and impulsiveness was investigated. Twenty-eight male participants, aged 14-18, with social problems, took part in this study. They were separated into three groups: a control group, a VR group, and a non-VR group. The VR and non-VR groups underwent eight sessions of neurofeedback training over 2 weeks, while the control group just waited during the same period. The VR group used a head-mounted display (HMD) and a head tracker, which let them look around the virtual world. Conversely, the non-VR group used only a computer monitor with a fixed viewpoint. All participants performed a continuous performance task (CPT) before and after the complete training session. The results showed that both the VR and non-VR groups achieved  better scores in the CPT after the training session, while the control group showed no significant difference. Compared with the other groups, the VR group presented a tendency to get better results, suggesting that immersive VR is applicable to neurofeedback for the rehabilitation of inattention and impulsiveness.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15667046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2004 Dec;12(4):387-97.

Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback.

Congedo M, Lubar JF, Joffe D.

Department of Psychology of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0900, USA. loretabiofeedback@yahoo.com

Through continuous feedback of the electroencephalogram (EEG) humans can learn how to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction. The technique is known as EEG biofeedback, or neurofeedback, and has been used since  the late 1960s in research and clinical applications. A major limitation of neurofeedback relates to the limited information provided by a single or small number of electrodes placed on the scalp. We establish a method for extracting and feeding back intracranial current density and we carry out an experimental study to ascertain the ability of the participants to drive their own EEG power in a desired direction. To derive current density within the brain volume, we used the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Six undergraduate students (three males, three females) underwent tomographic neurofeedback (based  on 19 electrodes placed according to the 10-20 system) to enhance the current density power ratio between the frequency bands beta (16-20 Hz) and alpha (8-10 Hz). According to LORETA modeling, the region of interest corresponded to the Anterior Cingulate (cognitive division). The protocol was designed to improve the performance of the subjects on the dimension of sustained attention. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) that the beta/alpha current density power ratio increased over sessions and 2) that by the end of the training subjects acquired  the ability of increasing that ratio at will. Both hypotheses received substantial experimental support in this study. This is the first application of  an EEG inverse solution to neurofeedback. Possible applications of the technique  include the treatment of epileptic foci, the rehabilitation of specific brain regions damaged as a consequence of traumatic brain injury and, in general, the training of any spatial specific cortical electrical activity. These findings may also have relevant consequences for the development of brain-computer interfaces.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15614994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 2005 Jan;55(1):23-34.

ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children.

Kropotov JD, Grin-Yatsenko VA, Ponomarev VA, Chutko LS, Yakovenko EA, Nikishena IS.

Laboratory for Neurobiology of Action Programming, Institute of the Human Brain of Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Academica Pavlova 12a, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Eighty-six children (ages 9-14) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded  in auditory GO/NOGO task before and after 15-22 sessions of EEG biofeedback. Each session consisted of 20 min of enhancing the ratio of the EEG power in 15-18 Hz band to the EEG power in the rest of spectrum, and 7-10 min of enhancing of the ratio of the EEG power in 12-15 Hz to the EEG power in the rest of spectrum with  C3-Fz electrodes' placements for the first protocol and C4-Pz for the second protocol. On the basis of quality of performance during training sessions, the patients were divided into two groups: good performers and bad performers. ERPs of good performers to GO and NOGO cues gained positive components evoked within 180-420 ms latency. At the same time, no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-training ERPs were observed for bad performers. The ERP differences between post- and pretreatment conditions for good performers were distributed over frontal-central areas and appear to reflect an activation of frontal cortical areas associated with beta training.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15598513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Jan;116(1):56-62.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) operation: signal and noise during early training  sessions.

McFarland DJ, Sarnacki WA, Vaughan TM, Wolpaw JR.

Laboratory of Nervous System Disorders, New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, P.O. Box 509, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA. mcfarlan@wadsworth.org

OBJECTIVE: People can learn to control mu (8-12 Hz) or beta (18-25 Hz) rhythm amplitude in the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded over sensorimotor cortex and use it to move a cursor to a target on a video screen. The recorded signal may also contain electromyogram (EMG) and other non-EEG artifacts. This study examines the presence and characteristics of EMG contamination during new users'  initial brain-computer interface (BCI) training sessions, as they first attempt to acquire control over mu or beta rhythm amplitude and to use that control to move a cursor to a target. METHODS: In the standard one-dimensional format, a target appears along the right edge of the screen and 1s later the cursor appears in the middle of the left edge and moves across the screen at a fixed rate with its vertical movement controlled by a linear function of mu or beta rhythm amplitude. In the basic two-choice version, the target occupies the upper or lower half of the right edge. The user's task is to move the cursor vertically so that it hits the target when it reaches the right edge. The present data comprise the first 10 sessions of BCI training from each of 7 users. Their data were selected to illustrate the variations seen in EMG contamination across users. RESULTS: Five of the 7 users learned to change rhythm amplitude appropriately, so that the cursor hit the target. Three of these 5 showed no evidence of EMG contamination. In the other two of these 5, EMG was prominent in early sessions,  and tended to be associated with errors rather than with hits. As EEG control improved over the 10 sessions, this EMG contamination disappeared. In the remaining two users, who never acquired actual EEG control, EMG was prominent in  initial sessions and tended to move the cursor to the target. This EMG contamination was still detectable by Session 10. CONCLUSIONS: EMG contamination  arising from cranial muscles is often present early in BCI training and gradually wanes. In those users who eventually acquire EEG control, early target-related EMG contamination may be most prominent for unsuccessful trials, and may reflect  user frustration. In those users who never acquire EEG control, EMG may initially serve to move the cursor toward the target. Careful and comprehensive topographical and spectral analyses throughout user training are essential for detecting EMG contamination and differentiating between cursor control provided by EEG control and cursor control provided by EMG contamination. SIGNIFICANCE: Artifacts such as EMG are common in EEG recordings. Comprehensive spectral and topographical analyses are necessary to detect them and ensure that they do not masquerade as, or interfere with acquisition of, actual EEG-based cursor control.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15589184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

HNO. 2005 Jan;53(1):29-37.

[Neurofeedback-based EEG alpha and EEG beta training. Effectiveness in patients with chronically decompensated tinnitus]

[Article in German]

Schenk S, Lamm K, Gündel H, Ladwig KH.

Institut und Poliklinik für Psychosomatische Medizin, Psychotherapie und Medizinische Psychologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, München.

BACKGROUND: Persisting tinnitus is an often devastating disease condition with restricted and rarely successful therapeutic options. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study investigates the therapeutic effect of short term neurofeedback-based EEG-Alpha- and EEG-Beta-training in 40 patients suffering from "chronic decompensated tinnitus". Patients were assigned to the Alpha or Beta group according to results of an initial EEG monitored stress-test. Four patients were excluded because they showed abnormal reactions in both EEG patterns. RESULTS: During 12 sessions, 23 patients succeeded to increase EEG Alpha activity by 16% (p< or =0.042) while 13 patients achieved no decrease of EEG Beta activity. However, both groups showed a significant reduction of subjective tinnitus annoyance by the end of the therapy (p< or =0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that neurofeedback may represent a new promising technique in the therapy of chronic decompensated tinnitus. However, it remains to be established whether the reduction of tinnitus annoyance results from the altered brain activity patterns supported by the neurofeedback learning  process.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     English Abstract

PMID: 15565424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):163-76, viii.

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy.

Walker JE, Kozlowski GP.

Neurotherapy Center of Dallas, 12870 Hillcrest Road, Suite 201, Dallas, TX 75230, USA. neurotherapycenter@sbcglobal.net

With electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (or neurofeedback), it is possible to train the brain to de-emphasize rhythms that lead to generation and propagation of seizure and emphasize rhythms that make seizures less likely to occur. With recent improvements in quantitative EEG measurement and improved neurofeedback protocols, it has become possible in clinical practice to eliminate seizures or reduce the amount of medication required to control them. In this article, the history of neurofeedback for epilepsy is presented followed by discussions of the relevant neurophysiology of epilepsy. A model of how neurofeedback might raise the seizure threshold is then presented. Clinical experience using a quantitative EEG-guided approach is described, including a representative case study.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):137-62, vii.

Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury.

Thornton KE, Carmody DP.

Center for Health Psychology, Suite 2A, 2509 Park Avenue, South Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA. ket@chp-neurotherapy.com

The application of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback with reading disability and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is relatively recent. There are many studies regarding the effectiveness (improving attention and IQ scores) of EEG biofeedback in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, who are known to have a high rate of comorbidity for learning disabilities. This suggests the possibility that EEG biofeedback specifically aimed at remediating reading disability and TBI would be effective. This article provides strong initial support for this idea and provides reason to believe that assessment and training under task conditions are likely to be fruitful. Given the significance of these  problems and the absence of very effective alternatives for remediation of these  conditions, efforts to complete the needed research seem warranted. Clinical use  of this intervention seems to be warranted with informed consent.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):125-36, vii.

Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents.

Trudeau DL.

Department of Family Practice and Community Health, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street Southeast, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0392, USA. trude003@tc.umn.edu

Neurofeedback treatment for addictions in adults is probably efficacious, and several reported approaches are described with their indications. Neurofeedback is promising as a treatment modality for adolescents, especially those with stimulant abuse and attention and conduct problems. It is attractive as a medication-free, neurophysiologic, and self-actualizing treatment for a substance-based, brain-impaired and self-defeating disorder. More research, beginning with case reporting, is needed to assess use and efficacy in adolescents.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23, vii.

Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders.

Hammond DC.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine, PM&R 30 No 1900 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132-2119, USA. D.C.Hammond@m.cc.utah.edu

A robust body of neurophysiologic research is reviewed on functional brain abnormalities associated with depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns. It has been associated with minimal side effects and is less invasive than other methods for addressing biologic brain disorders. Literature is reviewed on the use of neurofeedback with anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and with depression. Case examples are provided.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):83-104, vi.

Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

Gruzelier J, Egner T.

Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, St. Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom. j.gruzelier@imperial.ac.uk

The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In  this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity.  The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps  in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Review

PMID: 15564053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):55-82, vi.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation.

Monastra VJ.

FPI Attention Disorders Clinic, 2102 East Main Street, Endicott, NY 13760, USA. poppidoc@aol.com

During the past three decades, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has emerged as a nonpharmacologic treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention was derived from operant conditioning studies  that demonstrated capacity for neurophysiologic training in humans and other mammals and targets atypical patterns of cortical activation that have been identified consistently in neuroimaging and quantitative EEG studies of patients  diagnosed with ADHD. This article presents the rationale for EEG biofeedback and  examines the empirical support for this treatment using efficacy guidelines established by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation. Based on these guidelines, EEG biofeedback is considered to be "probably efficacious" for the treatment of ADHD  and merits consideration as a treatment for patients who are stimulant "nonresponders." Although research findings published to date indicate positive clinical response in approximately 75% of patients treated in controlled group studies, additional randomized, controlled trials are needed to provide a better  estimate of the robustness of this treatment.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19, v.

Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective.

Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA.

The NeuroDevelopment Center, 260 West Exchange Street, Suite 302, Providence, RI  02903, USA. lhirshberg@neruodevelopmentcenter.com

Electroencephalogram biofeedback (EBF), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) are emerging interventions  that attempt to directly impact brain function through neurostimulation and neurofeedback mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of each of these techniques, summarizes the relevant research findings, and examines the implications of this research for practice standards based on the guidelines for  recommending evidence based treatments as developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). EBF meets the "Clinical Guidelines" standard for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, depression, and traumatic brain injury. VNS meets this same standard for treatment of refractory epilepsy and meets the lower "Options" standard for several other disorders. rTMS meets the standard for "Clinical Guidelines" for bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Several conditions are discussed regarding the use of evidence based thinking related to these emerging  interventions and future directions.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15564050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):xiii-xvii.

Emerging interventions.

Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA.

The NeuroDevelopment Center, 260 West Exchange Street, Suite 302, Providence, RI  02903, USA. lhirshberg@neruodevelopmentcenter.com

PMID: 15564049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Nov;115(11):2452-60.

The effects of neurofeedback training on the spectral topography of the electroencephalogram.

Egner T, Zech TF, Gruzelier JH.

Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. tegner@fmri.columbia.edu

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of EEG frequency band biofeedback (neurofeedback) training on spectral EEG topography, which is presumed to mediate cognitive-behavioural training effects. In order to assess the effect of commonly applied neurofeedback protocols on spectral EEG composition, two studies involving healthy participants were carried out. METHODS: In Experiment 1, subjects were trained on low beta (12-15 Hz), beta1 (15-18 Hz), and alpha/theta (8-11 Hz/5-8 Hz) protocols, with spectral resting EEG assessed before and after training. The specific associations between learning indices of each individual training protocol and changes in absolute and relative spectral EEG topography was assessed by means of partial correlation analyses. Results of Experiment 1 served to generate hypotheses for Experiment 2, where subjects were randomly allocated to independent groups of low beta, beta1, and alpha/theta training. Spectral resting EEG measures were contrasted prior and subsequent to training within each group. RESULTS: Only few associations between particular protocols and spectral EEG changes were found to be consistent across the two studies, and  these did not correspond to expectations based on the operant contingencies trained. Low-beta training was found to be somewhat associated with reduced post-training low-beta activity, while more reliably, alpha/theta training was associated with reduced relative frontal beta band activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results document that neurofeedback training of frequency components does affect  spectral EEG topography in healthy subjects, but that these effects do not necessarily correspond to either the frequencies or the scalp locations addressed by the training contingencies. The association between alpha/theta training and replicable reductions in frontal beta activity constitutes novel empirical neurophysiological evidence supporting inter alia the training's purported role in reducing agitation and anxiety. SIGNIFICANCE: These results underline the complexity of the neural dynamics involved EEG self-regulation and emphasize the  need for empirical validation of predictable neurophysiological outcomes of training EEG biofeedback protocols.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15465432 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;85:89-95.

Clinical test for Attention Enhancement System.

Cho BH, Ku J, Jang D, Lee J, Oh M, Kim H, Lee J, Kim J, Kim I, Kim S.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood syndrome characterized by short attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity, which often leads to learning disabilities and various behavioral problems. The prevalence rates for ADHD varied from a low of 2.0% to a high of 6.3% in 1992 statistics, and it may be higher now. Using Virtual Environments and Neurofeedback, we have developed an Attention Enhancement System for treating ADHD. And we made a clinical test. Classroom-based virtual environments are constructed for intimacy and intensive attention enhancement. In this basic virtual environment, subjects performed some training sessions. There are two kinds of training sessions. One is Virtual Reality Cognitive Training (VRCT) and  the other is Virtual Reality Neurofeedback Training (VRNT). In VRNT, we made a change in the virtual environment by Neurofeedback. Namely, if the Beta ratio is  greater than the specified threshold level, the change as positive reinforce is created in the virtual environment. 50 subjects, aged 14 to 18, who had committed crimes and had been isolated in a reformatory took part in this study. They were  randomly assigned to one of five 10-subject groups: a control Group, two placebo  groups, and two experimental groups. The experimental groups and the placebo groups underwent 10 sessions over two weeks. The control group underwent no training session during the same period of time. While the experimental groups used HMD and Head Tracker in each session, the placebo groups used only a computer monitor. Consequently, only the experimental Groups could look around the virtual classroom. Besides that, Placebo Group 1 and Experimental Group 1 performed the same task(Neurofeedback Training), and Placebo Group 2 and Experimental Group 2 also performed the same task(Cognitive Training). All subjects Continuous Performance Task(CPT) before and after all training sessions. In the number of correct answers, omission errors and signal detection index (d'), the subjects' scores from CPT showed significant improvement (p<0.01) after all of the training sessions, while control group indicated no significant change. And experimental groups showed significant difference (p<0.01) with placebo groups. Lastly, the Virtual Reality Neurofeedback training group and the  Virtual Reality Cognitive training group indicated not significant difference. Our System is supposed to enhance subjects' attention and lead their behavioral improvement. And also, we can conclude that virtual reality training (both Neurofeedback training and Cognitive training) has an advantage for attention enhancement compared with desk-top training.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15458066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2004 Jul;32(3):187-200.

[Neurofeedback for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence]

[Article in German]

Holtmann M, Stadler C, Leins U, Strehl U, Birbaumer N, Poustka F.

Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Klinikum  der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt. holtmann@em.uni-frankfurt.de

INTRODUCTION: A variety of non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD have failed to prove their effectiveness. The basis of evidence for neurofeedback (or EEG-biofeedback) has improved recently. Neurofeedback is aiming at an improvement of ADHD core-symptoms via the voluntary modification of abnormal neurophysiologic parameters, e.g. EEG-frequency spectrum and event-related potentials. METHODS: Our review presents an overview of the current research on neurofeedback for the  treatment of ADHD. RESULTS: In three controlled studies short-term effects of feedback matched those of stimulant treatment. Neurofeedback lead to significant  improvement of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, without adversive side effects. Additionally, there was a persistent amelioration of EEG parameters, while stimulants did not lead to a comparable normalization. Results on the stability of feedback effects are encouraging but are based on small numbers of patients. CONCLUSION: Neurofeedback is a promising approach for the treatment of  children with ADHD. However, there is a demand for further controlled studies using standardized diagnostic criteria, sufficient sample sizes and appropriate measures and follow-up.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 15357015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Chest. 2004 Aug;126(2):352-61.

Biofeedback treatment for asthma.

Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, Lu SE, Scardella A, Siddique M, Habib RH.

Department of Psychiatry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. lehrer@umdnj.edu

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV)  biofeedback as a complementary treatment for asthma. PATIENTS: Ninety-four adult  outpatient paid volunteers with asthma. SETTING: The psychophysiology laboratory  at The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and the private outpatient offices of participating asthma physicians. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions were as follows: (1) a full protocol (ie, HRV biofeedback and abdominal breathing through pursed lips and prolonged exhalation); (2) HRV biofeedback alone; (3) placebo EEG biofeedback; and (4) a waiting list control. DESIGN: Subjects were first prestabilized using controller  medication and then were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Medication was titrated biweekly by blinded asthma specialists according to a protocol based on  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines, according to symptoms, spirometry, and home peak flows. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects recorded daily asthma symptoms and twice-daily peak expiratory flows. Spirometry was performed before and after each weekly treatment session under the HRV and placebo biofeedback conditions, and at triweekly assessment sessions under the waiting list condition. Oscillation resistance was measured approximately triweekly. RESULTS:  Compared with the two control groups, subjects in both of the two HRV biofeedback groups were prescribed less medication, with minimal differences between the two  active treatments. Improvements averaged one full level of asthma severity. Measures from forced oscillation pneumography similarly showed improvement in pulmonary function. A placebo effect influenced an improvement in asthma symptoms, but not in pulmonary function. Groups did not differ in the occurrence  of severe asthma flares. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that HRV biofeedback may prove to be a useful adjunct to asthma treatment and may help to reduce dependence on steroid medications. Further evaluation of this method is warranted.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15302717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Jun;29(2):113-20.

Auditory discrimination training for the treatment of tinnitus.

Flor H, Hoffmann D, Struve M, Diesch E.

Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Heidelberg, Central Institute of Mental Health, Quadrat J5, 68159 Mannheim, Germany. flor@zi-mannheim.de

This paper presents a series of 12 cases of chronic tinnitus patients who participated in 4 weeks of auditory discrimination training either close to or far removed from the tinnitus frequency. The training was based on the assumption that tinnitus is related to a shift of the representation of the tinnitus frequency in auditory cortex outside of the normal tonotopic map and that training close to but not removed from the tinnitus frequency should result in a  reduction in the severity of the tinnitus. Tinnitus severity was measured 4 times per day during the entire treatment and other tinnitus-related variables were assessed 1 week before and 1 month posttreatment. The comparison of the training  close to as compared to remote from the tinnitus frequency did not yield a statistically significant difference. However, a post hoc analysis revealed that  patients who engaged in regular training as compared to those who practiced irregularly were significantly more successful in reducing tinnitus severity independent of the trained frequencies. Treatment success was best predicted by days of training and general activity levels. The data suggest that auditory discrimination training shows a dose response effect irrespective of training location and that treatment success is also related to psychological variables. For more substantial changes in multiple variables an extended training period with additional consideration of emotional variables would be necessary. In addition, controls for nonspecific training effects need to be implemented.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15208974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Jun;29(2):95-112.

The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of methodological issues.

Rossiter T.

t.rossiter@worldnet.att.net

The paper examines major criticisms of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) neurofeedback research using T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) as an exemplar and discusses relevant aspects of research methodology. J. Lohr, S. Meunier, L. Parker, and J. P. Kline (2001), D. A. Waschbusch and G. P. Hill (2001), and J. P. Kline, C. N. Brann, and B. R. Loney (2002) criticized Rossiter  and La Vaque for (1) using an active treatment control; (2) nonrandom assignment  of patients; (3) provision of collateral treatments; (4) using nonstandardized and invalid assessment instruments; (5) providing artifact contaminated EEG feedback; and (6) conducting multiple non-alpha protected t tests. The criticisms, except those related to statistical analysis, are invalid or are not  supported as presented by the authors. They are based on the critics' unsubstantiated opinions; require redefining Rossiter and La Vaque as an efficacy rather than an effectiveness study; or reflect a lack of familiarity with the research literature. However, there are broader issues to be considered. Specifically, what research methodology is appropriate for studies evaluating the effectiveness of neurofeedback and who should make that determination? The uncritical acceptance and implementation of models developed for psychotherapy, pharmacology, or medical research is premature and ill-advised. Neurofeedback researchers should develop models that are appropriate to the technology, treatment paradigms, and goals of neurofeedback outcome studies. They need to explain the rationale for their research methodology and defend their choices.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15208973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004 Jun;51(6):1062-6.

BCI Competition 2003--Data set IIa: spatial patterns of self-controlled brain rhythm modulations.

Blanchard G, Blankertz B.

Fraunhofer FIRST (IDA), D-12489 Berlin, Germany. gilles.blanchard@first.fraunhofer.de

A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system that should in its ultimate form translate a subject's intent into a technical control signal without resorting to the classical neuromuscular communication channels. By using that signal to, e.g., control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis, a BCI could become a valuable tool for paralyzed patients. One approach to implement a BCI is to let users learn to self-control the amplitude of some of their brain rhythms as extracted from multichannel electroencephalogram. We present a method that estimates subject-specific spatial filters which allow for a robust extraction of the rhythm modulations. The effectiveness of the method was proved by achieving the minimum prediction error on data set IIa in the BCI Competition 2003, which consisted of data from three subjects recorded in ten sessions.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Validation Studies

PMID: 15188879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004 Jun;51(6):1011-8.

Brain-computer communication and slow cortical potentials.

Hinterberger T, Schmidt S, Neumann N, Mellinger J, Blankertz B, Curio G, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. thilo.hinterberger@uni-tuebingen.de

A thought translation device (TTD) has been designed to enable direct brain-computer communication using self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs). However, accuracy of SCP control reveals high intersubject variability. To guarantee the highest possible communication speed, some important aspects of  training SCPs are discussed. A baseline correction of SCPs can increase performance. Multichannel recordings show that SCPs are of highest amplitude around the vertex electrode used for feedback, but in some subjects more global distributions were observed. A new method for control of eye movement is presented. Sequential effects of trial-to-trial interaction may also cause difficulties for the user. Finally, psychophysiological factors determining SCP communication are discussed.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Validation Studies

PMID: 15188872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004 Jun;51(6):971-4.

An EEG-driven brain-computer interface combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Hinterberger T, Weiskopf N, Veit R, Wilhelm B, Betta E, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076, Germany. thilo.hinterberger@uni-tuebingen.de

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) has been successfully used to  prevent epileptic seizures as well as to communicate with completely paralyzed patients. The thought translation device (TTD) is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that was developed for training and application of SCP self-regulation. To  investigate the neurophysiological mechanisms of SCP regulation the TTD was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The technical aspects and pitfalls of combined fMRI data acquisition and EEG neurofeedback are discussed. First data of SCP feedback during fMRI are presented.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Validation Studies

PMID: 15188866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr;5(2):216-23.

Clinical efficacy of galvanic skin response biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adult epilepsy: a preliminary randomized controlled study.

Nagai Y, Goldstein LH, Fenwick PB, Trimble MR.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. y.nagai@ion.ucl.ac.uk

We investigated the effect of galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback training on seizure frequency in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Eighteen patients with drug-refractory epilepsy were randomly assigned either to an active GSR biofeedback group (n = 10) or to a sham control biofeedback group (n = 8). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency in the active biofeedback group (P = 0.017), but not the control group (P > 0.10). This was manifest as a significant between-group difference in seizure reduction (P 0.01). Furthermore, there was a correlation between degree of improvement in biofeedback performance and reduction of seizure frequency (rho = 0.736, P = 0.001), confirming that the effect of biofeedback treatment was related to physiological  change. Our findings highlight the potential therapeutic value of GSR biofeedback in reducing seizure frequency in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 15123023 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Child Health Care. 2004 Mar;8(1):69-81.

ADHD and drug therapy: is it still a valid treatment?

Doggett AM.

School of Education, Colorado State University, USA. doggett@lamar.colostate.edu

The purpose of this article is to discuss alternative treatments other than drug  therapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) in educational settings. There is an increasing body of knowledge that supports interventions for improving cognitive outcomes without the use of medication. The article explores the risks to ADHD children, shows the potential linkage between gifted children and ADHD, explores recent brain research, and examines various alternative treatment options. Information is presented on alternative treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapies, educational interventions, electroencephalograph (EEG) neuro-feedback, and diet.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 15090116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Neurophysiol. 2004 May;91(5):1990-8.

Synaptic interactions between thalamic and cortical inputs onto cortical neurons  in vivo.

Fuentealba P, Crochet S, Timofeev I, Steriade M.

Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec G1K 7P4, Canada.

To study the interactions between thalamic and cortical inputs onto neocortical neurons, we used paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) of thalamic and cortical inputs as well as PPS of two cortical or two thalamic inputs that converged, at different time intervals, onto intracellularly recorded cortical and thalamocortical neurons in anesthetized cats. PPS of homosynaptic cortico-cortical pathways produced facilitation, depression, or no significant effects in cortical pathways, whereas cortical responses to thalamocortical inputs were mostly facilitated at both short and long intervals. By contrast, heterosynaptic interactions between either cortical and thalamic, or thalamic and cortical, inputs generally produced decreases in the peak amplitudes and depolarization area of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), with maximal effect at approximately 10 ms and lasting from 60 to 100 ms. All neurons  tested with thalamic followed by cortical stimuli showed a decrease in the apparent input resistance (R(in)), the time course of which paralleled that of decreased responses, suggesting that shunting is the factor accounting for EPSP's decrease. Only half of neurons tested with cortical followed by thalamic stimuli  displayed changes in R(in). Spike shunting in the thalamus may account for those  cases in which decreased synaptic responsiveness of cortical neurons was not associated with decreased R(in) because thalamocortical neurons showed decreased  firing probability during cortical stimulation. These results suggest a short-lasting but strong shunting between thalamocortical and cortical inputs onto cortical neurons.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 15069096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(2):87-93.

Neurofeedback and quantitative electroencephalography.

Weiler EW, Brill K, Tachiki KH, Schneider D.

NeuroNet GmbH, St. Annenstrasse 10, 66606 St. Wendel, Germany. neuronet@t-online.de

This study was conducted in an attempt to determine the efficacy of neurofeedback (NFB) in the treatment of patients suffering from vertigo or tinnitus. Results indicated that after NFB, power for delta and theta bands was reduced; however, an increase of power was noted for the alpha bands. Furthermore, normalization was observed for the vestibular evoked potentials (VestEP). After NFB, a normalization of the VestEP was also demonstrated in a patient suffering from a bilateral tinnitus. A follow-up study (12 months after NFB) demonstrated that the VestEP were normal.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 14763216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Atten Disord. 2003 Sep;7(1):43-55.

EEG biofeedback vs. placebo treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.

Heywood C, Beale I.

Arohanui Special School, Te Atatu South, Auckland, New Zealand. cheywood2@compuserve.com

METHOD: Seven children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were trained using a standard EEG biofeedback treatment protocol designed  to alter SMR/theta ratios and reduce behavioral symptomatology diagnostic of ADHD. During alternate periods they were also trained using a placebo protocol that was identical to the treatment protocol, save that the association between EEG patterns and feedback to the participants was random. Single-case design elements were used to control for the effects of internal validity threats such as maturation, history, and treatment order. Two participants failed to complete  all training sessions, and the effects of training on behavior were analyzed both including and excluding these non-completers. RESULTS: When all participants were included in analyses that controlled for overall trend, EEG biofeedback was found to be no more effective than the placebo control condition involving non-contingent feedback, and neither procedure resulted in improvements relative  to baseline levels. When overall behavioral trends unrelated to training were not controlled for and non-completers were excluded from the analysis, it could be mistakenly concluded that EEG biofeedback is significantly more effective than placebo and that the effect sizes involved are moderate to large. These results indicate that many previous reports of the efficacy of EEG biofeedback for ADHD,  particularly those presenting series of single cases, might well have been based  on spurious findings.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 14738180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Jan;115(1):131-9.

EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials.

Egner T, Gruzelier JH.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RF, UK. te2111@columbia.edu

OBJECTIVE: To test a common assumption underlying the clinical use of electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback training (neurofeedback), that the modulation of discreet frequency bands is associated with frequency-specific effects. Specifically, the proposal was assessed that enhancement of the low beta components sensorimotor rhythm (SMR: 12-15 Hz) and beta1 (15-18 Hz) affect different aspects of attentional processing. METHODS: Subjects (n=25) were randomly allocated to training with either an SMR or beta1 protocol, or to a non-neurofeedback control group. Subjects were assessed prior and subsequent to the training process on two tests of sustained attention. The neurofeedback participants were also assessed on target P300 event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in a traditional auditory oddball paradigm. RESULTS: Protocol-specific effects were obtained in that SMR training was associated with increased perceptual sensitivity 'd prime' (d'), and reduced omission errors and reaction time variability. Beta1 training was associated with faster reaction times and increased target P300 amplitudes, whereas no changes were evident in the control  group. CONCLUSIONS: Neurofeedback training of SMR and beta1 band components led to significant and protocol-specific effects in healthy subjects. The data can be interpreted as indicating a general attention-enhancing effect of SMR training, and an arousal-enhancing effect of beta1 training.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 14706480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Rehabilitation (Stuttg). 2003 Dec;42(6):371-7.

[EEG-based communication--a new concept for rehabilitative support in patients with severe motor impairment]

[Article in German]

Neuper C, Müller GR, Staiger-Sälzer P, Skliris D, Kübler A, Birbaumer N, Pfurtscheller G.

Ludwig-Boltzmann Institut für Medizinische Informatik und Neuroinformatik, Technische Universität Graz.

This paper describes a paralyzed patient diagnosed with severe infantile cerebral palsy, trained over a period of several months to use an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) for verbal communication. The patient learned to "produce" two distinct EEG patterns by mental imagery and to use this skill for BCI-controlled  spelling. The EEG feedback training was conducted at a clinic for Assisted Communications, supervised from a distant laboratory with the help of a telemonitoring system. As a function of training sessions significant learning progress was found, resulting in an average accuracy level of 70% correct responses for letter selection. At present, "copy spelling" can be performed with a rate of approximately one letter per minute. The proposed communication device, the "Virtual Keyboard", may improve actual levels of communication ability in completely paralyzed patients. "Telemonitoring-assisted" training facilitates clinical application in a larger number of patients.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 14677109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD002029.

Update in:     Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(4):CD002029.

Update of:     Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD002029.

Psychological treatments for epilepsy.

Ramaratnam S, Baker GA, Goldstein L.

Department of Neurology, Apollo Hospitals, 21 Greams Lane, Off Greams Road, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, 60006.

BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions such as relaxation therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, electroencephalogram (EEG) bio-feedback and educational interventions have been used alone or in combination in the treatment of epilepsy, to reduce the seizure frequency and improve the quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the treatment of epilepsy with psychological methods is effective in reducing seizure frequency and/or leads to a better quality of life. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trial register (11 June 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The  Cochrane Library issue 2, 2003), MEDLINE (on 11 June 2003) and cross references from identified publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized  studies assessing one or more types of psychological or behaviour modification techniques for people with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers  independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted data. Primary analyses were by intention to treat. Outcomes included reduction in seizure frequency and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We found three small trials (50 participants) of relaxation therapy. They were of poor methodological quality and a meta-analysis was therefore not undertaken. No study found a significant effect of relaxation therapy on seizure frequency. One trial found cognitive behavioural therapy to be effective in reducing depression, among people with epilepsy with a depressed affect, whilst another did not.One trial of group cognitive therapy found no significant effect on seizure frequency. Two trials of combined relaxation and behaviour therapy and one of EEG bio-feedback and four of educational interventions did not provide sufficient information to assess their  effect on seizure frequency. Combined use of relaxation and behaviour modification was found beneficial for anxiety and adjustment in one study. In one study EEG bio-feedback was found to improve the cognitive and motor functions in  individuals with greatest seizure reduction. Educational interventions were found to be beneficial in improving the knowledge and understanding of epilepsy, coping with epilepsy, compliance to medication and social competencies. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: In view of methodological deficiencies and limited number of individuals studied, we have found no reliable evidence to support the use of these treatments and further trials are needed.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 14583944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2003 Oct;17(3):599-611.

Neuromagnetic imaging of cortical oscillations accompanying tactile stimulation.

Cheyne D, Gaetz W, Garnero L, Lachaux JP, Ducorps A, Schwartz D, Varela FJ.

Neuromagnetic Imaging Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for  Sick Children Research Institute, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. douglas.cheyne@utoronto.ca

We applied a new method of imaging frequency-specific changes in brain activity in humans during a finger brushing task in order to measure changes in cortical rhythms during tactile stimulation. Neuromagnetic recordings were conducted in five subjects using a whole-head MEG system during tactile stimulation of the right index finger, with or without visual feedback, and while viewing another individual's index finger being stimulated. Volumetric images of changes in source power relative to pre-stimulus baseline levels were computed with 2 mm resolution over the entire brain using a minimum-variance beamforming algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry). Onset of tactile stimulation produced a brief  (200-300 ms) suppression of mu band (8-15 Hz) and beta band (15-30 Hz) cortical activity in the primary somatosensory and primary motor cortex, respectively, followed by a bilateral increase in beta band activity ('beta rebound') in motor  cortex. This pattern of suppression/rebound was absent when subjects observed finger brushing or brushing motions without receiving stimulation. In contrast, these conditions resulted in bilateral increases in beta band activity in sensorimotor areas and decreased power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) band in primary visual areas. These results show that spatially filtered MEG provides a useful method for directly imaging the temporal sequence of changes in cortical rhythms  during transient tactile stimulation, and provide evidence that observation of tactile input to another individual's hand, or object motion itself, can influence independent rhythmic activity in visual and sensorimotor cortex.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 14561448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Chest. 2003 Oct;124(4):1500-11.

Reduction in ventilatory response to CO2 with relaxation feedback during CO2 rebreathing for ventilator patients.

Holliday JE, Lippmann M.

Medical Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St. Louis MO 63106, USA. HoillidayJEH@msn.com

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that relaxation biofeedback reduced the amount of time spent receiving ventilation for difficult-to-wean patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study was begun to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism of biofeedback ventilator weaning was the reduction of neural respiratory drive (NRD). DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Pulmonary Medicine division in a Veterans Affairs hospital and the St. Louis Regional Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation  were randomly assigned to either the biofeedback group or the control group. INTERVENTION: Respiratory relaxation feedback (RFB) was administered while a single variable, PaCO(2), was input to the respiratory control system and the output was measured. While rebreathing 7% CO(2)/93% O(2), the biofeedback group received a CO(2) trial session and a CO(2) RFB session, and the control group received a CO(2) trial session and a CO(2) no-feedback (NFB) session. Measurements and results: There was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in respiratory and EEG parameters for the RFB group at maximal end-tidal CO(2) (mean [+/- SE], 70 +/- 0.2 mm Hg) between the CO(2) trial and the CO(2) RFB session compared to the control group where there was no significant difference between the results of the CO(2) trial and the CO(2) NFB session. The mean values for the CO(2) trial and CO(2) RFB session for the biofeedback group were as follows: occlusion pressure 0.1 s from the onset of inspiration, 8.42 +/- 1.08 and 6.48 +/- 0.78 cm H(2)O (which reflects NRD), respectively; minute inspiratory ventilation, 15.84 +/- 0.81 and 13.91 +/- 0.72 L/min, respectively; mean inspiratory flow, 670 +/- 2.28 and 581 +/- 35 mL/s, respectively; respiration rate, 32 +/- 2.28 and 31.2 +/- 2.58 breaths/min, respectively; and chest background electromyography, 4.89 +/- 0.71 and 3.54 +/- 0.54 microV, respectively. The mean electroencephalograph outputs for the CO(2) trial and CO(2) RFB session for the biofeedback group were as follows: mean EEG frequency,  14.78 +/- 0.98 and 13.06 +/- 0.59 Hz, respectively; and beta EEG power, 3.1 +/- 0.03 and 2.39 +/- 0.19, microV(2), respectively; and gamma EEG power, 2.96 +/- 0.34 and 2.24 +/- 0.24 microV(2), respectively. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the  decrease in respiratory parameters reflecting NRD induced by RFB represents a key mechanism for the previously demonstrated effectiveness of biofeedback in reducing weaning time from mechanical ventilation.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 14555586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Jul;34(3):145-52.

EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children.

Fernández T, Herrera W, Harmony T, Díaz-Comas L, Santiago E, Sánchez L, Bosch J,  Fernández-Bouzas A, Otero G, Ricardo-Garcell J, Barraza C, Aubert E, Galán L, Valdés R.

Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla,  QRO. 76230, México.

Neurofeedback (NFB) is an operant conditioning procedure, by which the subject learns to control his/her EEG activity. On one hand, Learning Disabled (LD) children have higher values of theta EEG absolute and relative power than normal  children, and on the other hand, it has been shown that minimum alpha absolute power is necessary for adequate performance. Ten LD children were selected with higher than normal ratios of theta to alpha absolute power (theta/alpha). The Test Of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was applied. Children were divided into two groups in order to maintain similar IQ values, TOVA values, socioeconomical status, and gender for each group. In the experimental group, NFB was applied in  the region with highest ratio, triggering a sound each time the ratio fell below  a threshold value. Noncontingent reinforcement was given to the other group. Twenty half-hour sessions were applied, at a rate of 2 per week. At the end of the 20 sessions, TOVA, WISC and EEG were obtained. There was significant improvement in WISC performance in the experimental group that was not observed in the control group. EEG absolute power decreased in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the experimental group. Control children only showed a decrease in  relative power in the delta band. All changes observed in the experimental group  and not observed in the control group indicate better cognitive performance and the presence of greater EEG maturation in the experimental group, which suggests  that changes were due not only to development but also to NFB treatment.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 14521276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 2003 Jul-Aug;29(4):54-61.

[Effect of the individual CNS features on the efficiency of the relaxation biofeedback training in 9-10 years old children]

[Article in Russian]

Gorev AS, Semenova OA.

PMID: 13677198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Sep;28(3):241-53.

Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions.

Bearden TS, Cassisi JE, Pineda M.

Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA. fmb041@bellsouth.net

One year after a left posterior and thalamic stroke, a 52-year-old male participant was treated with 14 weeks of theta reduction neurofeedback training.  Imaging studies revealed left temporal, parietal, occipital, and bilateral thalamic infarctions along the distribution of the posterior cerebral artery. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated severe verbal memory, naming, visual tracking, and fine motor deficits. Additionally, alexia without agraphia was present. A pretraining quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) found alpha attenuation, lack of alpha reactivity to eye opening, and excessive theta activity from the left posterior head region. Neurofeedback training to inhibit 4-8 Hz theta activity was conducted for 42 sessions from left hemisphere sites. Over the course of the training, significant reductions in theta amplitude occurred from the training sites as assessed from the post-session baseline periods. Posttraining, a relative normalization of the QEEG was observed from the left posterior head region.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 12964455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Sep;28(3):217-31.

EEG-based communication and control: speed-accuracy relationships.

McFarland DJ, Wolpaw JR.

Laboratory of Nervous System Disorders, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA. mcfarlan@wadsworth.org

People can learn to control mu (8-12 Hz) or beta (18-25 Hz) rhythm amplitude in the EEG recorded over sensorimotor cortex and use it to move a cursor to a target on a video screen. In our current EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) system, cursor movement is a linear function of mu or beta rhythm amplitude. In order to maximize the participant's control over the direction of cursor movement, the intercept in this equation is kept equal to the mean amplitude of recent performance. Selection of the optimal slope, or gain, which determines the magnitude of the individual cursor movements, is a more difficult problem. This study examined the relationship between gain and accuracy in a 1-dimensional EEG-based cursor movement task in which individuals select among 2 or more choices by holding the cursor at the desired choice for a fixed period of time (i.e., the dwell time). With 4 targets arranged in a vertical column on the screen, large gains favored the end targets whereas smaller gains favored the central targets. In addition, manipulating gain and dwell time within participants produces results that are in agreement with simulations based on a simple theoretical model of performance. Optimal performance occurs when correct  selection of targets is uniform across position. Thus, it is desirable to remove  any trend in the function relating accuracy to target position. We evaluated a controller that is designed to minimize the linear and quadratic trends in the accuracy with which participants hit the 4 targets. These results indicate that gain should be adjusted to the individual participants, and suggest that continual online gain adaptation could increase the speed and accuracy of EEG-based cursor control.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 12964453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003 Jun;11(2):181-4.

Learning to control brain rhythms: making a brain-computer interface possible.

Pineda JA, Silverman DS, Vankov A, Hestenes J.

Cognitive Science Department 0515, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. pineda@cogsci.ucsd.edu

The ability to control electroencephalographic rhythms and to map those changes to the actuation of mechanical devices provides the basis for an assistive brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we investigate the ability of subjects to manipulate the sensorimotor mu rhythm (8-12-Hz oscillations recorded  over the motor cortex) in the context of a rich visual representation of the feedback signal. Four subjects were trained for approximately 10 h over the course of five weeks to produce similar or differential mu activity over the two  hemispheres in order to control left or right movement in a three-dimensional video game. Analysis of the data showed a steep learning curve for producing differential mu activity during the first six training sessions and leveling off  during the final four sessions. In contrast, similar mu activity was easily obtained and maintained throughout all the training sessions. The results suggest that an intentional BCI based on a binary signal is possible. During a realistic, interactive, and motivationally engaging task, subjects learned to control levels of mu activity faster when it involves similar activity in both hemispheres. This suggests that while individual control of each hemisphere is possible, it requires more learning time.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Validation Studies

PMID: 12899268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003 Jun;11(2):133-7.

EEG changes accompanying learned regulation of 12-Hz EEG activity.

Delorme A, Makeig S.

Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0961, USA. arno@salk.edu

We analyzed 15 sessions of 64-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded from a highly trained subject during sessions in which he attempted to regulate power at 12 Hz over his left- and right-central scalp to control the altitude of  a cursor moving toward target boxes placed at the top-, middle-, or bottom-right  of a computer screen. We used infomax independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose 64-channel EEG data from trials in which the subject successfully up- or down-regulated the measured EEG signals. Applying time-frequency analysis to the time courses of activity of several of the resulting 64 independent EEG components revealed that successful regulation of the measured activity was accompanied by extensive, asymmetrical changes in power and coherence, at both nearby and distant frequencies, in several parts of cortex. A more complete understanding of these phenomena could help to explain the nature and locus of learned regulation of EEG rhythms and might also suggest ways to further optimize the performance of brain-computer interfaces.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 12899255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003 Jun;11(2):120-3.

The thought-translation device (TTD): neurobehavioral mechanisms and clinical outcome.

Birbaumer N, Hinterberger T, Kübler A, Neumann N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany.

The thought-translation device (TTD) consists of a training device and spelling program for the completely paralyzed using slow-cortical brain potentials (SCP).  During the training phase, the self-regulation of SCPs is learned through visual-auditory feedback and positive reinforcement of SCPs; during the spelling  phase, patients select letters or words with their SCPs. A psychophysiological system for detection of cognitive functioning in completely paralyzed patients is an integral part of the TTD. The neurophysiological and anatomical basis of SCP-regulation was investigated by recording of BOLD-response in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed involvement of basal ganglia and premotor cortex for required SCP positivity. The clinical outcome of 11 paralyzed patients using the TTD and quality of life of severely paralyzed patients is described. First attempts to improve learning of brain regulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation were successful.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 12899251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003 Jun;11(2):117-9.

Developing wearable bio-feedback systems: a general-purpose platform.

Bianchi L, Babiloni F, Cincotti F, Arrivas M, Bollero P, Marciani MG.

Neuroscience Department, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome,  Italy, theboss@luigibianchi.com

Microprocessors, even those in PocketPCs, have adequate power for many real-time  biofeedback applications for disabled people. This power allows design of portable or wearable devices that are smaller and lighter, and that have longer battery life compared to notebook-based systems. In this paper, we discuss a general-purpose hardware/software solution based on industrial or consumer devices and a C++ framework. Its flexibility and modularity make it adaptable to  a wide range of situations. Moreover, its design minimizes system requirements and programming effort, thus allowing efficient systems to be built quickly and easily. Our design has been used to build two brain computer interface systems that were easily ported from the Win32 platform.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies

PMID: 12899250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Aug;74(8):1117-21.

Predictors of successful self control during brain-computer communication.

Neumann N, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tuebingen, Germany. nicola.neumann@uni-tuebingen.de

OBJECTIVES: Direct brain-computer communication uses self regulation of brain potentials to select letters, words, or symbols from a computer menu to re-establish communication in severely paralysed patients. However, not all healthy subjects, or all paralysed patients acquire the skill to self regulate their brain potentials, and predictors of successful learning have not been found yet. Predictors are particularly important, because only successful self regulation will in the end lead to efficient brain-computer communication. This study investigates the question whether initial performance in the self regulation of slow cortical potentials of the brain (SCPs) may be positively correlated to later performance and could thus be used as a predictor. METHODS: Five severely paralysed patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were trained to produce SCP amplitudes of negative and positive polarity by means of visual feedback and operant conditioning strategies. Performance was measured  as percentage of correct SCP amplitude shifts. To determine the relation between  initial and later performance in SCP self regulation, Spearman's rank correlations were calculated between maximum and mean performance at the beginning of training (runs 1-30) and mean performance at two later time points (runs 64-93 and 162-191). RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant relation between maximum and mean performance in runs 1-30 and mean performance in runs 64-93 (r= 0.9 and 1.0) and maximum and mean performance in runs 1-30 and mean performance in runs 162-191 (r=1.0 and 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Initial performance in the self regulation of SCP is positively correlated with later performance in severely paralysed patients, and thus represents a useful predictor for efficient brain-computer communication.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies

PMID: 12876247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Exp Brain Res. 2003 Sep;152(1):113-22. Epub 2003 Jun 27.

Brain areas activated in fMRI during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials  (SCPs).

Hinterberger T, Veit R, Strehl U, Trevorrow T, Erb M, Kotchoubey B, Flor H, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tübingen, Germany.

In humans, surface-negative slow cortical potentials (SCPs) originating in the apical dendritic layers of the neocortex reflect synchronized depolarization of large groups of neuronal assemblies. They are recorded during states of behavioural or cognitive preparation and during motivational states of apprehension and fear. Surface positive SCPs are thought to indicate reduction of cortical excitation of the underlying neural networks and appear during behavioural inhibition and motivational inertia (e.g. satiety). SCPs at the cortical surface constitute summated population activity of local field potentials (LFPs). SCPs and LFPs may share identical neural substrates. In this study the relationship between negative and positive SCPs and changes in the BOLD signal of the fMRI were examined in ten subjects who were trained to successfully self-regulate their SCPs. FMRI revealed that the generation of negativity (increased cortical excitation) was accompanied by widespread activation in central, pre-frontal, and parietal brain regions as well as the basal ganglia. Positivity (decreased cortical excitation) was associated with widespread deactivations in several cortical sites as well as some activation, primarily in  frontal and parietal structures as well as insula and putamen. Regression analyses revealed that cortical positivity was predicted with high accuracy by pallidum and putamen activation and supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor cortex deactivation, while differentiation between cortical negativity and positivity was revealed primarily in parahippocampal regions. These data suggest  that negative and positive electrocortical potential shifts in the EEG are related to distinct differences in cerebral activation detected by fMRI and support animal studies showing parallel activations in fMRI and neuroelectric recordings.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12830347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 1;14(9):1221-4.

Ecological validity of neurofeedback: modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance.

Egner T, Gruzelier JH.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. t.egner@imperial.ac.uk

Biofeedback-assisted modulation of electrocortical activity has been established  to have intrinsic clinical benefits and has been shown to improve cognitive performance in healthy humans. In order to further investigate the pedagogic relevance of electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback) for enhancing normal function, a series of investigations assessed the training's impact on an ecologically valid real-life behavioural performance measure: music  performance under stressful conditions in conservatoire students. In a pilot study, single-blind expert ratings documented improvements in musical performance in a student group that received training on attention and relaxation related neurofeedback protocols, and improvements were highly correlated with learning to progressively raise theta (5-8 Hz) over alpha (8-11 Hz) band amplitudes. These findings were replicated in a second experiment where an alpha/theta training group displayed significant performance enhancement not found with other neurofeedback training protocols or in alternative interventions, including the widely applied Alexander technique.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Validation Studies

PMID: 12824763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jul 17;345(2):89-92.

Electroencephalographic(EEG)-based communication: EEG control versus system performance in humans.

Sheikh H, McFarland DJ, Sarnacki WA, Wolpaw JR.

Laboratory of Nervous System Disorders, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and State University of New York, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA. sheikh@wadsworth.org

People can learn to control electroencephalographic (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm amplitude so as to move a cursor to select among choices on a computer screen. We explored the dependence of system performance on EEG control. Users moved the cursor to reach a target at one of four possible locations. EEG control was measured as the correlation (r(2)) between rhythm amplitude and target location.  Performance was measured as accuracy (% of targets hit) and as information transfer rate (bits/trial). The relationship between EEG control and accuracy can be approximated by a linear function that is constant for all users. The results  facilitate offline predictions of the effects on performance of using different EEG features or combinations of features to control cursor movement.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 12821178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Jun;114(6):1053-68.

Spatial spectra of scalp EEG and EMG from awake humans.

Freeman WJ, Holmes MD, Burke BC, Vanhatalo S.

Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, LSA 142, MC 3200, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. wfreeman@socrates.berkeley.edu

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate spectral scaling properties of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG), optimal spacing of electrodes, and strategies for mitigating EMG. METHODS: EEG was recorded referentially from 9 subjects with a 64 channel linear array (electrodes 3mm apart) placed parasagittally or transversely on forehead or occiput, at rest with eyes open or closed, or with deliberate EMG. Temporal (PSD(t)) and spatial (PSD(x)) power spectral densities were calculated with one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) for comparison with earlier analyses of intracranial EEG. RESULTS: Scaling of PSD(t) from scalp resembled that from pia: near-linear decrease in log power with increasing log frequency (1/f(alpha)). Scalp PSD(x) decreased non-linearly and more rapidly than PSD(x) from pia. Peaks in PSD(t) (especially 4-12Hz) and PSD(x) (especially 0.1-0.4 cycles/cm) revealed departures from 1/f(alpha). EMG power in PSD(t) was more "white" than 1/f(alpha). CONCLUSIONS: Smearing by dura-skull-scalp distorts PSD(x) more than PSD(t) of scalp EEG from 1/f(alpha) scaling at the pia. Spatial  spectral peaks suggest that optimal scalp electrode spacing might be approximately 1cm to capture non-local EEG components having the texture of gyri. Mitigation of EMG by filtering is unsatisfactory. A criterion for measuring EMG may support biofeedback for training subjects to reduce their EMG. SIGNIFICANCE:  High-density recording and log-log spectral display of EEG provide a foundation for holist studies of global human brain function, as an alternative to network approaches that decompose EEG into localized, modular signals for correlation and coherence.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 12804674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003 Mar;11(1):54-9.

Implementation of a telemonitoring system for the control of an EEG-based brain-computer interface.

Müller GR, Neuper C, Pfurtscheller G.

Department of Medical Informatics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

By the use of a brain-computer interface (BCI), it is possible for completely paralyzed patients, who have lost their ability to speak, to have a new possibility to communicate with their environment. The training with such a BCI system can be performed at the patient's home, if there is a responsible person present who is familiar with the system. This person has to adjust different parameters and to adapt the training individually to each patient. Since this function is usually taken over by the developers of the system, the number of patients who can be included in regular BCI training is restricted due to geographical distances. This paper describes the implementation of a telemonitoring system, which makes it possible for the developer to control and supervise the BCI training from his or her own place of work. First experiences with a patient living far away from the developer's lab are reported.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12797726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 May;48(2):221-45.

Theory, methods and new directions in the psychophysiology of the schizophrenic process and schizotypy.

Gruzelier JH.

Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Medial Faculty, Imperial College London, St. Dunstan's Road, London, W6 8RF, UK. j.gruzelier@ic.ac.uk

Theoretical and methodological issues in the psychophysiology of the schizophrenic process are reviewed. These include the importance of schizotypy with its compensatory abilities as well as deficits for elucidating the processes of development and prevention of schizophrenia. The importance of individual differences, syndromes and single case studies. The recognition that this is a dynamic and fluctuating illness and hence the relevance of functional neurophysiology, including the role of imbalances in hemispheric activation in ontogeny, developmental course, expression of symptoms, the effects of neuroleptics and recovery process, and the influence of stress a precipitant of breakdown. The role of thalamo-cortical activation systems. The particular value  of electrocortical measures including the interrelations of electroencephalographic rhythms throughout the spectrum, and relations of gamma,  dynamic core neuronal complexity, connectivity and sensory gating with experiences of unreality and disturbances of consciousness.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Review

PMID: 12763575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Mar;114(3):399-409.

Clinical application of an EEG-based brain-computer interface: a case study in a  patient with severe motor impairment.

Neuper C, Müller GR, Kübler A, Birbaumer N, Pfurtscheller G.

Department of Medical Informatics, Ludwig-Boltzmann Institute for Medical Informatics and Neuroinformatics, University of Technology Graz, Graz Austria. neuper@tugraz.at

OBJECTIVE: This case study describes how a completely paralyzed patient, diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy, was trained over a period of several months to use an electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) for verbal communication. METHODS: EEG feedback training was performed in the patient's home (clinic), supervised from a distant laboratory with the help of a  'telemonitoring system'. Online feedback computation was based on single-trial analysis and classification of specific band power features of the spontaneous EEG. Task-related changes in brain oscillations over the course of training steps was investigated by quantifying time-frequency maps of event-related (de-)synchronization (ERD/ERS). RESULTS: The patient learned to 'produce' two distinct EEG patterns, beta band ERD during movement imagery vs. no ERD during relaxing, and to use this for BCI-controlled spelling. Significant learning progress was found as a function of training session, resulting in an average accuracy level of 70% (correct responses) for letter selection. 'Copy spelling' was performed with a rate of approximately one letter per min. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed BCI training procedure, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback  and concomitant adaptation of feature extraction and classification, may improve  actual levels of communication ability in locked-in patients. 'Telemonitoring-assisted' BCI training facilitates clinical application in a larger number of patients.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12705420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2003 Mar;11(1):27-37.

The Madrid card sorting test (MCST): a task switching paradigm to study executive attention with event-related potentials.

Barceló F.

Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Ctra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. f.barcelo@uib.es

Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide valuable information about the fast brain dynamics subserving cognitive functions such as attention and working memory. Most ERP studies employ cognitive paradigms with a fixed task-set (i.e., press a  button to coloured targets), but few have measured ERPs time-locked to shifts in  set using a task-switching paradigm. The Madrid card sorting test (MCST) is a dual task protocol in which feedback cues signal unpredictable shifts in set (i.e., from 'sort cards by colour' to 'sort cards by shape'). This protocol allows for an integrated analysis of ERPs to both feedback cues and target card events, providing separate ERP features for the shifting, updating, and rehearsal of attention sets in working memory. Two of these ERP indices are the frontal and posterior aspects of the P300 response. Feedback cues that direct a shift in set  also elicit a frontally distributed P3a potential (300-400 ms). Instead, target card events evoke increasingly larger posterior P3b (350-600 ms) activity as the  new task set becomes gradually rehearsed. The observed modulations in the frontal and posterior aspects of the P300 response system are interpreted from current models of prefrontal cortex function in the executive control of attention.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12697260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuropsychologia. 2003;41(8):1028-36.

Conscious perception of brain states: mental strategies for brain-computer communication.

Neumann N, Kübler A, Kaiser J, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Gartenstrasse 29, D-72074 Tuebingen, Germany. nicola.neumann@uni-tuebingen.de

Direct brain-computer communication utilises self-regulation of brain potentials  to select letters, words or symbols from a computer menu. In this study a completely paralysed (locked-in) patient learnt to produce slow cortical potential (SCP) shifts to operate a binary spelling device. After hundreds of training sessions he gave a detailed description of his mental strategies for self-regulation. His cognitive strategies matched with the electrocortical changes perfectly. Thus he produced a contingent negative variation (CNV) with images of preparation such as an arrow being drawn on a bow. To produce a positive potential shift he imagined the arrow shooting up from the bow. To suppress potential shifts he tried to stop thinking. The study demonstrates that  patients become sensitive for their brain states with increasing self-regulation  practice. The use of conscious cognitive strategies may, however, be incompatible with the complete automatization of the self-regulation skill.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12667538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Indian J Med Sci. 2002 Aug;56(8):376-80.

Management of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder--use of an effective paradigm.

Dixit SP, Pandey MN, Dubey GP.

Centre of Psychosomatic and Biofeedback Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences,  Banaras Hindu University.

The management of ADHD poses a great problem before the psychologists, psychiatrists and different behavioural scientists. The multi-model approach, combining pharmacologic with different non-pharmacologic interventions, is more effective than any form of therapy. In the present study the theta feedback, a non-pharmacologic technique, has shown beneficial role among the low medicated ADHD cases. The present study also signifies the role of multi-model intervention in the management of ADHD.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 12645162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2003 Feb;14(1 Suppl):S93-109.

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for motor relearning in hemiparesis.

Chae J.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Case Western Reserve University, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA. jchae@metrohealth.org

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may have an important role in improving the  motor function of stroke survivors. Active, repetitive movement training mediated by transcutaneous cyclic and EMG-triggered NMES may facilitate the motor recovery of stroke survivors. Multicenter, double-blinded, randomized clinical trials should be pursued to confirm the motor-relearning effects of transcutaneous NMES  and to define appropriate prescriptive specifications. Intramuscular EMG-controlled NMES may be superior to transcutaneous systems and is presently undergoing preliminary randomized clinical trials. Neuroprostheses systems may provided the highest level of goal-oriented activity and cognitive investments, which may lead to significant motor relearning. Implementation of clinically viable neuroprosthesis systems, however, will probably require additional technical developments including more reliable control paradigms and methods for  blocking undesirable muscle contractions. In view of the dynamic nature of the present health care environment, the future of NMES technology is difficult to predict. By necessity, scientists and clinicians must continue to explore new ideas and to improve on the present systems. Components will be smaller, more durable, and more reliable. Control issues will remain critical for both motor relearning and neuroprosthetic applications, and the implementation of cortical control is likely to dictate the nature of future generations of NMES systems. Finally, consumers will direct future developments. In the present health care environment, where cost has become an overwhelming factor in the development and  implementation of new technology, the consumer will become one of technology's greatest advocates. The usual drive toward greater complexity will be tempered by the practical issues of clinical implementation, where patient acceptance is often a function of a tenuous balance between the burden or cost associated with  using a system and the system's impact on the user's life.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 12625640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Dec;27(4):261-70.

EEG signature and phenomenology of alpha/theta neurofeedback training versus mock feedback.

Egner T, Strawson E, Gruzelier JH.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St. Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom. t.egner@ic.ac.uk

Alpha/theta (a/t) neurofeedback training has in the past successfully been used as a complementary therapeutic relaxation technique in the treatment of alcoholism. In spite of positive clinical outcomes, doubts have been cast on the  protocol's specificity when compared to alternative relaxation regimes. This study investigated the basic tenet underlying the a/t training rationale, that accurate a/t feedback representation facilitates the generation of these frequency components. Two groups of healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to  either (a) real contingent a/t feedback training or (b) a noncontingent mock feedback control condition. The groups were compared on measures of theta/alpha (t/a) ratios within and across training sessions, as well as activational self-report scales after each session. The contingent a/t feedback group displayed significant within-session t/a ratio increments not evident in the mock control group, as well as higher overall t/a ratios in some but not all of the training sessions. No differences were found between the groups in terms of subjective activational phenomenology, in that both groups reported significantly lower levels of activation after training sessions. The data demonstrate that irrespective of considerations of clinical relevance, accurate a/t neurofeedback  effectively facilitates production of higher within-session t/a ratios than do noncontingent feedback relaxation.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12557453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Dec;27(4):231-49.

The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S.

FPI Attention Disorders Clinic, 2102 E. Main Street, Endicott, New York 13760, USA. poppidoc@aol.com

One hundred children, ages 6-19, who were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), either inattentive or combined types, participated in a study examining the effects of Ritalin, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD. All of the patients participated in a 1-year, multimodal, outpatient program that included Ritalin, parent counseling, and academic support at school (either a 504 Plan or an IEP).  Fifty-one of the participants also received EEG biofeedback therapy. Posttreatment assessments were conducted both with and without stimulant therapy. Significant improvement was noted on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; L. M. Greenberg, 1996) and the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES;  S. B. McCarney, 1995) when participants were tested while using Ritalin. However, only those who had received EEG biofeedback sustained these gains when tested without Ritalin. The results of a Quantitative Electroencephalographic Scanning Process (QEEG-Scan; V. J. Monastra et al., 1999) revealed significant reduction in cortical slowing only in patients who had received EEG biofeedback. Behavioral measures indicated that parenting style exerted a significant moderating effect on the expression of behavioral symptoms at home but not at school.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 12557451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cyberpsychol Behav. 2002 Dec;5(6):565-80.

An evaluation model for psychoeducational interventions using interactive multimedia.

Beale IL.

HopeLab, Palo Alto, California 94301, USA. ibeale@hopelab.org

A review of published evaluations of psychoeducational interventions using interactive digital multimedia shows that evaluations typically address only some of the areas that collectively would constitute a comprehensive evaluation. There appears to be a need for an accepted standard for these evaluations, based on a general evaluation model that encompasses all relevant aspects of development, efficacy and use of multimedia interventions. A comprehensive model is proposed which includes special features of multimedia interventions that lead to unique evaluation requirements. The model integrates relevant aspects of program evaluation and clinical trials models in order to provide a unique model that includes all the evaluation domains relevant to digital multimedia interventions. These include evaluation of intervention theory, intervention design strategies,  the formative process, intervention efficacy (process and outcome) and contextual issues such as evaluability assessment, reporting and stakeholder issues. The application of individual components of the model is illustrated with reference to problems in the evaluation literature on a particular type of digital multimedia intervention, electroencephalographic biofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The model should be useful for researchers planning evaluations of digital multimedia interventions, especially  in the psychoeducational domain. This paper provides a theoretical and evidential background for the evaluation model, and includes a checklist and flowchart for the planning and conduct of the evaluation.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12556120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Jan;47(1):75-85.

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance.

Vernon D, Egner T, Cooper N, Compton T, Neilands C, Sheri A, Gruzelier J.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St. Dunstans Road, London W6 8RF, UK. d.vernon@ic.ac.uk

The use of neurofeedback as an operant conditioning paradigm has disclosed that participants are able to gain some control over particular aspects of their electroencephalogram (EEG). Based on the association between theta activity (4-7  Hz) and working memory performance, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity (12-15 Hz) and attentional processing, we investigated the possibility that training healthy individuals to enhance either of these frequencies would specifically influence a particular aspect of cognitive performance, relative to a non-neurofeedback control-group. The results revealed that after eight sessions of neurofeedback the SMR-group were able to selectively enhance their SMR activity, as indexed by increased SMR/theta and SMR/beta ratios. In contrast, those trained to selectively enhance theta activity failed to exhibit any changes in their EEG. Furthermore, the SMR-group exhibited a significant and clear improvement in cued recall performance, using a semantic working memory task, and to a lesser extent showed improved accuracy of focused attentional processing using a 2-sequence continuous performance task. This suggests that normal healthy individuals can learn to increase a specific component of their EEG activity, and that such enhanced activity may facilitate semantic processing in a working memory task and to a lesser extent focused attention. We discuss possible mechanisms that could mediate such effects and indicate a number of directions for future research.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 12543448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Neurosci. 2002 Sep;112(9):1047-57.

Covariation of spectral and nonlinear EEG measures with alpha biofeedback.

Fell J, Elfadil H, Klaver P, Röschke J, Elger CE, Fernández G.

Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany. juergen.fell@ukb.uni-bonn.de

This study investigated how different spectral and nonlinear EEG measures covaried with alpha power during auditory alpha biofeedback training, performed by 13 healthy subjects. We found a significant positive correlation of alpha power with the largest Lyapunov-exponent, pointing to an increased dynamical instability of the EEG accompanying alpha enhancement. Alpha power amplification, moreover, was significantly correlated with a decrease of spectral entropy within the alpha range. This outcome reflects a sharpening of the alpha peak during biofeedback training. The fact that the sharpening effect clearly preceded the increase of alpha amplitude could be exploited in future biofeedback settings.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 12487094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2002 Sep-Oct;52(5):563-9.

[Neurophysiological mechanisms of acquisition of fear-resistance habit controlled by biological feedback displayed by skin galvanic response]

[Article in Russian]

Popova EI, Ivonin AA, Shuvaev VT, Mikheev VF.

Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

The aim of the study was to reveal a probable structural-functional basis of emotional self-regulation processes within the framework of cortex--basal ganglia interaction using on-line computer analysis of the EEG. The tested subjects were  unable to overcome the emotional stress increasing in the process of decision making under conditions of high responsibility for the results of task solving. Striving to hold their social positions these subjects created a stable psychological set to keep their high responsibility and resist the relaxation tendency. Such a set facilitated the acceptance of the task for volitional effort to resist fear controlled by a biofeedback displayed in skin galvanic reaction.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     English Abstract

PMID: 12449833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):433-8.

Long-term biophysical synchronization for prevention of addiction spectrum formation in high risk children and adolescents: theory and practice.

Naisberg Y.

Kfar Yidud Rehabilitation Center, Netanya, Israel. neisberg@netvision.co.il

To date the sequence of events that inevitably leads to addiction has not been defined. The author presents five consecutive risk factors of addiction-loop formation with a spectrum including aggression, sexual disorders, addiction abuse and factitious disorders in children and adolescents at risk, which can be counteracted with five protective factors for addiction-free states: 1. Sleep correction under EEG for night-time transitory homeostatic resynchronizaion (THR); 2. Biofeedback training under EEG for daytime THR; 3. Standardized competent coping skills training; 4. Standardized anti-stress techniques training for stress-free social encounters; 5. Addiction aversion training with socially compatible placebos. We believe that with trained quantified THR over the circadian cycle, appropriate coping skills and anti-stress techniques, predictable addiction-loop formation can be weakened or eliminated. A significant negative correlation between enhanced addiction aversion and a reduced drive for  addictive agents can lead to addiction-free states.

PMID: 12323107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2002 Jul-Sep;33(3):79-96.

[Biofeedback training and human functional state control]

[Article in Russian]

Fedotchev AI, Bondar' AT, Kim EV.

Institute of Cell Biophysics RAS, Pushchino.

Biofeedback (BFB) training paradigm has outstanding place among various approaches to non-phrarmacological human functional state correction. Being an universal way for voluntary self-regulation of physiological functions, it is characterized by efficacy, accessibility and absence of side effects. However, the lack of fundamental knowledge about the BFB mechanisms leads to existence of  numerous difficulties and problems that seriously limit the BFB possibilities. Most difficulties seem to concern the problem of adequate choice of BFB type or parameter being voluntary controlled via feedback signals. Some ways to solve this problem are drown on the base of general systems theory. It is shown that BFB procedures could be especially effective in conditions of close interaction between the BFB mechanisms and the central regulatory mechanisms. Such interaction could be reacheb by utilization of certain characteristics of brain electrical activity reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The most perspective seems to be the utilization of discrete narrow band EEG spectral components, individual resonance EEG oscillators or some correlates of human EEG  amplitude modulation processes.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 12298154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(1):69-80.

The improvement/rehabilitation of auditory memory functioning with EEG biofeedback.

Thornton KE.

Center for Health Psychology, Ste. 2a, 2509 Park Ave. S. Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA. chp.ket@worldnet.att.net

Five clinical case studies (1 normal, 3 brain injured and 1 subject who had a left frontal hematoma) are presented which addressed the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback for auditory memory impairment. A normative QEEG activation database  of 59 right-handed subjects was developed, which delineated the QEEG variables which were positively related to auditory memory performance (paragraphs). Persons who had experienced a brain injury underwent the same procedure employed  in the development of the database. The person's values on the effective parameters of memory functioning were determined. EEG biofeedback interventions were determined by the individual's deviation from the normative reference group  in terms of the relevant QEEG parameters of effective auditory memory (paragraph  recall). Improvements ranged from 39% subjects who had a follow up assessment that occurred from one month to one year following termination of treatment.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Comparative Study 

PMID: 12016349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 2002 May 24;324(3):205-8.

Modulation of slow cortical potentials by transcranial magnetic stimulation in humans.

Kübler A, Schmidt K, Cohen LG, Lotze M, Winter S, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tuebingen, Germany. andrea.kuebler@uni-tuebingen.de

We studied the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on slow cortical potentials (SCPs) of the brain elicited during performance of a feedback and reward task. Ten healthy participants were trained to self-regulate their SCP amplitude using visual feedback and reward for increased or decreased amplitudes. Subjects participated in 27 runs (each comprising 70 trials) under three different conditions: single-pulse TMS delivered with the coil centered over Cz (vertex), over a lateral scalp position (LSP), which increased task difficulty, and in the absence of stimulation. Cz stimulation led to a non-significant enhancement of negative SCPs, while LSP stimulation led to a significant increase of positive SCPs. These results are consistent with the idea that enhanced task difficulty, as in LSP stimulation, enhances cognitive processing load leading to  an increase of positive SCPs. Additionally, the data raise the hypothesis that TMS delivered to bilateral midcentral regions could modulate the amplitude of negative SCPs.

PMID: 12009524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21(3):214-24.

Cerebral electrical response on urinary bladder filling: first experimental findings.

Bross S, Schumacher S, Scheepe JR, Braun PM, Alken P, Jünemann KP.

Neuro-Urological Laboratory, Department of Urology, University Hospital Mannheim  of the University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. stephan.bross@uro.ma.uni-heidelberg.de

Micturition disorders in neurologic diseases are often combined with reduced bladder sensation. Bladder sensation is important to time the void appropriately  and to prevent bladder overdistension. We attempted to evaluate cerebral evoked potentials by bladder distension to objectively determine bladder sensation. In six rabbits, cerebral evoked potentials were evaluated by averaging cerebral responses to bladder distension. We stimulated the bladder with a computerized air pump system, resulting in repeated filling and emptying of the bladder. The number of stimulations, stimulation intensity, and different electroencephalograph electrode positions (both mastoids and frontal) were investigated. In all rabbits, cerebral evoked potentials were observed after 500  stimulations when stimulation pressure exceeded a certain threshold. Optimum response was observed after 1,000 stimulations. The latency of response of the frontal electrode position was observed after the mastoidal response with a significant delay of approximately 0.8 seconds. The latencies were significantly  different when using different stimulation intensities. At lower intensity (mean  pressure, 16.6 mm Hg), the response was observed after 4.531 +/- 0.909 seconds. At higher intensity (mean pressure, 19.0 mm Hg), cerebral response was observed after a latency of 3.971 +/- 0.735 seconds. We conclude that recording of cerebral evoked potentials by bladder distension is possible, resulting in an objective evaluation of afferent pathways from the bladder. In combination with subjective perception of bladder fullness, this finding may be a conceivable basis for a biofeedback training program to recover bladder sensation in patients with reduced bladder sensation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11948715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2002 Mar;45(1):19-23.

A non-invasive communication device for the paralyzed.

Kaiser J, Kübler A, Hinterberger T, Neumann N, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. jochen.kaiser@uni-tuebingen.de

An EEG-based communication system has been developed to re-establish communication in severely paralyzed patients who operate the device by generating shifts of their slow cortical potentials. Training to gain control over slow cortical potentials was based on visual feedback and operant conditioning strategies. The vertical movement of a graphic signal on a computer screen informs the patients about the course of their slow cortical potential amplitude. Positive slow cortical potential shifts move the cursor up, negative shifts move  it down. These shifts are then translated into binary responses. When a patient has achieved reliable control over his/her slow cortical potential shifts, these  responses can be used to select or reject items presented at the bottom of the screen. As learning processes and applications differ considerably between patients, the present paper describes the data from one patient with amyotrophic  lateral sclerosis. After about three months of training, this patient gained stable, near-perfect control over his slow cortical potentials. This skill enabled him to operate a specially designed program to communicate messages to his caregivers.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11932820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Conscious Cogn. 2002 Mar;11(1):98-113.

Can humans perceive their brain states?

Kotchoubey B, Kübler A, Strehl U, Flor H, Birbaumer N.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. boris.kotchoubey@uni-tuebingen.de

Although the brain enables us to perceive the external world and our body, it remains unknown whether brain processes themselves can be perceived. Brain tissue does not have receptors for its own activity. However, the ability of humans to acquire self-control of brain processes indicates that the perception of these processes may also be achieved by learning. In this study patients learned to control low-frequency components of their EEG: the so-called slow cortical potentials (SCPs). In particular "probe" sessions, the patients estimated the quality of the SCP shift they had produced in the preceding trial. The correspondence between the recorded SCP amplitudes and the subjective estimates increased with training. The ability to perceive the SCPs was related to the ability to control them; this perception was not mediated by peripheral variables such as changes in muscle tonus and cannot be reduced to simple vigilance monitoring. These data provide evidence that humans can learn to perceive the neural activity of their brain. Alternative interpretations are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11883990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Rehabilitation (Stuttg). 2002 Feb;41(1):48-52.

[Mental activity hand orthosis control using the EEG: a case study]

[Article in German]

Pfurtscheller G, Müller G, Korisek G.

Abteilung für medizinische Informatik, Institut für Elektro- und biomedizinische  Technik, Technische Universität Graz, Osterreich. pfu@dpmi.tu-graz.ac.at

A report is given on the realization of a steering mechanism of a hand orthosis for a patient with paraplegia. An EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) was used here for the first time, transferring purely mental activity to a control signal. This means that the patient has the capability to open or close the hand  orthosis only by imagination of a movement. At this time, after a training period of about four months, the patient is able to move the hand orthosis with a certainty of almost hundred percent. The restored grasp function was verified by  a grasp function test. Results are compared to those obtained using a conventional EMG-controlled orthosis.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     English Abstract

PMID: 11830792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biomed Tech (Berl). 1998;43 Suppl 3:67-71.

[GOFI--a neurofeedback system for child and adolescent psychiatry]

[Article in German]

Heinrich H, Nelson K, Moll GH, Rothenberger A.

Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Universität Göttingen v. Siebold-Str. 5, 37075 Göttingen.

PMID: 11776226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroreport. 2001 Dec 21;12(18):4155-9.

Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans.

Egner T, Gruzelier JH.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine Imperial  College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Dunstan's Rd, London W6 8RF, UK.

Learned enhancement of EEG frequency components in the lower beta range by means  of biofeedback has been reported to alleviate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In order to elucidate frequency-specific behavioural effects and neurophysiological mediators, this study applied neurofeedback protocols to healthy volunteers, and assessed impact on behavioural and electrocortical attention measures. Operant enhancement of a 12-15 Hz component was associated with reduction in commission errors and improved perceptual sensitivity on a continuous performance task (CPT), while the opposite relation was found for 15-18 Hz enhancement. Both 12-15 Hz and 15-18 Hz enhancement were associated with significant increases in P300 event-related brain potential amplitudes in an auditory oddball task. These relations are interpreted as stemming from band-specific effects on perceptual and motor aspects of attention  measures.

PMID: 11742256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Nov;82(11):1533-9.

Brain-computer communication: self-regulation of slow cortical potentials for verbal communication.

Kübler A, Neumann N, Kaiser J, Kotchoubey B, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer NP.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. andrea.kuebler@uni-tuebingen.de

OBJECTIVE: To test a training procedure designed to enable severely paralyzed patients to communicate by means of self-regulation of slow cortical potentials.  DESIGN: Application of the Thought Translation Device to evaluate the procedure in patients with late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SETTING: Training sessions in the patients' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Two male patients with late-stage ALS. INTERVENTIONS: Patients learned voluntary control of their slow cortical potentials by means of an interface between the brain and a computer. Training was based on visual feedback of slow cortical potentials shifts and operant learning principles. The learning process was divided into small steps of increasing difficulty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of self-control of slow cortical potentials (percentage of correct responses). Learning progress calculated as a function of training session. RESULTS: Within 3 to 8 weeks, both  patients learned to self-regulate their slow cortical potentials and to use this  skill to select letters or words in the Language Support Program. CONCLUSIONS: This training schedule is the first to enable severely paralyzed patients to communicate without any voluntary muscle control by using self-regulation of an electroencephalogram potential only. The protocol could be a model for training patients in other brain-computer interface techniques. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11689972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD002029.

Update in:     Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD002029.

Psychological treatments for epilepsy.

Ramaratnam S, Baker GA, Goldstein L.

Department of Neurology, Apollo Hospitals, 21 Greams Lane, Off Greams Road, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, 60006. rsridharan@vsnl.com

BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions such as relaxation therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, EEG bio-feedback and educational interventions have been used  alone or in combination in the treatment of epilepsy, to reduce the seizure frequency and improve the quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the treatment of epilepsy with psychological methods is effective in reducing seizure frequency and/or leads to a better quality of life. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched  the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trial register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2001), MEDLINE using OVID (1966 - May 2001) and cross references from identified publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized studies assessing one or more types of psychological or behaviour modification techniques for patients with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted data. Primary analyses were by intention to treat. Outcomes included reduction in seizure frequency, and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We found three small trials (50 patients) of relaxation therapy. They were of poor methodological quality and a meta-analysis was therefore not undertaken. No study found a significant effect of relaxation therapy on seizure frequency. One trial  found cognitive behavioural therapy to be effective in reducing depression, among people with epilepsy with a depressed affect, whilst another did not. One trial of group cognitive therapy found no significant effect on seizure frequency. Two  trials of combined relaxation and behaviour therapy and one of EEG bio-feedback and two of educational interventions did not provide sufficient information to assess their effect on seizure frequency. Combined use of relaxation and behaviour modification was found beneficial for anxiety and adjustment in one study. In one study EEG bio-feedback was found to improve the cognitive and motor functions in subjects with greatest seizure reduction. Educational interventions  were found to be beneficial in improving the knowledge and understanding of epilepsy, improving compliance to medication and improving social competencies. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: In view of methodological deficiencies and limited number of patients studied, we have found no reliable evidence to support the use of these treatments and further trials are needed.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 11687134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2001 Sep;26(3):215-26.

Change: detection and modification.

Montgomery DD.

Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale,  Florida 33314, USA. montgom@nova.edu

Because human physiology is always changing, one of the challenges for those interested in biofeedback applications is how to establish techniques to determine if the biofeedback has altered the physiology. This paper explores some of the areas of concern and some solutions that have been reported.

PMID: 11680285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 2001 May-Jun;27(3):5-13.

[Effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm and beta1-rhythm biological feedback on attention parameters]

[Article in Russian]

Grin'-Iatsenko VA, Kropotov IuD, Ponomarev VA, Chutko LS, Iakovenko EA.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 11548426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2001 Aug;12(1):117-30.

Feedback-dependent modulation of isometric force control: an EEG study in visuomotor integration.

Rearick MP, Johnston JA, Slobounov SM.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. mrearick@asu.edu

The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the cortical mechanisms  underlying visuomotor integration in an experiment directly manipulating visual feedback (control-signal gain) as participants executed a grasping task. This was accomplished by assessing human electroencephalograms in both time and frequency  domains and relating these measures to the performance accuracy of isometric force control. The basic experimental manipulation consisted of subjects controlling a grip dynamometer and the subsequent force trace displayed on a computer monitor at various magnitudes of force output and control-signal gain. Several findings from this study were of interest. First, the effects of control-signal gain and its interplay with the magnitude of force were most evident across the parietal and frontocentral electrode locations--areas specifically related to multi-modal sensory evaluation (parietal lobe) and higher-order movement control (supplementary and mesial premotor areas). Second,  electroencephalography (EEG) measures in the time domain, i.e., slow-wave potentials, were sensitive to control-signal gain only during the ramp phase of force production (period of reaching the target force), not the static phase (period of maintaining the target force level). Third, EEG measures within the frequency domain (event-related desynchronization), unlike the slow-wave potential measures, were sensitive to control-signal gain during the static phase of force production--a sensitivity that was directly related to improvements in the accuracy of isometric force control. The findings of this investigation are described in relation to the existent literature on human visuomotor integration  with special attention paid to the distinct spatial and temporal electrocortical  patterns exhibited under varying degrees of visual feedback and magnitudes of force output during grasping.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 11489615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:342-58.

EEG biofeedback treatment of ADD. A viable alternative to traditional medical intervention?

Ramirez PM, Desantis D, Opler LA.

Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology at Long Island University (Brooklyn Campus), Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA.

Literature searches dating back to 1968 were conducted through Psychlit and Medline services to review the scientific literature on EEG biofeedback treatment of ADD. While anecdotal and case reports cite promising evidence, methodological  problems coupled with a paucity of research precludes any definitive conclusions  as to the efficacy of enhanced alpha and hemisphere-specific EEG biofeedback training. One of the more promising EEG biofeedback treatment paradigms involves  theta/beta training. Studies have reported that academic, intellectual, and behavioral gains have been attained with this approach. Significant behavioral and cognitive changes have also been reported following SMR training. However, research into these treatment approaches has also been marred by methodological inadequacies and lack of sufficient follow-up studies. A number of recommendations for future research into this treatment approach are made.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 11462752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:310-41.

Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Arnold LE.

Department of Psychiatry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. arnold.6@osu.edu

A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an  additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot  trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in  the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the  presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some cases,  they are the Tx of choice, and initial evaluation should consider the relevant etiologies. A few have failed to prove effective in controlled trials. Most need  research to determine whether they are effective and/or to define the applicable  subgroup. Some of them, although not safer than standard Tx, may be preferable for an etiologic subgroup.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 11462750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 2001 Jul;38(4):685-93.

Manipulation of frontal EEG asymmetry through biofeedback alters self-reported emotional responses and facial EMG.

Allen JJ, Harmon-Jones E, Cavender JH.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721-0068, USA. jallen@u.arizona.edu

Individual differences in resting asymmetrical frontal brain activity have been found to predict subsequent emotional responses. The question of whether frontal  brain asymmetry can cause emotional responses has yet to be addressed. Biofeedback training designed to alter the asymmetry of frontal brain activity was therefore examined. Eighteen right-handed female participants were randomly assigned to receive biofeedback training designed to increase right frontal alpha relative to left frontal alpha (n = 9) or to receive training in the opposite direction (n = 9). Five consecutive days of biofeedback training provided signals of reward or nonreward depending on whether the difference between right (F4) and left (F3) frontal alpha exceeded a criterion value in the specified direction. Systematic alterations of frontal EEG asymmetry were observed as a function of biofeedback training. Moreover, subsequent self-reported affect and facial muscle activity in response to emotionally evocative film clips were influenced by the direction of biofeedback training.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11446582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 2001 Mar;42(3):406-16.

Modification of slow cortical potentials in patients with refractory epilepsy: a  controlled outcome study.

Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Uhlmann C, Holzapfel S, König M, Fröscher W, Blankenhorn  V, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. boris.kotchoubey@uni-tuebingen.de

PURPOSE: To compare self-regulation of low-frequency EEG components (slow cortical potentials, SCPs) with other methods of seizure control for patients with drug-refractory partial epilepsy and to separate the real anticonvulsive effect from placebo effects. METHODS: Results of a treatment program of SCP self-regulation (experimental group) are compared with two groups of patients, one of which learned self-control of respiratory parameters (end-tidal CO2 and respiration rate: RES group); the other received medication with new anticonvulsive drugs (AEDs) in combination with psychosocial counseling (MED group). Clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and personality measures were assessed before and after treatment. In addition, to control for placebo responses, patients repeatedly estimated their beliefs in the efficiency of the respective treatment, their satisfaction and expectations, and the quality of the relationship with their therapists. RESULTS: SCP and MED groups showed a significant decrease of seizure frequency, but the RES group did not. Clear positive changes in the sociopsychological adjustment were obtained in all three  groups, with the maximal improvement being attained in the RES group. CONCLUSIONS: All kinds of therapy result in considerable improvement of patients' emotional state, which may in part be due to potential placebo effects: however,  this improvement is not related to the quality of the therapeutic effect proper (i.e., seizure reduction). Traditional double-blind control group designs are inappropriate for behavioral interventions or treatments with psychoactive pharmacologic drugs. Rather, specific tests can be developed to control the placebo effect and to separate it from the genuine therapeutic effects.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11442161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 2001 Jul;57(7):933-52.

Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-Driven stimulation: a clinical outcomes study.

Mueller HH, Donaldson CC, Nelson DV, Layman M.

Myosymmetries International Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. myoed@telusplanet.com

Thirty patients from a private clinical practice who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) were followed prospectively through a brainwave-based intervention known as electroencephalograph (EEG)-driven stimulation or EDS. Patients were initially treated with EDS until they reported noticeable improvements in mental clarity, mood, and sleep. Self-reported pain, then, having changed from vaguely diffuse to more specifically localized, was treated with very modest amounts of physically oriented therapies. Pre- to posttreatment and extended follow-up comparisons of psychological and physical functioning indices, specific FS symptom ratings, and  EEG activity revealed statistically significant improvements. EDS appeared to be  the prime initiator of therapeutic efficacy. Future research is justified for controlled clinical trials and to better understand disease mechanisms. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

PMID: 11406805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2001 Mar;26(1):23-37; discussion 61-5.

Comment in:     Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2001 Mar;26(1):17-21.

The ethical use of placebo controls in clinical research: the Declaration of Helsinki.

La Vaque TJ, Rossiter T.

Clinical Psychophysiology Center, Rogers Memorial Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin  53704, USA. tlavaque@gbonline.com

Medical ethicists have questioned the use of no-treatment (placebo and sham procedure) controlled studies of new therapies when safe and effective standard therapies are available for use as an active or "equivalence" control. Current ethical principles of conduct for biomedical research specifically prohibit designs that withhold or deny "the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic" treatment to any participant in a clinical study, including those individuals who consent to randomization into a control group. Studies of psychophysiological therapies are often criticized on the grounds they lack a placebo or sham treatment control group. This paper briefly reviews the history of the problem and discusses the ethical standards that govern human research as derived from the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. An examination of the problem with regard to research involving EEG biofeedback therapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and depression  serves to highlight the issues. It is concluded that the active treatment control (treatment equivalence) design is most appropriate for those clinical studies examining disorders for which there is a known, effective treatment. Sham- or placebo-controlled studies are ethically acceptable for those disorders for which no effective treatment is available.

Publication Types:      Historical Article

PMID: 11387859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2001 Jun;16(3):260-74.

Flexyx Neurotherapy System in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: an initial evaluation.

Schoenberger NE, Shif SC, Esty ML, Ochs L, Matheis RJ.

Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Corporation, West Orange, New Jersey, USA. nschoen1@midsouth.rr.com

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a preliminary experimental evaluation of the potential efficacy of Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS), an innovative electroencephalography (EEG)-based therapy used clinically in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). PARTICIPANTS: Twelve people aged 21 to 53 who had experienced mild to moderately severe closed head injury at least 12 months previously and who reported substantial cognitive difficulties after injury, which interfered with their functioning. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment group or a wait-list control group and received 25 sessions of FNS treatment. They were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up with standardized neuropsychological and mood measures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two groups on outcome measures indicated improvement after treatment for participants' reports of depression, fatigue, and other problematic symptoms, as well as for some measures of cognitive functioning. Most participants experienced meaningful improvement in occupational and social functioning. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these results, FNS appears to be a promising new therapy for TBI and merits more extensive evaluation.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 11346448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2001 May;3(3):257-270.

Childhood Migraine Headache Syndromes.

Prensky A.

Saint Louis Children's Hospital, One Children's Place, Suite 12E25, Saint Louis,  MO 63178, USA. Prensky@kids.wustl.edu

The treatment of migraine headache in children depends on the following: a) defining the underlying cause; b) the frequency of the attacks; and c) the severity of the disability produced by the pain. Any medication taken to relieve  pain is most effective if taken at maximum dose at the onset of the headache. The dose should be the maximum recommended by weight or age. Triptans are also more effective if used early. Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are often effective in relieving pediatric headache and should be tried before prescription drug therapy is attempted. The more frequent a child's headaches are, the greater the danger that repeated doses of pain medications, including those purchased OTC, will lead to a chronic headache syndrome as the medication is reduced. Recurrent severe headaches, occurring more than once a week and resulting in interruption of normal activities or poor concentration, need to be treated with prophylactic medications taken daily so that the number of headaches can be reduced. Amitriptyline, propanolol, and periactin are the most frequently used drugs to block headaches, but valproate, verapamil, or other calcium channel blockers and  other antidepressants are also useful. Biofeedback, relaxation, or cognitive therapies can also reduce headache frequency in children with both migraine and tension headaches. Headaches that are intractable to oral medication for the acute relief of pain may respond more rapidly to an efficiently absorbed drug administered by nasal spray or subcutaneously. The initial dose of an injectable  drug should be given in a situation where a physician is immediately available. Recurrent headaches that have occurred over more than 6 months and that are associated with a normal neurologic examination are almost never caused by an intracranial lesion. Routine CT and MRI scans or an electroencephalogram (EEG) are generally unnecessary for these patients because these scans are rarely of value in these patients unless there is a history of another neurologic disorder  or the headaches are focal, relentless, and worsening over time.

PMID: 11282041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 2001 Mar;112(3):551-4.

Self-initiation of EEG-based communication in paralyzed patients.

Kaiser J, Perelmouter J, Iversen IH, Neumann N, Ghanayim N, Hinterberger T, Kübler A, Kotchoubey B, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074, Tübingen, Germany. jochen.kaiser@uni-tuebingen.de

OBJECTIVES: Severely paralyzed patients could learn to voluntarily generate slow  cortical potential (SCP) shifts in their electroencephalogram and to use these signals to operate a communication device. To enhance the patients' autonomy, the present study describes the development of a permanently available communication  system that can be turned on and off by locked-in patients without external assistance. A skill necessary for turning the system on is the ability to regulate one's slow potentials in the absence of continuous feedback. METHODS: A  stepwise learning approach was employed to train two paralyzed patients to regulate their SCPs without continuous feedback. Elements of the original communication system were gradually removed and elements of the new stand-by mode were introduced. RESULTS: At the end of the learning procedure, both patients achieved correct response rates of above 84% in training sessions without continuous feedback. This skill enabled them to turn the communication device on  and off without assistance from others. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that  severely paralyzed individuals can learn to operate an EEG-based communication device autonomously.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 11222979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

HNO. 2001 Jan;49(1):29-35.

[Neurofeedback in therapy of tinnitus]

[Article in German]

Gosepath K, Nafe B, Ziegler E, Mann WJ.

Römerwallklinik, Klinik für Neurootologische Erkrankungen, Mainz.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Biofeedback is known as a possibility to control physiologic processes like body temperature or heart frequency. Neurofeedback is  a form of biofeedback linked to aspects of the electrical activity of the brain such as frequency, location or amplitude of specific EEG activity. It has been successfully used in patients with closed head injury, hyperactivity disorder or  epilepsy. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this study 40 patients with tinnitus were treated  with neurofeedback.They trained to upregulate the amplitude of their alpha-activity and downregulate the amplitude of beta-activity during muscle relaxation and acoustic orientation on sounds or music in order to suppress their tinnitus. RESULTS: After 15 sessions of training 24 patients with a duration of their tinnitus for an average of 1 year showed significant increase of alpha-amplitudes while 16 patients with duration of their tinnitus on an average  of 7 years showed a decrease of beta-amplitudes without any change in alpha-activity. After the training all patients had a significant reduction of the score in the tin nitusquestionaire of Gobel and Hiller. In a control-group of 15 persons without tinnitus we didn't see any changes of alpha- or beta-amplitudes during the same training. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion neurofeedback is a new therapy for patients with tinnitus. Patients get the possibility of selfcontrol and therefore of influence on their disease.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 11219406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 2000 Nov;37(6):757-65.

Rate of force development and the lateralized readiness potential.

Ray WJ, Slobounov S, Mordkoff JT, Johnston J, Simon RF.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA. wjr@psu.edu

We examined the relationship between force and rate of force development aspects  of movement dynamics and electroencephalogram motor components as reflected in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). Using self-paced tasks, in Studies 1 and 3 we investigated whether differential speed and accuracy constraints in discrete and repetitive finger force production tasks influenced the LRP. These studies showed that speed tasks produced larger LRP than accuracy tasks regardless of whether the movement type was discrete or repetitive. In Studies 2  and 4 we studied four conditions with two levels of force and two levels of rate  of force development. The largest LRPs were found with the greatest rate of force development. Overall, the four studies demonstrated that preparation for differential rates of force development is a major component reflected in the LRP.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 11117456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2000 Dec;15(6):1285-96.

Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback.

Thornton K.

Psychologist, Center for Health Psychology, South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA.

This article presents a new approach to the remediation of memory deficits by studying the electrophysiological functioning involved in memory and applying biofeedback techniques. A Quantitative EEG (QEEG) activation database was obtained with 59 right-handed subjects during two auditory memory tasks (prose passages and word lists). Memory performance was correlated with the QEEG variables. Clinical cases were administered the same QEEG activation study to determine their deviations from the values that predicted success for the reference group. EEG biofeedback interventions were designed to increase the value (to normal levels) of the specific electrophysiological variable that was related to successful memory function and deviant in the subject. Case examples are presented that indicate the successful use of this intervention style in normal subjects and in subjects with brain injury; improvement cannot be fully explained by spontaneous recovery, given the time postinjury. Five cases (two normal, two subjects with brain injury, and one subject who had stereotactic surgery of the hippocampus for seizure control) are presented. Improvements ranged from 68% to 181% in the group of patients with brain injury, as a result of the interventions.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 11056409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Ergon. 2000 Aug;31(4):377-82.

The effectiveness of activating electrical devices using alpha wave synchronisation contingent with eye closure.

Craig A, Tran Y, McIsaac P, Moses P, Kirkup L, Searle A.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, NSW Sydney, Australia. a.craig@uts.edu.au

Increases in alpha wave amplitude occur with eye closure (EC) and decreases occur when the eyes are opened (EO). The research reports in this paper emphasise effectiveness of people using these alpha wave changes to activate electrical devices. Effectiveness was measured in terms of time taken and errors made when selecting the correct device. Ten non-disabled subjects significantly decreased the time taken and errors made to activate correctly a device using a six-option  environmental control system (ECS) in the laboratory. In addition, a severely disabled person was shown to use the ECS successfully to control her television in her home environment. This research demonstrates that alpha wave manipulation  contingent with EC and EO can be the basis for a reliable and quick switching system for controlling electrical devices. Applications to disability are discussed.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10975664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000 Jun;25(2):103-15.

Evaluation of a psychophysiologically controlled adaptive automation system, using performance on a tracking task.

Freeman FG, Mikulka PJ, Scerbo MW, Prinzel LJ, Clouatre K.

Psychology Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0267, USA.

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a psychophysiologically controlled adaptive automation system. Subjects were asked  to perform a compensatory tracking task while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded and an engagement index was derived from the EEG, using the alpha, beta, and theta bandwidths: beta/(alpha + theta) and beta/theta. In Experiment I, EEG was recorded from three different sites: frontal, parietal, and temporal. Although tracking performance did not differ as a function of site, the number of task mode allocations was greater under a negative feedback contingency than under a positive feedback contingency. This effect was seen primarily from frontal sites. Experiments II and III evaluated the adaptive automation system, using extended runs under positive and negative feedback with either a slope (Experiment II) or absolute (Experiment III) criterion used to drive the system.  Using either criterion, performance was found to be significantly better under negative feedback. Future evaluation and use of psychophysiologically controlled  adaptive automation systems are discussed.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 10932335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000 Jun;25(2):93-101.

Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety.

Ossebaard HC.

Trimbos-Institute (Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Stress and burnout are widely acknowledged as major causes of societal and individual problems in the Western world. In order to reduce material and immaterial expenses, increased efforts are made to enhance relaxation and stress  reduction. Based on neuropsychological findings, alternative ways have been explored, one of them being the application of so-called brain wave synchronizers, which are said to induce a relaxation response by entraining alpha brain-wave activity (8-13 Hz) through audiovisual stimulation. A double blind, quasi-experiment was conducted among employees at a Dutch addiction care center to investigate the possible effects of two distinct brainmachine programs on burnout and anxiety. Subjects in both conditions showed a significant, immediate  decrease in state anxiety as assessed by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and reported a range of subjective effects. However, a long-term effect on burnout, as measured with Maslach's Burnout Inventory (MBI-NL), could not be established. A long-term effect on anxiety (STAI), as investigated by interrupted time-series measurement, could not be established either. These and other findings suggest that the major claims with respect to these machines cannot hold over time, although pleasant short-term effects do occur. Individual  differences in baseline responsivity, the stable character of burnout dimensions, or the ill-defined nature of relaxation, or a combination of these, may account for these results.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10932334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):216-9.

Current trends in Graz Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research.

Pfurtscheller G, Neuper C, Guger C, Harkam W, Ramoser H, Schlögl A, Obermaier B,  Pregenzer M.

Department of Medical Informatics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Graz, Austria. pfu@dpmi.tu-graz.ac.at

This paper describes a research approach to develop a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on recognition of subject-specific EEG patterns. EEG signals recorded from sensorimotor areas during mental imagination of specific movements are classified on-line and used e.g. for cursor control. In a number of on-line experiments, various methods for EEG feature extraction and classification have been evaluated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10896192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):211-4.

Brain-computer interfaces based on the steady-state visual-evoked response.

Middendorf M, McMillan G, Calhoun G, Jones KS.

Middendorf Scientific Services, Inc., Medway, OH 45341, USA.

The Air Force Research Laboratory has implemented and evaluated two brain-computer interfaces (BCI's) that translate the steady-state visual evoked response into a control signal for operating a physical device or computer program. In one approach, operators self-regulate the brain response; the other approach uses multiple evoked responses.

PMID: 10896190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):208-11.

A natural basis for efficient brain-actuated control.

Makeig S, Enghoff S, Jung TP, Sejnowski TJ.

Collaborators: Jung TP.

Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA 92186, USA. scott@salk.edu

The prospect of noninvasive brain-actuated control of computerized screen displays or locomotive devices is of interest to many and of crucial importance to a few 'locked-in' subjects who experience near total motor paralysis while retaining sensory and mental faculties. Currently several groups are attempting to achieve brain-actuated control of screen displays using operant conditioning of particular features of the spontaneous scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) including central mu-rhythms (9-12 Hz). A new EEG decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), appears to be a foundation for new research in the design of systems for detection and operant control of endogenous EEG rhythms to achieve flexible EEG-based communication. ICA separates multichannel EEG data into spatially static and temporally independent components including separate components accounting for posterior alpha rhythms and central mu activities. We demonstrate using data from a visual selective attention task that ICA-derived mu-components can show much stronger spectral reactivity to motor events than activity measures for single scalp channels. ICA decompositions of spontaneous EEG would thus appear to form a natural basis for operant conditioning to achieve efficient and multidimensional brain-actuated control in  motor-limited and locked-in subjects.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 10896189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):203-5.

Parallel man-machine training in development of EEG-based cursor control.

Kostov A, Polak M.

Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

A new parallel man-machine training approach to brain-computer interface (BCI) succeeded through a unique application of machine learning methods. The BCI system could train users to control an animated cursor on the computer screen by  voluntary electroencephalogram (EEG) modulation. Our BCI system requires only two to four electrodes, and has a relatively short training time for both the user and the machine. Moving the cursor in one dimension, our subjects were able to hit 100% of randomly selected targets, while in two dimensions, accuracies of approximately 63% and 76% was achieved with our two subjects.

PMID: 10896187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):198-202.

Direct control of a computer from the human central nervous system.

Kennedy PR, Bakay RA, Moore MM, Adams K, Goldwaithe J.

Neural Signals Inc., Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.

We describe an invasive alternative to externally applied brain-computer interface (BCI) devices. This system requires implantation of a special electrode into the outer layers of the human neocortex. The recorded signals are transmitted to a nearby receiver and processed to drive a cursor on a computer monitor in front of the patient. Our present patient has learned to control the cursor for the production of synthetic speech and typing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 10896186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):190-3.

The thought translation device (TTD) for completely paralyzed patients.

Birbaumer N, Kübler A, Ghanayim N, Hinterberger T, Perelmouter J, Kaiser J, Iversen I, Kotchoubey B, Neumann N, Flor H.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

The thought translation device trains locked-in patients to self-regulate slow cortical potentials (SCP's) of their electroencephalogram (EEG). After operant learning of SCP self-control, patients select letters, words or pictograms in a computerized language support program. Results of five respirated, locked-in-patients are described, demonstrating the usefulness of the thought translation device as an alternative communication channel in motivated totally paralyzed patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10896183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000 Jun;8(2):188-90.

A virtual reality testbed for brain-computer interface research.

Bayliss JD, Ballard DH.

Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA. bayliss@cs.rochester.edu

Virtual reality promises to extend the realm of possible brain-computer interface (BCI) prototypes. Most of the work using electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in VR has focussed on brain-body actuated control, where biological signals from the body as well as the brain are used. We show that when subjects are allowed to move and act normally in an immersive virtual environment, cognitive evoked potential signals can still be obtained and used reliably. A single trial accuracy average of 85% for recognizing the differences between evoked potentials at red and yellow stop lights will be presented and future directions discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 10896182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Rehabil Res Dev. 2000 Jan-Feb;37(1):53-63.

A practical EMG-based human-computer interface for users with motor disabilities.

Barreto AB, Scargle SD, Adjouadi M.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami 33174, USA.

In line with the mission of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (ATA), this study proposes an integrated assistive real-time system which "affirms that technology is a valuable tool that can be used to improve the lives of people with disabilities." An assistive technology device is defined by the ATA as "any  item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." The purpose of this study is to design and develop an alternate input device that can be used even by individuals with severe motor disabilities. This real-time system design utilizes electromyographic (EMG) biosignals from cranial muscles and electroencephalographic (EEG) biosignals from the cerebrum's occipital lobe, which are transformed into controls for two-dimensional (2-D) cursor movement, the left-click (Enter) command, and an ON/OFF switch for the cursor-control functions. This HCI system classifies biosignals into "mouse" functions by applying amplitude thresholds and performing power spectral density (PSD) estimations on discrete windows of data. Spectral power summations are aggregated over several frequency bands between 8 and 500 Hz and then compared to produce the correct classification. The result is an affordable DSP-based system that, when combined with an on-screen keyboard, enables the user to fully operate a computer without using any extremities.

PMID: 10847572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000 Mar;25(1):13-32.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in children with migraine: an exploratory study.

Siniatchkin M, Hierundar A, Kropp P, Kuhnert R, Gerber WD, Stephani U.

Department of Medical Psychology, Neurological Clinic of Kiel University, Germany. siniatchkin@med-psych.uni-kiel.de

Migraine patients are characterized by increased amplitudes of slow cortical potentials (SCPs), representing pronounced excitability of cortical networks. The present study investigated the efficiency of biofeedback training of SCPs in young migraineurs. Ten children suffering from migraine without aura participated in 10 feedback sessions. They were compared with 10 healthy children for regulation abilities of cortical negativity and with 10 migraineurs from the waiting list for clinical efficacy. During the first two sessions, the migraine children were characterised by lacking ability to control cortical negativity, especially during transfer trials, compared with healthy controls. However, there was no difference following 10 sessions of training. Feedback training was accompanied by significant reduction of cortical excitability. This was probably  responsible for the clinical efficacy of the training; a significant reduction of days with migraine and other headache parameters was observed. It is suggested that normalization of the threshold regulation of cortical excitability during feedback training may result in clinical improvement.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10832507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Dec;24(4):261-5.

Reliability of infrared plethysmography in BVP biofeedback therapy and the relevance for clinical application.

Speckenbach U, Gerber WD.

Psychiatric and Neurological Clinic, Friedrich-Ebert Hospital, Neumünster, Germany. speckenbach@med-psych.uni-kiel.de

Biofeedback methods are well established as behavioral techniques for the therapy of various psychophysiological diseases. The forms of feedback generally employed are muscle activity (electromyogram), skin temperature, brain activity (electroencephalogram), and vasomotoricity. The latter technique, which employs plethysmographic feedback, has been studied most extensively in the therapy of migraine (vasoconstriction training, blood volume pulse training). Although the clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in several studies, little is known about the psychometric properties of this technique. This study examined the intrasession and intersession reliability of the pulse volume amplitude (PVA). The results showed that the PVA measurements within a single biofeedback session  were highly reliable. Repositioning of the probe within the session resulted in a lower correlation coefficient, but one that was still sizable and significant. The PVA values from different sessions were not reliable (or comparable).

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10789002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Dec;24(4):213-33.

Changes in EEG power spectra during biofeedback of slow cortical potentials in epilepsy.

Kotchoubey B, Busch S, Strehl U, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

The goal of the study was to explore parallel changes in EEG spectral frequencies during biofeedback of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) in epilepsy patients. Thirty-four patients with intractable focal epilepsy participated in 35 sessions  of SCP self-regulation training. The spectral analysis was carried out for the EEG recorded at the same electrode site (Cz) that was used for SCP feedback. The  most prominent effect was the increase in the theta 2 power (6.0-7.9 Hz) and the  relative power decrement in all other frequency bands (particularly delta 1, alpha 2 and beta 2) in transfer trials (i.e., where patients controlled their SCPs without continuous feedback) compared with feedback trials. In the second half of the training course (i.e., sessions 21-35) larger power values in the delta, theta, and alpha bands were found when patients were required to produce positive versus negative SCP shifts. Both across-subject and across-session (within-subject) correlations between spectral EEG parameters, on the one hand, and SCP data, on the other hand, were low and inconsistent, contrary to high and  stable correlations between different spectral variables. This fact, as well as the lack of considerable task-dependent effects during the first part of training, indicates that learned SCP shifts did not directly lead to the specific dynamics of the EEG power spectra. Rather, these dynamics were related to nonspecific changes in patients' brain state.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10788999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biull Eksp Biol Med. 2000 Feb;129(2):139-41.

[Restoration of interhemispheric symmetry of the bioelectrical brain activity in  patients with neurasthenic syndrome by bioacoustic correction]

[Article in Russian]

Konstantinov KV, Sizov VV, Miroshnikov DB, Esimbaeva VN, Gabdrakhmanov SIu, Klimenko VM.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 10732229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Psychosom Res. 2000 Feb;48(2):161-9.

Blood pressure biofeedback treatment of white-coat hypertension.

Nakao M, Nomura S, Shimosawa T, Fujita T, Kuboki T.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. mnakao@hsph.harvard.edu

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare blood pressure (BP) biofeedback treatment (BF) effects between white-coat hypertension and essential  hypertension. METHODS: Fifteen white-coat hypertensive out-patients and 23 essential hypertensive out-patients were randomly assigned to groups A or B. Subjects in group A underwent BF once a week for a total of four sessions. Those  in group B visited the clinic only to measure BP and later underwent the same BF. RESULTS: In group A, BPs of white-coat hypertensives and essential hypertensives  were significantly reduced by 22/11 and 14/8 mmHg, respectively. In group B, they were unchanged during the same period but later suppressed by BF. Under BF, pulse and respiratory rates were significantly higher, and elevation of diastolic BP due to mental stress testing was better suppressed in white-coat hypertensives than in essential hypertensives. CONCLUSION: This treatment was effective in both types of hypertension, and pressor response to stress seems to be important in the differentiated BF effect.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10719133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Voen Med Zh. 2000 Jan;321(1):46-9.

[Bioacoustical psychocorrection in neurotic disorders]

[Article in Russian]

Dybov MD, Shevchenko VF, Sitnikov AG.

PMID: 10701351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Exp Aging Res. 2000 Jan-Mar;26(1):15-35.

Learning and self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in older adults.

Kotchoubey B, Haisst S, Daum I, Schugens M, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. boris.kotchoubey@uni-tuebingen.de

Two groups of subjects, aged 20-28 and 50-64, respectively, matched for health status and verbal abilities, learned to control their slow cortical potentials (SCP) in a feedback paradigm by producing, on command, SCP shifts in either positive or negative direction. Both groups were able to differentiate significantly between the positivity task and the negativity task, with the differentiation score being only slightly (and not significantly) lower in older  than in younger subjects. In all conditions, however, significantly more negative brain responses were obtained in older than in younger subjects. This effect was  larger in the positivity task versus negativity task, and larger in trials without continuous SCP feedback versus trials with feedback. Additionally four learning tasks were carried out with all subjects. The older group demonstrated substantial performance deficits in two tasks with explicit learning (verbal and  visual). In contrast, implicit learning (perceptual learning and skill acquisition) was not impaired with age. The results are at odds with the idea of  general age-related learning deficit and concur with the hypothesis that only explicit, but not implicit, learning processes are compromised in older subjects. The pattern of consistently more negative SCP shifts produced by elderly subjects may indicate their impaired cortical inhibition. Another interpretation, which does not exclude the inhibitory deficit hypothesis but seems to better agree with other psychophysiological data, may be that older subjects have disturbance in the system controlling arousal and effort.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10689554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Sep;24(3):197-202.

Perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation: as different as Mozart and  Alice in chains.

Burns J, Labbé E, Williams K, McCall J.

Department of Psychology, University of South Alabama, Mobile 36688, USA.

The effects of listening to different types of music on perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation were evaluated. Fifty-six undergraduate students, 24 males and 32 females, mean age of 21, were randomly assigned to listen to classical, hard rock, self-selected relaxing music, or no music. Participants' relaxation level, skin temperature, muscle tension and heart rate were evaluated before and after exposure to a music condition. Analyses of variance using baseline measures as covariates indicated that skin temperature decreased for all conditions (p = 0.001) and the classical, self-selected relaxing music and no music groups reported significant increases in feelings of  relaxation (p = 0.004). These results partially support the hypothesis that classical and self-selected relaxing music can increase perceptions of relaxation to a greater degree than listening to hard rock music. However, no differences were found between different types of music on physiological indicators of arousal. Implications for using music to reduce stress were discussed.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10652638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):45-55.

Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning.

Sterman MB.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles 90085-1763, USA.

Two issues concerning sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning, or biofeedback, as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of seizure disorders are the focus of this review. The first relates to the question of whether relevant physiological changes are associated with this procedure. This question is addressed through review of an extensive neurophysiological literature that is likely unfamiliar to many clinicians but that documents both immediate and sustained functional changes that are consistent with elevation of seizure thresholds. The second focuses on the clinical efficacy of this method and whether it should carry the designation of "experimental". This designation is challenged through an assessment of over 25 years of peer-reviewed research demonstrating impressive EEG and clinical results achieved with the most difficult subset of seizure patients.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10638352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):38-44.

EEG operant conditioning (biofeedback) and traumatic brain injury.

Thatcher RW.

Bay Pines VA Medical Center, University of South Florida College of Medicine and  Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program, Washington D.C., USA.

A review is presented of the currently sparse literature about EEG operant conditioning or biofeedback as a treatment to reduce symptomology and patient complaints following a traumatic brain injury. The paper also evaluates the general use of quantitative EEG (QEEG) to assess traumatic brain injury and to facilitate EEG biofeedback treatment. The use of an age matched reference normative QEEG database and QEEG discriminant function are presented as a method  to evaluate the nature or neurological basis of a patient's complaints as well as to individualize an efficient and optimal feedback protocol and to help evaluate  the efficacy of the biofeedback therapy. Univariate and multivariate statistical  issues are discussed, different classes of experimental designs are described and then a "double blind" research study is proposed in an effort to encourage future research in the area of EEG biofeedback for the treatment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 10638351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):30-7.

Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with neurotherapy.

Nash JK.

Behavioral Medicine Associates, Inc., MN 55434, USA.

Significant public health concerns exist regarding our current level of success in treating ADHD. Medication management is very helpful in 60-70% of patients. Side effects, lack of compliance and the fact that stimulant medications cannot be given late in the day limit the benefits largely to school hours. While stimulants improve behavior and attention, less of an effect has been noted on academic and social performance. Continuing concerns exist about long-term safety, and studies on long-term cardiovascular and neurophysiological effects have not been carried out. Neurotherapy for ADHD offers an effective alternate for patients whose treatment is limited by side effects, poor medication response and in cases in which the patients and/or their parents refuse to consider medications. Studies indicate clinical improvement is largely related to measurable improvements in the EEG signature, evidenced by declining theta/beta ratios over frontal/central cortex and/or reduced theta/alpha band amplitudes.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10638350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):23-9.

Self regulation of electrocortical activity in schizophrenia and schizotypy: a review.

Gruzelier J.

Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Imperial College Medical School, London, U.K.

Contrary to the belief that schizophrenic patients will be unable to learn self control of electrocortical activity due to attentional and motivational deficits, the two studies which have investigated this, both involving operant conditioning of slow cortical potentials, have demonstrated that self regulation can take place. This was particularly true of a study of interhemispheric control. Learning difficulties were found to be more to do with sustaining motivation towards the end of sessions or training programs, rather than in initial learning. Schizotypical features in the normal population have in the case of anhedonia been associated with slower learning, while withdrawn introversion has  been associated with faster learning. In view of the affirmative evidence and advances in understanding the functional significance of electroencephalographic  (EEG) rhythms, the undertaking of therepeutic regimens with electrocortical operant conditioning is warranted in the schizophrenia spectrum.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Review

PMID: 10638349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):13-22.

The treatment of addictive disorders by brain wave biofeedback: a review and suggestions for future research.

Trudeau DL.

University of Minnesota, Academic Health Center, Department of Family Practice and Community Health and Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10638348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):7-12.

An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective disorders.

Rosenfeld JP.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-2710, USA.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10638347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):1-6.

A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders.

Moore NC.

Brain Research Center, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31207, USA.

Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of the anxiety disorders (Table 1). Alpha suppression is also effective, but less so (Table 2).  Perceived success in carrying out the task plays an important role in clinical improvement. Research is needed to find out how much more effective they are than placebo, and which variables are important for efficacy. Variables needing study  are: duration of treatment, type and severity of anxiety, number and type of EEG  waveforms used, pretreatment with other kinds of feedback, position and number of electrodes, and presence of concomitant medication.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10638346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):V-VII.

The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an editor's opinion.

Duffy FH.

Publication Types:      Editorial

PMID: 10638345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1999 Dec;7(4):413-9.

Frequency component selection for an EEG-based brain to computer interface.

Pregenzer M, Pfurtscheller G.

Department of Medical Informatics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering. Graz University of Technology and Ludwig-Boltzmann Institute for Medical Informatics and Neuroinformatics, Austria.

A new communication channel for severely handicapped people could be opened with  a direct brain to computer interface (BCI). Such a system classifies electrical brain signals online. In a series of training sessions, where electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are recorded on the intact scalp, a classifier is trained to discriminate a limited number of different brain states. In a subsequent series of feedback sessions, where the subject is confronted with the classification results, the subject tries to reduce the number of misclassifications. In this study the relevance of different spectral components  is analyzed: 1) on the training sessions to select optimal frequency bands for the feedback sessions and 2) on the feedback sessions to monitor changes.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10609628 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Adv Neurol. 1999;81:281-90.

Control of cortical excitability in epilepsy.

Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Holzapfel S, Schneider D, Blankenhorn V, Birbaumer N.

Institute for Medical Psychology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10609024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Jun;24(2):91-105.

How does biofeedback reduce clinical symptoms and do memories and beliefs have biological consequences? Toward a model of mind-body healing.

Wickramasekera I.

Saybrook Graduate School, Stanford Medical School, CA, USA.

Changes in the magnitude and direction of physiological measures (EMG, EEG, temperature, etc.) are not strongly related to the reduction of clinical symptoms in biofeedback therapy. Previously, nonspecified perceptual, cognitive, and emotional factors related to threat perception (Wickramasekera, 1979, 1988, 1998) may account for the bulk of the variance in the reduction of clinical symptoms. The mean magnitude of these previously nonspecified or placebo factors is closer  to 70% when both the therapist and patient believe in the efficacy of the therapy. This powerful placebo effect is hypothesized to be an elicited conditioned response (Wickramasekera, 1977a, 1977c, 1980, 1985) based on the memory of prior healings. These memories of healing are more resistant to extinction if originally acquired on a partial rather than continuous reinforcement schedule. High and low hypnotic ability in interaction with threat  perception (negative affect) is hypothesized to contribute to both the production and reduction of clinical symptoms. High and low hypnotic ability respectively are hypothesized to be related to dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system. Biofeedback is hypothesized to be most effective for reducing clinical symptoms in people of low to moderate  hypnotic ability. For people high in trait hypnotic ability, training in self-hypnosis or other instructional procedures (e.g., autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, mediation, CBT, etc.) will produce the most rapid  reduction in clinical symptoms.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10575537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Dec;23(4):265-72; 273-5.

Regarding the database for the Peniston alpha-theta EEG biofeedback protocol.

Graap K, Freides D.

Emory University, Department of Psychology, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Five papers by Peniston and colleagues, which constitute the basic literature for alpha-theta EEG biofeedback treatment for alcoholism and posttraumatic stress disorder, are reviewed. As a result, we raise three questions: (a) Are the samples studied independent? (b) What was the clinical status of the participants prior to treatment? (c) What treatment did the participants actually receive? In  seeking answers to these questions we aim to strengthen the database for neurofeedback with specific procedural information so that claims of efficacy can be tested and accepted or rejected on an objective basis.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 10457816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Dec;23(4):243-63.

Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD.

Thompson L, Thompson M.

ADD Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

A review of records was carried out to examine the results obtained when people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) received 40 sessions of training that combined neurofeedback with the teaching of metacognitive strategies. While not a controlled scientific study, the results, including pre- and post-measures, are consistent with previously published research concerning the use of neurofeedback with children. A significant addition is that a description of procedures is included. The 111 subjects, 98 children (age 5 to 17) and 13 adults (ages 18 to 63), attended forty 50-min sessions, usually twice a week. Feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 4-7 Hz, occasionally 9-11 Hz) and increasing fast wave activity (15-18 Hz for most subjects but initially 13-15 Hz for subjects with impulsivity and hyperactivity). Metacognitive strategies related to academic tasks were taught when the feedback indicated the  client was focused. Some clients also received temperature and/or EDR biofeedback during some sessions. Initially, 30 percent of the children were taking stimulant medications (Ritalin), whereas 6 percent were on stimulant medications after 40 sessions. All charts were included where pre- and post-testing results were available for one or more of the following: the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA, n = 76), Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WISC-III, or WAIS-R, n = 68), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 3, n = 99), and the electroencephalogram assessment (QEEG) providing a ratio of theta (4-8 Hz) to beta (16-20 Hz) activity (n = 66). Significant improvements (p < .001) were found in ADD symptoms (inattention, impulsivity, and variability of response times on the TOVA), in both the ACID pattern and the full-scale scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, and in academic performance on the WRAT 3. The average gain for the full  scale IQ equivalent scores was 12 points. A decrease in the EEG ratio of theta/beta was also observed. These data are important because they provide an extension of results from earlier studies (Lubar, Swartwood, Swartwood, & O'Donnell, 1995; Linden, Habib, & Radojevic, 1996). They also demonstrate that systematic data collection in a private educational setting produces helpful information that can be used to monitor students' progress and improve programs.  Because this clinical work is not a controlled scientific study, the efficacious  treatment components cannot be determined. Nevertheless, the positive outcomes of decreased ADD symptoms plus improved academic and intellectual functioning suggest that the use of neurofeedback plus training in metacognitive strategies is a useful combined intervention for students with ADD. Further controlled research is warranted.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 10457815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biomed Tech (Berl). 1999 Jun;44(6):158-62.

Hidden Markov models used for the offline classification of EEG data.

Obermaier B, Guger C, Pfurtscheller G.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Medical Informatics and Neuroinformatics, University of Technology, Graz. obermai@dpmi.tu-graz.ac.at

Hidden Markov models (HMM) are introduced for the offline classification of single-trail EEG data in a brain-computer-interface (BCI). The HMMs are used to classify Hjorth parameters calculated from bipolar EEG data, recorded during the  imagination of a left or right hand movement. The effects of different types of HMMs on the recognition rate are discussed. Furthermore a comparison of the results achieved with the linear discriminant (LD) and the HMM, is presented.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10427911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1999 May 20;88(21):946-9.

[Psychofonia--a neurophysiologic music therapy in migraine]

[Article in German]

Meister M, Einsle R, Brunner J, Rhyner K.

Medizinische Klinik, Kantonsspital Glarus.

Migraine and other functional disorders are common and often difficult to treat.  Alternative treatment modalities are clearly warranted and gain more widespread acceptance. Psychofonia is a new form of music therapy for treating migraine patients. For each patient an individualized sound pattern is created based on his individual EEG by using computer technology. In a cohort study we investigated prospectively 55 migraine patients treated with this EEG-based music therapy. 56% of the patients showed an improvement of at least 50% of their symptoms after a twelve months treatment period. Our results suggest that this form of music therapy is effective in treating migraine patients and should be studied in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 10412281 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Sep;23(3):189-202.

Behavioral psychophysiological intervention in a mentally retarded epileptic patient with brain lesion.

Holzapfel S, Strehl U, Kotchoubey B, Birbaumer N.

Epilepsy Center Kork, Kehl-Kork, Germany.

Behavioral psychophysiological treatment entailing Slow Cortical Potential (SCP)  biofeedback training and behavioral self-control training was conducted with a 27-year-old male epileptic patient (seizures for 23 years) with Wechsler IQ 64 who underwent callosotomy. The patient had 12/week secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The treatment, consisting of 43 SCP training sessions and  22 behavioral control sessions, yielded a highly significant reduction of seizure frequency to about 7.5/week; such a decrease had never been observed after administration of new anticonvulsant drugs, nor after the callosotomy. During SCP feedback training, the patient was able to produce highly-significant cortical differentiation of SCPs of about 4 microV. In addition, he developed several new  behaviors indicating growing ability of self-perception and self-regulation. These findings suggest that a combination of SCP biofeedback with behavioral treatment of epilepsy can be used even in mentally retarded patients with organic brain disorders.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10384250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Neurophysiol. 1999 Apr;110(4):683-6.

Negative potential shifts and the prediction of the outcome of neurofeedback therapy in epilepsy.

Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Holzapfel S, Blankenhorn V, Fröscher W, Birbaumer N.

Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. boris.kotchobey@uni-tuebingen.de

About two-thirds of epilepsy patients who learn to control their slow cortical potential shifts (SCP) reduce their seizure rate, but the remaining third does not demonstrate clinical improvement. In the present study, this finding was replicated in a group of 27 patients with focal epilepsy. We found that patients  who consistently produced larger negative SCP in all conditions during the first  phase of treatment, showed no decrease in seizure frequency during the six-month  follow-up, as compared with the three-month baseline phase. The large negative SCP explained about one-third of the variance of the clinical outcome. Age, medication, seizure history, or the localization of focus were found to be unrelated to clinical improvement.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 10378738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Forsch Komplementarmed. 1999 Feb;6(1):60.

[Psychophonics--essence, demonstration of effective of and indications for a new  cerebral audio regulation therapy]

[Article in German]

Fricker B.

Schweizerische Fördergesellschaft der Psychofonie, Bilten, Schweitz.

PMID: 10213887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Exp Brain Res. 1999 Jan;124(2):223-32.

The thought translation device: a neurophysiological approach to communication in total motor paralysis.

Kübler A, Kotchoubey B, Hinterberger T, Ghanayim N, Perelmouter J, Schauer M, Fritsch C, Taub E, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

A thought translation device (TTD) for brain-computer communication is described. Three patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with total motor paralysis, were trained for several months. In order to enable such patients to communicate without any motor activity, a technique was developed where subjects learn to control their slow cortical potentials (SCP) in a 2-s rhythm, producing either cortical negativity or positivity according to the task  requirement. SCP differences between a baseline interval and an active control interval are transformed into vertical or horizontal cursor movements on a computer screen. Learning SCP self regulation followed an operant-conditioning paradigm with individualized shaping procedures. After prolonged training over more than 100 sessions, all patients achieved self-control, leading to a 70-80% accuracy for two patients. The learned cortical skill enabled the patients to select letters or words in a language-supporting program (LSP) developed for inter-personal communication. The results demonstrate that the fast and stable SCP self-control can be achieved with operant training and without mediation of any muscle activity. The acquired skill allows communication even in total locked-in states.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9928845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biomed Tech (Berl). 1998;43 Suppl:254-5.

[Technical realization of a neural feedback system]

[Article in German]

Fink A, Ivanova G, Henning G, Griessbach G, Müller D.

Institut für Biomedizinische Technik und Informatik, Technische Universität Ilmenau.

PMID: 9859348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1998 Oct;87(2):623-33.

Quantitative electroencephalogram of posterior cortical areas of fluent and stuttering participants during reading with normal and altered auditory feedback.

Rastatter MP, Stuart A, Kalinowski J.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville 27858-4353, USA. RASTATTERM@MAIL.ECU.EDU

In the left and right hemisphere, posterior quantitative electroencephalogram Beta band activity (13.5-25.5 Hz) of seven adult participants who stutter and seven age-matched normal controls was obtained while subjects read text under three experimental conditions of normal auditory feedback, delayed auditory feedback, and frequency-altered feedback. Data were obtained from surface electrodes affixed to the scalp using a commercial electrode cap. Electroencephalogram activity was amplified, band-pass analog-filtered, and then  digitized. During nonaltered auditory feedback, stuttering participants displayed Beta band hyperreactivity, with the right temporal-parietal lobe region showing the greatest activity. Under conditions of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered auditory feedback, the stuttering participants displayed a decrease in stuttering behavior accompanied by a strong reduction in Beta activity for the posterior-temporal-parietal electrode sites, and the left hemisphere posterior sites evidenced a larger area of reactivity. Such findings suggest than an alteration in the electrical fields of the cortex occurred in the stuttering participants under both conditions, possibly reflecting changes in neurogenerator status or current dipole activity. Further, one could propose that stuttering reflects an anomaly of the sensory-linguistic motor integration wherein each hemisphere generates competing linguistic messages at hyperreactive  amplitudes.

PMID: 9842614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Dec 1;44(11):1196-9.

Neurofeedback treatment of pseudoseizure disorder.

Swingle PG.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, USA.

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that the suppression of theta wave activity and the enhancement of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) through electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback is an effective treatment for epilepsy. The current research reports the results of EEG biofeedback treatment for patients presenting with seizure behaviors in the absence of eliptiform EEG activity. METHODS: In addition to psychotherapy, 3 patients, 2 women and 1 man, were trained, using EEG feedback once per week, to reduce the ratio of theta band to SMR band EEG amplitudes. RESULTS: The results showed that reductions in seizure activity were related to reductions in the theta-SMR ratio. CONCLUSIONS:  These findings support the view that theta-SMR feedback training, in conjunction  with psychotherapy, is an effective adjunctive treatment for pseudoseizure disorder.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 9836025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 1998 Sep 11;253(3):159-62.

Learned changes of brain states alter cognitive processing in humans.

Mohr B, Pulvermüller F, Schleichert H.

Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Fachgruppe Psychologie, Universität Konstanz, Germany. bettina.mohr-pulvermueller@uni-konstanz.de

Humans can learn to intentionally control their brain states based on information about their own electrocortical activity. Using an operant conditioning technique, twelve healthy volunteers were trained to shift their slow cortical potentials recorded from left-hemispheric language cortices in the positive versus negative direction. After training, six subjects who achieved reliable control of left-hemispheric brain responses showed substantial modification of word processing. During conditioned negative shifts of cortical potentials (activation condition), responses to words were substantially speeded, whereas lexical decisions were slower during positive shifts of slow cortical potentials  (inhibition condition). No comparable difference was seen in trained participants who failed to achieve control over slow cortical potentials. Additional data suggest that the effect was not related to perception, attention, or motor processes. Thus, operant conditioning can produce focal cortical activity dynamics and thereby modify specific higher cortical processes such as access to  words. This finding may open new perspectives on neuropsychological rehabilitation based on operant conditioning of brain responses.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9792235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 Jul-Aug;28(4):366-75.

Adaptive regulation of the nonlinear dynamics of electrical activity of the brain.

Mogilevskii AYa , Derzhiruk LP, Panchekha AP, Derzhiruk EA.

B. I. Verkin Low-Temperature Physical-Technical Institute, Ukraine.

A programmable system was used to provide contingent reinforcement of EEG cycles  corresponding to a selected criterion in a dynamic regime. Use of automated reinforcing stimulation of emotionally positive zones of the hypothalamus led to  a significant increase in the number of cycles with the characteristics specified by the dynamic regime within the dominant EEG frequency bands. This effect lasted for some time after withdrawal of reinforcing stimulation, and then died down gradually. These changes in the EEG activity structure did not occur in conditions of nonassociated hypothalamic stimulation. Pseudoreinforced background EEG cycles showed complex nonlinear dynamics with competitive interactions between processes in which the large dimensionality of the attractor was difficult to interpret because of indeterminacy in the trends of the dominant process. In contingent hypothalamic stimulation, the form of the correlation integral changed towards a predominance of a single nonlinear process determining all the activity recorded. In fact, a single dominant nonlinear process was formed, which became responsible for the entire dynamics of the system with concordance of its internal structure.

PMID: 9762706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Sep;79(9):1029-33.

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface.

Miner LA, McFarland DJ, Wolpaw JR.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and State University of New York, Albany 12201-0509, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions. METHODS: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned  to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge of a video screen. In subsequent sessions, the  targets were replaced with the words YES and NO, and individuals used the cursor  to answer spoken YES/NO questions from single- or multiple-topic question sets. They confirmed their answers through the response verification (RV) procedure, in which the word positions were switched and the question was answered again. RESULTS: For 5 consecutive sessions after initial question training, individuals  were asked an average of 4.0 to 4.6 questions per minute; 64% to 87% of their answers were confirmed by the RV procedure and 93% to 99% of these answers were correct. Performances for single- and multiple-topic question sets did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that (1) EEG-based cursor control can be used to answer simple questions with a high degree of accuracy, (2) attention to auditory queries and formulation of answers does not interfere with EEG-based cursor control, (3) question complexity (at least as represented by single versus multiple-topic question sets) does not noticeably affect performance, and (4) the RV procedure improves accuracy as expected. Several options for increasing the speed of communication appear promising. An EEG-based  brain-computer interface could provide a new communication and control modality for people with severe motor disabilities.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 9749678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 1998 Aug 21;252(3):171-4.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in completely paralyzed human patients.

Kuebler A, Kotchoubey B, Salzmann HP, Ghanayim N, Perelmouter J, Hömberg V, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. andrea.kuebler@uni-tuebingen.de

The study was intended to answer the question whether self-regulation of brain activity can be operantly learnt when the brain is disconnected from motor periphery. Two neurological patients with nearly complete motor paralysis learned bi-directional control of their slow cortical potentials (SCP) at vertex. After 4-6 weeks training both patients could reliably differentiate between SCP shifts  in a negative versus positive direction. With one patient, training has been continued for a subsequent 4 months, which resulted in precise self-control, i.e. the patient was able to produce positive SCP shifts on command with an accuracy of about 95%. This indicates that self-regulation of cortical excitability (as manifested in the SCP) does not require feedback loops from the periphery. Although we cannot rule out that healthy subjects may employ behavioral strategies such as muscle contractions or changes in breathing, obviously humans  can also control their SCP without using these strategies.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9739988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1998 Apr-Jun;33(2):176-207.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback methodology and the management of epilepsy.

Lubar JF.

University of Tennessee-Memphis, USA.

Currently considerable research is being directed toward developing methodologies for controlling internal processes. An applied branch of the basic field of psychophysiology, known as biofeedback, has developed to fulfill clinical needs related to such control. Current scientific and popular literature abounds with numerous examples of how biofeedback is being used. For example, germinal studies by Kamiya (1962), and later work by Lynch and Paskewitz (1971), Beatty (1973), as well as many others have shown that the EEG alpha rhythm (8 to 13 Hz) recorded from occipital regions of the human brain can be behaviorally manipulated when feedback or reward is provided for changing the density of this activity. Other researchers have provided evidence that theta activity (4 to 7 Hz) and the beta activity (greater than 14 Hz) can also be controlled by humans and analogs of this activity have been conditioned in animals as well (Green, Green and Walters, 1971). In addition to the work that has been carried out with the EEG, researchers such as Engle and Bleecker (1973) have indicated that it might be possible to control cardiac arrhythmias through biofeedback. Studies by Elder et  al. (1973) have provided some hope that blood pressure in humans might also be conditioned. Also, considerable effort has been directed to the control of responses from single muscles with particular applied emphasis in neuromuscular rehabilitation, control of muscle tension for tension headaches and the management of migraine headaches through vasomotor conditioning (Brudny et al., 1974; Basmajian, 1963, 1971; Sargent et al., 1973).

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Review

PMID: 9737738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Sep;4(5):44-52, 54-60, 62.

Heart-focused attention and heart-brain synchronization: energetic and physiological mechanisms.

Song LZ, Schwartz GE, Russek LG.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

CONTEXT: Many relaxation, meditation, and imagery techniques that implicitly or explicitly involve focused attention on the body, including qigong, massage, and  noncontact therapeutic touch, purportedly employ energetic and physiological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To show that, from a perspective of dynamical energy systems, relaxed self-attention enhances connectivity between the brain and body. This enhanced connectivity may be achieved by at least 2 mechanisms: (1) physiological mechanisms employing peripheral negative feedback loops, and (2) bioelectromagnetic mechanisms involving direct energetic resonance between the peripheral organ and the brain. DESIGN: 19 channels of electroencephalogram, 1 electrocardiogram, and 2 channels of electro-oculogram were recorded from 22 subjects who focused their attention on their heartbeats or eye movements, with and without kinesthetic (touch) biofeedback to increase somatic awareness. RESULTS: Analyses of the electroencephalogram synchronized with the electrocardiogram revealed significant effects for heart-focused attention, primarily with touch biofeedback, following the contraction of the ventricles (possibly reflecting increased baroreceptor and somatosensory feedback); and significant effects for heart-focused attention, with and without touch biofeedback, preceding the contraction of the ventricles (possibly reflecting direct electromagnetic interactions between the heart and the brain). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that energetic and physiological mechanisms may be involved in techniques in which the goal is to promote mind-body integration and health.

PMID: 9737031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 1998 Jul;7(1):49-56.

Effects of cortical polarization on mental arithmetic.

Pauli P, Schleichert H, Bourne LE Jr, Birbaumer N.

University of Tübingen, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Tübingen, Germany paul.pauli@uni-tuebingen.de

A biofeedback procedure was used to influence participants' cortical polarity before the presentation of single digit multiplication problems. To ensure that participants could solve the problems by direct memory retrieval of arithmetic facts, only nine different multiplication problems were used, and participants received extensive pre-experimental practice on these problems. After biofeedback training, cortical positivity before problem presentation was associated with faster response initiation times, a measure of mental calculation time, for correctly solved problems and with more multiplication errors than cortical negativity. Response execution time, a measure of motor speed, was not affected by cortical polarity. The shift in positivity from the amplitude of the slow cortical potential (SCP) before problem presentation to the amplitude of the positive slow wave (pSW) after problem presentation was less in positivity-required compared to negativity-required trials, mainly because of the manipulation of SCP starting points by biofeedback. We assume that cortical positivity is associated with direct retrieval of arithmetic facts, more precisely with the inhibition of incorrect answers. Cortical positivity before task presentation results in a reduced positive shift, a sign of less inhibition  before answer production. The effect of less inhibition during positivity-required trials is to produce faster responses and more errors. The opposite might to be true of cortical negativity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 9714730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 May-Jun;28(3):330-5.

"Brain music" in the treatment of patients with insomnia.

Levin YaI .

Department of Nervous Diseases, Faculty of Postgraduate Professional Education, I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy.

The effects of a new nonpharmacological method of treating insomnia-"brain music"-were studied. The method is based on the transformation of the EEG into music using a special algorithm developed by the authors. Sleep polygrams were recorded and analyzed, and EEG segments corresponding to different sleep phases were identified using standard criteria, and were transformed into music. Patients listened to the resulting audio cassettes before going to sleep. Clinical, questionnaire, psychological, and electrophysiological (polysomnographic, electroencephalographic) methods were used before and after 15-day treatment courses in 58 patients with insomnia, who were divided into two  groups: group 1 (44 patients) formed the experimental group, and group 2 (14 patients) formed the "placebo" group (in whom the "brain music" of a different patient was used). "Brain music" was found to have positive effects in more than  80% of the insomniac patients both from the point of view of subjective sensations and in terms of objective studies, i.e. neuropsychological and neurophysiological investigations. The high efficacy of "brain music" in patients with insomnia was combined with an absence of side effects and complications.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 9682240 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Dec;22(4):227-45.

Direction of temperature control in the thermal biofeedback treatment of vascular headache.

Blanchard EB, Peters ML, Hermann C, Turner SM, Buckley TC, Barton K, Dentinger MP.

Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany-SUNY, New York 12203, USA.

In order to test for the specific therapeutic effects of thermal biofeedback (TBF) for hand warming on vascular headache (HA), 70 patients with chronic vascular HA were randomly assigned to TBF for hand warming, TBF for hand cooling, TBF for stabilization of hand temperature, or biofeedback to suppress alpha in the EEG. Patients in each condition initially had high levels of expectation of therapeutic benefit and found the treatment rationales highly credible. Participants in each condition received 12 treatment sessions on a twice-per-week basis. Based on daily HA diary data gathered for 4 weeks prior to treatment and 4 weeks after treatment, HA Index was significantly (p = .003) reduced as was HA medication consumption. There were no differential reductions in HA Index or Medication Index among the four conditions. Global self-reports of improvement gathered at the end of the post-treatment monitoring period also did not differ among the four conditions. We were unable to demonstrate a specific effect of TBF for hand warming on vascular HA activity.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 9595177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 Jan-Feb;28(1):8-16.

Functional rearrangements in the human brain during emotional self-regulation with biological feedback.

Popova EI, Mikheev VF, Shuvaev VT, Ivonin AA, Chernyakov GM.

Laboratory for the Physiology of Higher Nervous Activity, I. P. Pavlov Institute  of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

The concept that functional psychopathology producing phobic syndromes is mediated by a specific deficiency in the integrative activity of the brain as a loss or partial limitation of the ability to recognize subjective experiences was used to develop a special method for mobilizing the selective attention of patients to the time course of subjective states. The fact of recognition of a state was demonstrated by the patient's ability to reproduce it by achieving specific parameters in a biological feedback test based on skin electrical responses. Success was positively reinforced by avoidance of an anxiously expected electrical stimulus. After successful training, patients could spontaneously adaptively correct their general daily behavior. Computer analysis  of EEG traces revealed the specific structural-functional features of various states provoked during training.

PMID: 9513971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Neurophysiol. 1997 Nov;14(6):529-38.

Timing of EEG-based cursor control.

Wolpaw JR, Flotzinger D, Pfurtscheller G, McFarland DJ.

Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health and State University of New York, Albany 12201-0509, USA.

Recent studies show that humans can learn to control the amplitude of electroencephalography (EEG) activity in specific frequency bands over sensorimotor cortex and use it to move a cursor to a target on a computer screen. EEG-based communication could be a valuable new communication and control option  for those with severe motor disabilities. Realization of this potential requires  detailed knowledge of the characteristic features of EEG control. This study examined the course of EEG control after presentation of a target. At the beginning of each trial, a target appeared at the top or bottom edge of the subject's video screen and 1 sec later a cursor began to move vertically as a function of EEG amplitude in a specific frequency band. In well-trained subjects, this amplitude was high at the time the target appeared and then either remained  high (i.e., for a top target) or fell rapidly (i.e., for a bottom target). Target-specific EEG amplitude control began 0.5 sec after the target appeared and appeared to wax and wane with a period of approximately 1 sec until the cursor reached the target (i.e., a hit) or the opposite edge of the screen (i.e., a miss). Accuracy was 90% or greater for each subject. Top-target errors usually occurred later in the trial because of failure to reach and/or maintain sufficiently high amplitude, whereas bottom-target errors usually occurred immediately because of failure to reduce an initially high amplitude quickly enough. The results suggest modifications that could improve performance. These include lengthening the intertrial period, shortening the delay between target appearance and cursor movement, and including time within the trial as a variable in the equation that translates EEG into cursor movement.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 9458060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1997 Sep-Oct;47(5):898-907.

[Differences in human evoked visual potentials depending on the capacity for the  self-regulation of their parameters by feedback]

[Article in Russian]

Mnatsakanian EV.

The individual characteristics of the VEP spatio-temporal patterns were studied depending on a capability of a subject for VEP biofeedback conditioning. Thirty two healthy adult volunteers had to modify their N100-P200 VEP component (Cz derivation) within a selected time window in order to increase the number of trials in which the amplitude of the segment from the beginning of the sample to  the positive peak exceeded a definite threshold. In addition to traditional visual assessment of topographical maps, the statistical analysis of multichannel VEPs and component analysis for Cz, O1, and O2 were carried out for each discrete time sample. The differences were observed in the spatio-temporal VEP patterns for successful and unsuccessful performance. In the background sessions, the central and occipital P200 components were much the same in the subjects which succeeded in task performance, whereas the central component was noticeably higher than the occipital one in the subjects who were unsuccessful in biofeedback control. During successful performance, there was a reduction of the  occipital P200. Thus, the relationships of VEP components in the central and occipital derivations can predict successful biofeedback conditioning and may reflect the prevalence of verbal and non-verbal thinking.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 9454470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Med Tekh. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):30-3.

[Measurement and estimation system for monitoring physiologic parameters of man and biological feedback training]

[Article in Russian]

Egorov AV.

A flexible instrumental programmed system realizing the biological feedback (BFB) method and permitting an easy tuning of the channels and parameters for treatment and reflection of physiological information is designed. A measurement and estimation real-time medical system for monitoring and BFB training is described, based on visual programming. An example of practical clinical application of the  system to BFB training for the EEG rhythms is offered.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 9445978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1997 Sep;36(9):497-504.

The practical aspects of diagnosing and managing children with attention deficit  hyperactivity disorder.

Wolraich ML, Baumgaertel A.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-3573, USA.

AD/HD is a behaviorally defined disorder with specific behavioral criteria. The most recent definitions decrease heterogeneity by defining subtypes although the  current treatments tend to be more generic. The main well-established treatments  are stimulant medication and behavior modification, which are most effective when used together.

PMID: 9307083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Jun;22(2):111-26.

Neocortical dynamics: implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention.

Lubar JF.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996-0900, USA.

For nearly 25 years, EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) has been utilized in research and clinical settings for the treatment and investigation of a number of disorders ranging from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to seizure disorders as well as many other established and investigational applications. Until recently, mechanisms underlying the generation and origins of EEG have been poorly understood but now are beginning to become much more clarified. Now it is  important to combine the information gathered on the genesis of EEG and neocortical dynamics with the findings from neurofeedback investigations. This will help us to develop models of how neurofeedback might operate in producing the changes in EEG and in clinical symptomatology. We know that the cortex operates in terms of resonant loops between neocortical columns of cells known as local, regional, and global resonances. These resonances determine the specific EEG frequencies and are often activated by groups of cells in the thalamus known  as pacemakers. There are complex excitatory and inhibitory interactions within the cortex and between the cortex and the thalamus that allow these loops to operate and provide the basis for learning. Neurofeedback is a technique for modifying these resonant loops, and hence, modifying the neurophysiological and neurological basis for learning and for the management of a number of neurologically based disorders. This paper provides an introduction to understanding EEG and neocortical dynamics and how these concepts can be used to  explain the results of neurofeedback training and other interventions particularly in the context of understanding attentive mechanisms and for the management of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 9341967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Jun;22(2):77-93.

A new method for self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in a timed paradigm.

Kotchoubey B, Schleichert H, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

A new method of slow cortical potential (SCP) biofeedback is described, in which  subjects were presented with a sequence of two alternating tones. Subjects learned to adjust their SCPs with the 4-s rhythm of presented tones by producing  directed SCP changes only in certain inter-tone intervals. Specifically, they learned to simultaneously produce two EEG signals: 1) positive or negative SCP shift at vertex, and 2) SCP asymmetry between the right and the left central area. After one training session, 13 healthy participants were able to differentiate significantly between the negativity and the positivity conditions; this differentiation was achieved within less than 300 ms after the discriminative signal, i.e. much faster than in previous studies employing traditional SCP biofeedback technique. However, these participants did not produce a significant hemispheric asymmetry in the first session. In the second experiment, five subjects participated in prolonged training (6 to 17 sessions).  Highly significant control of SCP asymmetry over the precentral cortex was attained in four out of five participants. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method as compared with the "classical" SCP biofeedback technique are discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9341965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neuroreport. 1997 May 27;8(8):1867-70.

Stability of cortical self-regulation in epilepsy patients.

Kotchoubey B, Blankenhorn V, Fröscher W, Strehl U, Birbaumer N.

Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Biofeedback-supported self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCP) is increasingly being used for treatment of intractable epilepsy. However, it is unknown whether the acquired ability to regulate one's own cortical potentials remains stable over time. In this study, 18 patients with drug-resistant partial  epilepsy performed 35 training sessions in which they learned to generate slow cortical potential shifts in either positive or negative direction. At the end of training, they differentiated significantly between required cortical positivity  and required cortical negativity. Six months after this point, they still demonstrated an unchanged between-condition differentiation. The performance in the booster session was particularly good in trials without continuous SCP feedback. The ability to generate positive SCP shifts was related to decrease of  seizure frequency during the 6 months follow-up period compared with the 3 month  baseline period. This data indicate that the acquired ability of humans to regulate their cortical potentials did not decrease over a 6 month period but rather, tended to consolidate.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9223067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Mar;22(1):3-20.

The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects.

Rosenfeld JP, Reinhart AM, Srivastava S.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-5190, USA.

Two different groups of normal college students were formed: One (the alpha group) received 10-Hz audiovisual (AV) stimulation for 8 minutes, and the other (beta) group received 22-Hz AV stimulation for 8 minutes. EEG power in the alpha  (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands was FFT-extracted before, during, and for 24  minutes after stimulation. It was found that baseline (prestimulation) alpha and  beta power predict the effects of stimulation, leading to individual differences  in responsivity. High-baseline alpha participants showed either no entrainment or relatively prolonged entrainment with alpha stimulation. Low-baseline participants showed transient entrainment. Baseline alpha also predicted the direction of change in alpha with beta stimulation. Baseline beta and alpha predicted beta band response to beta stimulation, which was transient enhancement in some participants, inhibition in others. Some participants showed relatively prolonged beta enhancement with beta stimulation.

PMID: 9287252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1997 Feb;84(1):226.

Auditory brainwave stimulation in treating alcoholic depression.

Waldkoetter RO, Sanders GO.

An auditory technology is briefly examined describing brainwave patterns and use  associated with lower mean MMPI-2 Depression reported by 9 alcoholics at posttest than 15 controls. An exploratory trial with Native Alaskans/Americans gave positive indications for some consideration as a further alternative treatment.

PMID: 9132712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 1997 Jan 17;221(2-3):117-20.

Frontal interhemispheric asymmetry: self regulation and individual differences in humans.

Hardman E, Gruzelier J, Cheesman K, Jones C, Liddiard D, Schleichert H, Birbaumer N.

Laboratory of Neuro-Psychophysiology, Department of Psychiatry, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London, UK.

Sixteen subjects naive to biofeedback learned lateralised interhemispheric control of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) across electrode sites F3-F4 during three sessions of visual electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback. Subjects were required to generate slow negativity shifts either towards the left or the right  hemisphere in sixty pseudorandomly ordered trials per session. Group 1 (n = 8) were told to use emotional strategies in the task (positive emotions for left hemisphere activation, negative emotion for right hemisphere activation), group 2 received no guidance. Both groups received feedback in the form of an on-screen rocket-ship, initially centrally placed, which rose to indicate an increase in left hemisphere negativity (relative to the right hemisphere) and fell to indicate an increase in right hemisphere negativity (relative to the left hemisphere). A 2 x 3 x 3 x 2 ANOVA (group x session x block x trial) showed no performance differences between the strategy and no strategy groups. Both groups  learned to produce correct direction shifts in the final third of each session during both trial types (P < 0.001). The no strategy group showed a particularly  strong within session learning effect (P < 0.0037) with poor performance in the early part of the sessions, and strong shifts at the end. Subjects high on withdrawal showed stronger rightward shifts in keeping with right hemisphere involvement in behavioural withdrawal. This is the first demonstration of self regulation of interhemispheric frontal asymmetry.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9121678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1997 Jan-Feb;23(1):140-2.

[Psychophysiological training of rhythmic regulatory nervous processes in patients with bronchial asthma]

[Article in Russian]

Lovitskiĭ SV.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 9162650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Dec;21(4):323-34.

Treatment of a depressive disorder patient with EEG-driven photic stimulation.

Kumano H, Horie H, Shidara T, Kuboki T, Suematsu H, Yasushi M.

Department of Human Behavioral Science, School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

This study examined the effects of electroencephalographic- (EEG-) driven photic  stimulation on a case of depressive disorder, as measured by a psychometric test  of mood states, EEG parameters, and several autonomic indices. The EEG-driven photic stimulation enhances the alpha rhythm of brain waves using photic signals, the brightness of which is modulated by a subject's own alpha rhythm. The patient was a 37-year-old businessman, who was treated for depression with medication during the 13 months prior to his first visit to our hospital. He underwent two sets of inpatient treatment sessions, comprising first 16 and then 18 treatment sessions. The treatments brought about the following changes: an improvement in general mood state, alpha rhythm increase, cardiac parasympathetic suppression, and increased skin conductance level. In addition, significant correlations between alpha rhythm increase and cardiac parasympathetic suppression or cardiac  sympathetic predominance were observed with each inpatient treatment. Significant correlations between alpha rhythm increase, cardiac parasympathetic suppression,  or cardiac sympathetic predominance and the improvement of general mood state were also observed. Thus, from these observations, it was concluded that the alpha enhancement induced by EEG-driven photic stimulation produced an improvement in the patient's depressive symptomatology connected with cardiac parasympathetic suppression and sympathetic predominance.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 9031711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Dec;21(4):303-9.

Alpha brainwave training and perception of time passing: preliminary findings.

Wacker MS.

The ability to generate alpha brainwaves has been associated with the self-regulation of stress. It has been suggested that generation of these brainwaves, above what is to be expected in a normal 24-hour EEG, contributes to  an expanded state of consciousness. This study attempted to test Newman's theory  that expansion of consciousness could be observed in perception of time passing.  Twenty female college students were randomly assigned to an alpha brainwave training or beta (mock) brainwave training group. Following ten 30-minute training sessions over a five-week period of time, each subject in each group was asked to produce ten randomly assigned time intervals. Mean scores were obtained  for each of the ten intervals for each group. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze the time interval perceptions of each group. According to results obtained, both main effects and interaction effects were highly significant (p < .0001). This study offers a beginning effort to examine the consciousness altering capability of alpha brainwave generation.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 9031709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1996 Dec;24(3):197-212.

Pre- and post-stimulus processes in affective task and event-related desynchronization (ERD): do they discriminate anxiety coping styles?

Aftanas LI, Koshkarov VI, Pokrovskaja VL, Lotova NV, Mordvintsev YN.

Psychophysiology Laboratory, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia. aftanas@pslphys.nsk.su

The present investigation was designed to study whether pre-stimulus (as measured by EEG power in the time interval before the stimulus presentation) and post-stimulus (as measured by event-related desynchronization (ERD)) processes of alpha components in two frequency bands (8-10 and 10-12 Hz) and their scalp distribution discriminate among anxiety coping styles in an affective task. We investigated this question by using a sample of 30 college students who were split into three groups consisting of 10 low-anxious (LA) and 10 high-anxious (HA) subjects, and 10 repressors (RE). In the present study, positive and negative emotions were operationalized by winning and losing certain amounts of money in gambling situation while measuring ERD to positive and negative feedback stimuli. The main findings of the prestimulus data analyses suggest that the prestimulus level of alpha power is sensitive to the anxiety coping styles. In terms of ERD effects, HA individuals were marked by relatively larger left-hemisphere activation compared to low-anxious subjects and repressors. Further, in contrast to LA and RE, the phenomena observed in our experiment of increased and extended ERD over time in HA in response to negative feedback stimulation implies that threatening information (loss of money) is more persistently activated in subjects with high anxiety. Although preliminary, the reported findings are of potential importance because they could lead to the development of a new psychophysiological measure of relevance to personality.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 8993995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsy Res. 1996 Nov;25(3):269-76.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in epilepsy: a retrial with analysis  of influencing factors.

Kotchoubey B, Schneider D, Schleichert H, Strehl U, Uhlmann C, Blankenhorn V, Fröscher W, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Twenty sessions of biofeedback training were carried out with 12 drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsy who learned to produce either negative or positive shifts of their slow cortical potentials (SCPs) at vertex. Feedback trials were interspersed with transfer trials in which only a discriminative stimulus (signalizing whether positivity or negativity was required) was presented, without feedback signal. Patients were able to differentiate significantly between the conditions of cortical positivity and cortical negativity, with larger differentiation scores being obtained in feedback trials than in transfer  trials. The amplitude of positivity generated in the positivity condition increased linearly across sessions both in feedback and in transfer trials. The largest negativity was produced in the 5th session; after this, more transient negativities were generated, whose amplitude decreased towards the end of trial.  The mean severity of seizures, estimated as the frequency of seizures weighted by their subjective 'strength', decreased significantly after training as compared to the pre-training phase. The data suggest that (1) patients could learn to achieve a state of cortical disfacilitation and (2) with progressed learning, they became less motivated for (or afraid of) producing considerable negative shifts, since extensive negativity may reflect cortical over-excitation and therefore be associated with early signs of seizures. The inability of producing  cortical negativity is however not necessarily a bad predictor.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 8956926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 1996 Sep 6;215(2):91-4.

Self-regulation of interhemispheric asymmetry in humans.

Kotchoubey B, Schleichert H, Lutzenberger W, Anokhin AP, Birbaumer N.

Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. boris.kotchoubey@uni-tuebingen.de

Five healthy right-handed subjects learned to control hemispheric asymmetry with  biofeedback of the amplitude difference of slow cortical potentials between the left and the right precentral areas. Six training sessions were conducted with subject I, 12 sessions with subjects II and III, and 14 sessions, with subjects IV and V. Performance of four out of five subjects improved continuously as a function of sessions. Towards the end of training, these subjects demonstrated highly significant differentiation between conditions where right versus left precentral negativity was required. In subject V, no improvement was observed after 14 training sessions. The data indicate that most subjects can learn to self-generate fast electroencephalograph (EEG) differences between the left and the right sensorimotor cortical regions.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8888003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1996 Sep-Oct;22(5):104-8.

[Spatial organization of cortical electric activity in voluntary regulation of the heart rate]

[Article in Russian]

Glazkova VA, Sviderskaia NE, Korol'kova TA.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 9053336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Sep;21(3):273-90.

Biodesensitization: biofeedback-controlled systematic desensitization of the stress response to infant crying.

Tyson PD.

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Infant crying can be a source of parental stress both psychologically and physiologically and also may be an antecedent to physical child abuse or neglect. Biodesensitization is a new therapeutic technique that allows people to control the source of stress and develop self-control over their physiological responses  to the stress-eliciting stimuli. Randomly assigned between three groups, 15 female participants were either given EEG biofeedback pretraining without stress, pretraining while listening to infant crying, or no stress management pretraining while listening to crying. After the pretraining manipulation all participants had biodesensitization training while listening to infant crying. Compared to control participants who were habituated to crying, stress management training significantly reduced the EEG cortical arousal as well as perceived arousal, and  anxiety associated with listening to infant crying. The shift in participants' EEG power spectrum produced by infant crying was significantly correlated with perceived arousal and this relationship was strengthened after biofeedback training. In conjunction with other research, the experimental results suggest that stress management training may help ameliorate an aversive response to infant crying and possibly prevent child abuse as a response to physiological hyperreactivity.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8894059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1996 Aug-Sep;23(1-2):137-41.

Preliminary evidence that daily changes in frontal alpha asymmetry correlate with changes in affect in therapy sessions.

Rosenfeld JP, Baehr E, Baehr R, Gotlib IH, Ranganath C.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-2710, USA.  jp-rosenfeld@nwu.edu

Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry was recorded from five depressed outpatients during early EEG biofeedback sessions. Mood was assessed prior to and after each session, and affect change scores were also derived by subtracting pre-session from post-session scores. Alpha magnitude was obtained via Fast Fourier Transforms. All scores (EEG alpha asymmetry and affect) were converted to deviation scores by subtracting each patient's daily score from that patient's mean across all available sessions for that patient. Pearson correlations were then computed between asymmetry and affect scores using the deviation scores combined over patients. There was little evidence of correlation between day-to-day asymmetry score and any single affect score. Strong correlations were  obtained, however, between asymmetry score and affect change score and, in particular, between asymmetry score and change in positive affect.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 8880374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Mar;21(1):35-49.

Erratum in:     1996 Sep;21(3):297.

A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities.

Linden M, Habib T, Radojevic V.

Mission Psychological Consultants, San Juan Capistrano, California 92675, USA.

Eighteen children with ADD/ADHD, some of whom were also LD, ranging in ages from  5 through 15 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The experimental condition consisted of 40 45-minute sessions of training in enhancing beta activity and suppressing theta activity, spaced over 6 months. The control condition, waiting list group, received no EEG biofeedback. No other psychological treatment or medication was administered to any subjects. All subjects were measured at pretreatment and at posttreatment on an IQ test and parent behavior rating scales for inattention, hyperactivity, and aggressive/defiant (oppositional) behaviors. At posttreatment the experimental group demonstrated a significant increase (mean of 9 points) on the K-Bit IQ Composite as compared to the control group (p <.05). The experimental group also  significantly reduced inattentive behaviors as rated by parents (p < .05). The significant improvements in intellectual functioning and attentive behaviors might be explained as a result of the attentional enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback training. Further research utilizing improved data collection and analysis, more stringent control groups, and larger sample sizes are needed to support and replicate these findings.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8833315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Mar;21(1):3-33.

Physiological origins and functional correlates of EEG rhythmic activities: implications for self-regulation.

Sterman MB.

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, CA 91343, USA.

Recent neurophysiological findings in relation to thalamocortical mechanisms for  sensory processing, together with established anatomical and expanding functional evidence, have provided a rational theoretical framework for the interpretation of normal and abnormal EEG rhythmic activities. This perspective is integrated here with earlier animal studies which were the foundation for many current applications of EEG self-regulation as a clinical tool. Basic evidence concerning the origins, frequency modulation, and functional significance of normal EEG rhythmic activities is reviewed here in an effort to provide guiding principles for the interpretation of clinical abnormalities and their remediation with EEG feedback training.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 8833314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1996 Feb;82(2):32-43.

[Functional transformations of the human brain during emotional self-regulation with biofeedback]

[Article in Russian]

Popova EI, Mikheev VF, Shuvaev VT, Ivonin AA, Cherniakov GM.

By means of a special technique, mobilising of a subject's selective attention upon the dynamics of the subjective sphere states, was reached. An involved biofeedback was positively reinforced by avoidance of an expected electric stimulus. The subjects revealed occurrence of an adaptive correction of their general behaviour. The EEG computer analysis manifested a specifics of structural-functional maintenance of different states evoked in the training process.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 8768129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Behav Med. 1996 Summer;22(2):77-81.

EEG biofeedback as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome: a controlled case report.

James LC, Folen RA.

Department of Psychology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, USA.

EEG neurofeedback has been identified as a potential diagnostic and treatment protocol with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms. In the present case study, the authors applied an EEG neurofeedback biofeedback paradigm as a treatment modality with a CFS patient. Baseline data were acquired using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and qualitative and subjective ratings of cognitive improvement. Test results and clinical findings revealed improvements in the patient's cognitive abilities, functional skill level, and quality of life. The patient showed significant differences in pre- and posttest levels on the Wechsler scale.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 8879459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Lett. 1995 Nov 24;200(3):183-6.

Simultaneous recording of slow brain potentials and transcranial magnetic stimulation of hand area in human motor cortex.

Häusler UH, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

Institut für Medizinische Psychologie und Verhaltensneurobiologie Universität Tübingen, Germany.

Recording of slow brain potentials (SPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) of the human motor cortex were combined to probe the relationship between  SP level and excitability of cortical neurons. In experiment 1, TCMS was applied  during and shortly after the warning interval in a forewarned reaction time task. Electromyographic (EMG) responses to TCMS increased only slightly during the warning interval and were significantly elevated 150 ms after the imperative stimulus. In experiment 2, TCMS was applied during biofeedback-induced cortical positivity and negativity. In this non-motor task a dependence of TCMS response on SP amplitude was not significant. Results indicate higher local excitability of motor cortex during cortical negativity when a preparatory motor task is required. TCMS may better be suited to probe processes involved in motor tasks rather than non-motor and cognitive conditions.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 9064607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1995 Nov-Dec;21(6):14-28.

[Correction of neuro-psychic maladjustment disorders using functional EEG biofeedback]

[Article in Russian]

Soroko SI, Musuraliev TZh, Komarover IN.

PMID: 8566512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1995 Sep;51(5):685-93.

Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms.

Saxby E, Peniston EG.

Biofeedback Center, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA.

This was an experimental study of 14 alcoholic outpatients using the Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1991) brainwave treatment protocol for alcohol abuse. After temperature biofeedback pretraining, experimental subjects completed 20 40-minute sessions of alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training (BWNT). Experimentally treated alcoholics with depressive syndrome showed sharp reductions in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory). On the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-I, the experimental subjects showed significant decreases on the BR scores: schizoid, avoidant, dependent, histrionic, passive-aggression, schizotypal, borderline, anxiety, somatoform, hypomanic, dysthmic, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychotic thinking, and psychotic depression. Twenty-one-month follow-up data indicated sustained prevention of relapse in alcoholics who completed BWNT.

PMID: 8801245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1995 Sep-Oct;21(5):5-17.

[Feasibility of directed rearrangement of human EEG parameters using adaptive biocontrol]

[Article in Russian]

Soroko SI, Musuraliev TZh.

PMID: 8566501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Sep;20(3):241-58.

Operant (biofeedback) control of left-right frontal alpha power differences: potential neurotherapy for affective disorders.

Rosenfeld JP, Cha G, Blair T, Gotlib IH.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

Two experiments were done with subjects from a paid pool of undergraduates. In each study, there were five 1-hour sessions on each of 5 days: (1) Baseline: Rewards given for randomly selected 20% of the 700-ms sequential epochs; mean and SD of baseline power differences determined. 2) Exploration: Subjects were rewarded when right minus left alpha differences in an epoch were greater than the baseline mean plus about .85 SD (p = .20); subjects told to discover how to generate rewards. (3)-(5). Training: Subjects were paid (over and above the $8/h  flat rate) in proportion to their hit rates. In the first study (in which active  filters passed 8-12 Hz activity, and the rectified, integrated amplitude was utilized), 6 of 8 subjects met learning criteria (a significant difference between baseline and training scores). In the second study (in which on-line FFTs were used to extract alpha power), 3 of 5 subjects met learning criteria.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7495918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Sep;20(3):211-28.

Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: a single case study.

Rozelle GR, Budzynski TH.

Center for Behavioral Medicine, University of West Florida, Pensacola, USA.

A 55-year-old male subject was treated with a two-tiered neurotherapy approach for a period of six months beginning approximately one year after a left-side CVA. Medical evaluation revealed left posterior temporal/parietal infarctions secondary to occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. The patient complained of hesitant speech with word finding difficulty and paraphasia, difficulty focusing his right eye, lack of balance and coordination, poor short-term memory, poor concentration, anxiety, depression, and tinnitus. A quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) analysis revealed increased left-side 4-7-Hz activity and alpha persistence on eye opening. Two neurotherapy approaches were used beginning with electroencephalographic entrainment feedback (EEF). This was followed by neurofeedback to inhibit 4-7 Hz and increase 15-21 Hz over sensorimotor and speech areas. At the conclusion of treatment there were significant reductions in slow-wave activity. Improvement was evident in speech fluency, word finding, balance and coordination, attention, and concentration. Depression, anxiety, and tinnitus were greatly reduced.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7495916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1995 Jul-Aug;45(4):676-85.

[The conditioning of the N100-P200 component of the human visual evoked potential by using biofeedback]

[Article in Russian]

Mnatsakanian EV, Dorokhov VB.

Subjects were instructed to modify their N100-P200 component of VEP (in Cz recording) within selected time window. The aim was to increase the number of VEPs for which the amplitude of segment in question exceeded the definite threshold. The success in task performance suggests several modifications of the  to-be-conditioned segment through different mechanisms. Of our 26 subjects, 14 were able to modify their VEPs according to the task demands. However, the latter subjects could be divided into 2 groups on the basis of the rate of increase in the number of correct responses under conditioning. Subjects which did not succeed in task performance could be also classed into 2 groups: one group with statistically negligible changes and the other decreasing the number of correct responses. ANOVA has shown significant distinctions in task performance for the groups with different levels of self-estimation of tiredness after experiment and different personal strategies. The success in task performance is likely to be dependent on the values of Eysenck questionnaire scales and topography of alpha activity.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8540251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1995 May-Jun;45(3):577-9.

[Functional biofeedback control as a procedure for correcting the psychophysiological status of a child]

[Article in Russian]

Bogdanov OV, Sheliakin AM, Preobrazhenskaia IG, Katysheva MV, Malinina ES.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 7645333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1995 Apr;19(3):263-79.

Human EEG, behavioral stillness and biofeedback.

Mulholland T.

VA Medical Center, Psychology Service (116B), Bedford, MA 01730, USA.

This theoretical synthesis affirms that the normal human EEG is: (1) an indicator of movements of behavior; (2) an undifferentiated indicator of cortical work; but (3) not an indicator of mental processes. A majority of cortical work for an awake person is the mobilization and regulation of all the processes involved in  the production, control and prediction of movements of behavior. Abundant synchronous slow waves (alpha, mu, sensory-motor rhythm) indicate a demobilization of voluntary and reflexive, phasic neuromuscular processes which predict, initiate, regulate, and terminate voluntary behavior and movement with a corresponding reduction of afferent feedback associated with sensory data capture, sensory motor integration and behavior. Cortical theta in association with drowsiness indicates that there is further demobilization of reflexive, synergistic, neuromuscular process (as for gait, defensive responses, anti-gravity support), and a reduction of tonic processes which maintain muscle tone or tension with concomitant further reduction of afferent feedback. These various states of behavioral stillness are the catalyst of beneficial psychological and behavioral processes which have been observed to follow biofeedback training to increase synchronous EEG rhythms, and may provide a therapeutic context for psychotherapeutic interventions.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 7558993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Mar;20(1):83-99.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance.

Lubar JF, Swartwood MO, Swartwood JN, O'Donnell PH.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996-0900, USA.

A study with three component parts was performed to assess the effectiveness of neurofeedback treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The  subject pool consisted of 23 children and adolescents ranging in age from 8 to 19 years with a mean of 11.4 years who participated in a 2- to 3-month summer program of intensive neurofeedback training. Feedback was contingent on the production of 16-20 hertz (beta) activity in the absence of 4-8 hertz (theta) activity. Posttraining changes in EEG activity, T.O.V.A. performance, (ADDES) behavior ratings, and WISC-R performance were assessed. Part I indicated that subjects who successfully decreased theta activity showed significant improvement in T.O.V.A. performance; Part II revealed significant improvement in parent ratings following neurofeedback training; and Part III indicated significant increases in WISC-R scores following neurofeedback training. This study is significant in that it examines the effects of neurofeedback training on both objective and subjective measures under relatively controlled conditions. Our findings corroborate and extend previous research, indicating that neurofeedback  training can be an appropriate and efficacious treatment for children with ADHD.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7786929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1995 Feb;23(1):125-40.

Some nontraditional (unconventional and/or innovative) psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents: critique and proposed screening principles.

Arnold LE.

Child and Adolescent Disorders Research Branch, NIMH, Rockville, Maryland 20587,  USA.

Five examples of nontraditional psychosocial treatments used for children/adolescents are reviewed: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback, deep pressure/touch therapies, stress-challenge treatments, and confrontational scare treatments. The generic recommendations from the September 1992 National Institutes of Health Conference  on Unconventional Medical Treatments are summarized. Additional screening principles specific for psychosocial treatments are proposed and applied to the five treatments. The screens do not validate treatment efficacy or evaluate the quality of any previous research, but only facilitate decisions as to whether treatments deserve controlled investigation. Scientific evaluation of the nontraditional treatments reviewed could in general benefit from blinds (at least for assessment); control conditions matched for intensity, frequency, and duration (double blind where feasible); dose-response studies; testing of generalization and endurance supplements or boosters for quick, cheap treatments  with time- or domain-limited effects; and comparing cost-effectiveness with established treatments. Two unscientific pitfalls must be avoided: embracing new  treatments uncritically and rejecting them without fair examination. These pitfalls must be skirted without dissipating scarce research resources.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 7759671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Child Abuse Negl. 1994 Nov;18(11):933-43.

Perceptual responses to infant crying after EEG biofeedback assisted stress management training: implications for physical child abuse.

Tyson PD, Sobschak KB.

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

The adult's perception of infant crying determines whether it is a source of stress and may be an antecedent to physical child abuse. The study had clients listen to infant crying and used stress management training to change their perceived arousal, anxiety, and evaluation of the crying. Fifteen nonparental female clients were randomly assigned to three groups who either had pretraining  without stress, pretraining while listening to infant crying, or listened to yoked infant crying without pretraining. During the second stage all clients had  stress management training while listening to infant crying. The clients' perceived anxiety and arousal elicited by crying were significantly diminished after stress management training and anxiety measures were strongly correlated with both perceived arousal and the clients' evaluation of infant crying. Although this is the first experiment applying biofeedback assisted stress management training to the perceptual responses and physiological arousal associated with infant crying, these results with inexperienced clients have implications for the prevention and treatment of parental stress and should encourage further research treating physical child abuse as a stress-related disorder.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7850602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1994 Sep;38(1):37-51.

Motor and non-motor aspects of slow brain potentials.

van Boxtel GJ, Brunia CH.

Physiological Psychology Section, Tilburg University, The Netherlands.

In order to study motor and non-motor aspects of the contingent negative variation (CNV), fifteen right-handed subjects were asked to perform tightly controlled responses in a WS-S1-S2 paradigm. WS was a non-informative warning signal; S1 and S2 provided information about the response required at S2. This information was either delivered before a block of trials (Simple), at S1 (Precued), or at S2 (Choice). Negativity was larger prior to the informative than to the non-informative stimulus, suggesting the presence of a component called stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). This finding supported the hypothesis that the late CNV consists of a readiness potential and an SPN. The scalp distribution of the SPN was different before S1 and before S2. The significance of these components is discussed in terms of motor preparation, stimulus anticipation and  energetical processes.

PMID: 7999929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1994 Mar;19(1):1-11.

Slow cortical potential biofeedback and the startle reflex.

Brody S, Rau H, Köhler F, Schupp H, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

University of Tübingen, Germany.

The negativity of slow cortical potentials (SCP) of the surface EEG is a measure  of brain excitability, correlating with motor and cognitive preparation. Self-control of SCP positivity has been shown to reduce seizure activity. Following SCP biofeedback from a central EEG electrode position, subjects gained  bidirectional control over their SCP. The current study used a modified feedback  methodology, and found a positive relationship between negativity and magnitude of EMG startle response (a measure of cortical and subcortical arousal, particularly aversive response disposition). Greater success in SCP differentiation was associated with self-report of less relaxation during negativity training.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8167160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1994 Feb;16(1):69-80.

The self-regulation of slow potential shifts and evoked potentials: interrelationships in response to somatosensory stimulation.

Douros C, Karrer R, Rosenfeld JP.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago 60608.

Research on the effects of the self-regulation of event-related potentials (ERP)  has failed to investigate the possible interactions and contributions of slower cortical events such as contingent negative variations (CNV) and slower DC level  changes. The present study attempted to investigate such interactions by independently conditioning the ERP 200 ms poststimulus (P200) and the CNV while recording both potentials simultaneously; DC level measures were also recorded. 30 subjects attempted to increase (uptraining) or decrease (downtraining) either  P200 or CNV in response to sub-painful somatosensory stimulation in a biofeedback paradigm. Following the training sessions, P200 downtrainees reported a significant decrease in their detection thresholds for the somatosensory stimuli  (i.e., increased sensitivity). These results agree with some prior findings that  decreased ERP amplitude in individuals is indicative of greater sensitivity in subjective pain reports. Although uptraining resulted in larger P200 amplitudes than downtraining, the difference in amplitudes between groups was not significant. CNV uptrainees achieved a higher level of pain tolerance following training. The increased CNV negativity may be associated with increased specific  attentional processes that facilitate the subjects' control of, or response to, pain. CNV trainers showed a significant interaction of training over blocks of trials. Generally, there was a significant inverse correlation of P200 and CNV; as CNV amplitude became more negative, the P200 amplitude increased. DC negativity level increased over blocks for all conditions. Results indicate a complex relationship between P200, CNV and pain sensitivity. Both P200 and CNV processes are involved in pain perception, but in apparently different ways, i.e., P200 with sensitivity and CNV with tolerance.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 8206806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1994 Jan;80(1):136-9.

[Cortico-subcortical interactions in the process of emotional self-regulation under biological feedback control]

[Article in Russian]

Popova EI, Mikheev VF, Ivonin AA.

PMID: 7522756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1993 Nov;15(3):217-26.

Memory performance and area-specific self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: dual-task interference.

Lutzenberger W, Roberts LE, Birbaumer N.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

We examined the effect of area-specific feedback for slow potentials on sensorimotor and memory performance under single and dual-task conditions. Subjects observed a memory set for 400 ms and then determined 5 s later whether a target letter had been contained in the original presentation (Sternberg task). After one session of Sternberg-only training, feedback training was added for production of negative and positive slow potentials area-specifically at Fz, Cz or Pz during the 5-s interval separating the memory set and target probes. Addition of the feedback task resulted in an increase in Sternberg response latency and errors which was followed by gradual recovery over five dual-task sessions (recovery not complete for the error measure). Subjects successfully regulated their slow potentials, but only in an area-nonspecific fashion, even though area-specific control was observed in an earlier study under a feedback-only condition. Sternberg performance did not depend on whether slow potential negativity or positivity was produced. These findings indicate that competition between tasks was a more important determinant of performance than was modulation of dendritic polarization by feedback-induced slow potentials.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8119840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Vestn Oftalmol. 1993 Jul-Sep;109(4):11-3.

[The use of the procedures of functional biocontrol in the combined treatment of  amblyopia]

[Article in Russian]

Tumanian SA, Bogdanov OV, Mikhaĭlenok EL, Movsisiants SA, Drozdov OA.

Thirty children with dysbinocular and anisometric amblyopia were treated making use of a method based on the use of a physiologically based functional bioregulation. It is known that in this condition EEG changes recorded in the occipital sectors of the brain are indicative of a weakened specific activation reaction. To improve vision acuity, the patients were trained to enhance activation reaction by EEG monitoring that was used to create an external feedback (EEG status-dependent brightness of the screen when watching an animated cartoon). The results show that functional bioregulation method may be used both  alone and in complex with other methods, reducing the treatment duration and helping attain a desirable effect in cases previously treated without success.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 8279096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Jun;18(2):93-105.

Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary results.

Rice KM, Blanchard EB, Purcell M.

State University of New York, Albany.

Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety (38 with GAD as defined by DSM-III) were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition. All treated subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6 weeks posttreatment.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8324040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Mar;18(1):33-44.

Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class.

Tansey MA.

Ten years ago, the first successful application of a clinical, private-practice based, EEG 14-Hz biofeedback training regimen for the treatment of learning disorders was performed by the author. After the 10-year-old boy, with presenting symptomatology including a developmental reading disorder, hyperactivity, and an  educational classification of perceptually impaired, continued symptom free for a period of two years, his case was submitted for publication. Ten years after his  termination from successful treatment, his ongoingly normal social and academic functioning is noted and his EEG brainwave signature examined and compared with a population of 24 "used-to-be" learning disabled, one-half of which had a pretreatment state including the educational classification of perceptually impaired. This 10-year follow-up confirms the long-term stability of the results  of this EEG 14-Hz biofeedback regimen. Current findings on recent medical research identifying a major cerebral locus of dysfunction for hyperkinesis and how it supports the electrode placements of this clinical office setting regimen  is also discussed.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 8448238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Mar;18(1):23-32.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: alcohol dependency.

Schneider F, Elbert T, Heimann H, Welker A, Stetter F, Mattes R, Birbaumer N, Mann K.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104.

Ten unmediated alcohol-dependent male inpatients participated in a Slow Cortical  Potential (SCP) self-regulation task utilizing biofeedback and instrumental conditioning. These patients were hospitalized for treatment of alcohol dependency after chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages. Somatic withdrawal symptomatology had occurred recently and the patients were free of any withdrawal symptoms of the autonomic nervous system. Immediately after hospitalization patients were unable to control their SCPs without the reinforcement of immediate feedback across 4 sessions. Seven patients participated in a fifth session an average of 4 months later. Six out of these 7 patients had not had a relapse at the follow-up. In the fifth session these patients were immediately able to differentiate between the required negativity and negativity suppression, whereas the seventh patient, who had relapsed, was unable to control his brain potentials successfully. Results are further evidence that some of the frontocortical dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent patients are reversible. This could covary with a morphological restitution of the cortex.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8448237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsy Res. 1993 Jan;14(1):63-72.

Cortical self-regulation in patients with epilepsies.

Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Birbaumer N, Wolf P, Düchting-Röth A, Reker M, Daum I, Lutzenberger W, Dichgans J.

Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

The present study aimed at investigating to what extent the regulation of excitability in cortical networks, as indicated by surface-negative slow cortical potentials (SCPs), is impaired in epileptic patients and to what extent training  of SCP self-regulation by means of biofeedback and instrumental learning procedures might affect seizure frequency. Twenty-five patients suffering from drug-refractory epilepsies (complex focal, grand mal, and absence type of seizures) participated in 28 1-h sessions of feedback and instrumental conditioning of their SCPs. Subjects' EEGs were obtained from the vertex. Depending on discriminative stimuli DC shifts towards increased or suppressed negativity relative to the pre-trial baseline were demonstrated by on-line visual feedback during intervals of 8 s each; each session comprised 110 trials. While performance on the SCP self-regulation task was initially below normal (as compared to healthy subjects), significant increases in SCP control were achieved by the patients across the 28 training sessions. In 18 patients at least 1-year follow-up data are available. Changes in seizure frequency were related to transfer of SCP control with six of the patients becoming seizure-free. Age affected the ability to acquire SCP control and its impact on seizure frequency.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8449180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993 Jan;56(1):94-7.

Behavioural treatment of slow cortical potentials in intractable epilepsy: neuropsychological predictors of outcome.

Daum I, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N, Elbert T, Canavan A, Lutzenberger W.

Department of Clinical and Physiological Psychology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

The study aimed to explore the predictive value of neuropsychological tests within the context of acquisition of slow cortical potential (SCP) self-control,  a technique which has beneficial effects on seizure frequency in epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy who successfully achieved SCP control had longer digit or  block-tapping spans than less successful patients. Patients who showed a better learning rate across training also displayed better verbal memory and learning abilities. Seizure reduction was related to block-tapping spans only. The results indicate that measures of attention, as indicated by digit spans or block-tapping spans, offer some predictive value for acquisition of SCP control and treatment outcome, whilst measures of visuospatial or frontal lobe function are unrelated to SCP acquisition and seizure reduction.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 8429329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1992 Dec;17(4):277-92.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: schizophrenia.

Schneider F, Rockstroh B, Heimann H, Lutzenberger W, Mattes R, Elbert T, Birbaumer N, Bartels M.

University of Tübingen, Germany.

Slow cortical potentials (SCPs) are considered to reflect the regulation of attention resources and cortical excitability in cortical neuronal networks. Impaired attentional functioning, as found in patients with schizophrenic disorders, may covary with impaired SCP regulation. This hypothesis was tested using a self-regulation paradigm. Twelve medicated male schizophrenic inpatients  and 12 healthy male controls received continuous feedback of their SCPs, during intervals of 8 s each, by means of a visual stimulus (a stylized rocket) moving horizontally across a TV screen. The position of the feedback stimulus was a linear function of the integrated SCP at each point in time during the feedback interval. Subjects were required to increase or reduce negative SCPs (referred to pretrial baseline) depending on the presentation of a discriminative stimulus. The correct response was indicated by the amount of forward movement of the feedback stimulus and by monetary rewards. Schizophrenics participated in 20 sessions (each comprising 110 trials), while controls participated in 5 sessions. Compared with the healthy controls, schizophrenics showed no significant differentiation between negativity increase and negativity suppression during the first sessions. However, in the last 3 sessions, patients achieved differentiation similar to controls, demonstrating the acquisition of SCP control after extensive training.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1477147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1992 Sep;17(3):203-14.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: depression.

Schneider F, Heimann H, Mattes R, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

University of Tübingen, Germany.

Findings on depressive patients indicate that depressives have electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of schizophrenics, in that  they exhibit reduced Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) amplitudes and more distinct Postimperative Negative Variations (PINVs) than normal controls. In a biofeedback experiment, 8 medicated male inpatients with the DSM III-R diagnosis  of "Bipolar Disorder, Depressive," and "Major Depression" demonstrated no impairment in the self-regulation of Slow Cortical Potentials (SCP) in comparison to schizophrenics in terms of increasing and suppressing negativity. Continuous visual SCP feedback is presented to the patient as a horizontally moving rocket in a video game format. The direction changes of the rocket represented SCP changes at each point in time, recorded by the central EEG (based on the pretrial baseline). Depressives demonstrated SCP self-regulation across 20 sessions, although with many between-and-within variations. The 8 male controls were unable to regulate their SCPs across 5 sessions. This result contradicts other findings  of our laboratory on normal controls. Motivational factors and insufficient operant reinforcement (financial reward) may have facilitated this effect.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1515477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Aug;167(2):436-9.

Behavioral treatment of menopausal hot flushes: evaluation by ambulatory monitoring.

Freedman RR, Woodward S.

Lafayette Clinic, Detroit, MI 48207.

OBJECTIVES: We attempted to develop an effective behavioral treatment for menopausal hot flushes and to determine the active behavioral components of this  procedure. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-three women with frequent menopausal hot flushes  were randomly assigned to receive eight sessions of training in paced respiration, muscle relaxation, or alpha-wave electroencephalographic biofeedback (placebo control). Hot flushes were objectively measured by means of 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of the sternal skin conductance level. RESULTS: Subjects undergoing paced respiration had significant reductions in hot flush frequency and respiration rate, as well as increases in tidal volume. CONCLUSION: Paced respiration training may be a useful treatment alternative for the reduction of hot flushes in women who cannot tolerate hormone replacement therapy.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 1497048 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992 Jun;16(3):547-52.

Alterations in EEG amplitude, personality factors, and brain electrical mapping after alpha-theta brainwave training: a controlled case study of an alcoholic in  recovery.

Fahrion SL, Walters ED, Coyne L, Allen T.

Menninger Clinic, Topeka, KS 66601.

A controlled case study was conducted of effects of EEG alpha and theta brainwave training with a recovering alcoholic patient who experienced craving and fear of  relapse after 18 months of abstinence. Training consisted of six sessions of thermal biofeedback to increase central nervous system (CNS) relaxation. Effects  were documented with pretreatment and post-treatment personality testing, 20-channel digitized EEG evaluations both under relaxed conditions and under stress, minute-by-minute physiologic recordings of autonomic and EEG data during  each training session, blood pressure, and heart rate indications taken both during relaxation and under stress, and by clinical observation. Results replicated those of a previous controlled study with chronic alcoholic patients not abstinent prior to treatment. New findings include post-treatment indications of more relaxed CNS functioning under stress, and of reduced autonomic activation both during relaxation and under stress. Brain-mapping indications of anxiety associated with painful cold-pressor stimulation were seen only in the pretest readings; at post-test the brain map indicated pain-associated EEG activity in the contralateral somatosensory area, but no apparent anxiety-associated EEG activity. At 4 months post-treatment the patient's wife and colleagues report the patient appears to function in a more relaxed way under the impact of stress, and he reports no longer experiencing craving for alcohol. Overall, support is provided for the possibility that alpha and theta brainwave training may be a useful intervention for the abstinent alcoholic experiencing stress-related craving and fear of relapse.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1626654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1992 Jun;17(2):107-23.

Effects of inhaled nicotine on instrumental learning of blood pressure responses.

Birbaumer N, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Krämer J, Lutzenberger W, Grossmann P.

Università degli Studii, Padova, Italy.

The present study investigated the effects of biofeedback of arterial blood pressure on cortical, peripheral, and psychological measures and the dependence of these effects on nicotine. Four groups of subjects, nonsmokers, and habitual smokers who smoked cigarettes during the experimental sessions containing 0.3, 0.8, or 1.5 mg nicotine, respectively, participated in a feedback paradigm in which continuous feedback of mean blood pressure was provided for intervals of 8  s each. While tonic blood pressure did not differ between the groups, the ability to modulate blood pressure (under feedback conditions) was restricted in smokers  as compared to nonsmoking subjects; increasing nicotine dosage was accompanied by poorer performance. Independently of habitual smoking and nicotine doses, heart rate increased during feedback and under conditions of blood pressure increase. In smokers, activity in the alpha band was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Slow cortical potentials (SCPs) during the feedback interval varied with self-induced blood pressure changes in nonsmokers (blood pressure increase was accompanied by reduced surface-negative potential shifts and vice versa), while SCP variations during feedback conditions were small in smokers, more so under the influence of 0.3 and 0.8-mg nicotine, less so under 1.5 mg. Verbal reports suggest that awareness of performance strategies may not be a necessary variable  for performance on the blood pressure regulation task.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1581396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Seizure. 1992 Jun;1(2):111-6.

Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioural approach.

Andrews DJ, Schonfeld WH.

Andrews/Reiter Epilepsy Research Program, Santa Rosa, CA 95405.

A behavioural approach using EEG biofeedback for controlling complex-partial seizures has been successful at the Andrews/Reiter Epilepsy Research Program. Records for a random sample of 83 patients with uncontrolled seizures, one third  of those receiving care between 1980 and 1985, document that 69 (83%) achieved control by completion of the programme. Additional data about initial age of seizure onset, number of years seizures had been uncontrolled and seizure frequency when treatment started were collected to determine whether these factors predicted seizure control. Only frequency was significantly related to whether seizures were controlled when treatment ended. Further study using discriminant analysis showed that earlier onset age and higher seizure frequency  were associated with a significantly greater number of treatment sessions required. Thus, these two factors predicted difficulty in controlling seizures, as measured by number of sessions, although onset age did not predict whether control was eventually achieved. Since even the subgroup achieving the lowest rate of control (i.e., patients having daily seizures when treatment started) had 67% success, these results suggest that a behavioural approach can be useful for  many people with currently uncontrolled complex-partial seizures regardless of their characteristics on factors examined in this study.

PMID: 1344325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1992 May;33(1):37-49.

Operant conditioning of P300.

Sommer W, Schweinberger S.

Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

This study demonstrates that operant conditioning may increase the P300 component of the event-related potential above a level obtained without contingent training. An experimental group of subjects was rewarded for producing large P300 amplitudes and was compared with a yoked control group which was rewarded on a random basis. During training the experimental subjects increased both the amplitude of the P300 and of a subsequent frontal negative slow wave relative to  the control group. These training effects were independent of prestimulus potential shifts and occurred likewise for target and nontarget stimuli.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1599998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Behav Res Ther. 1992 Mar;30(2):175-89.

Two controlled evaluations of multicomponent psychological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Blanchard EB, Schwarz SP, Suls JM, Gerardi MA, Scharff L, Greene B, Taylor AE, Berreman C, Malamood HS.

Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, State University of New York, Albany 12203.

We report two controlled comparisons of a previously validated multicomponent (relaxation, thermal biofeedback, and cognitive therapy) treatment for irritable  bowel syndrome (IBS) to an ostensible attention-placebo control (pseudo-meditation and EEG alpha suppression biofeedback) and to a symptom-monitoring control. In Study 1 (n = 10 per condition) there were nonsignificant trends for the multicomponent treatment to be superior to the attention-placebo condition. In Study 2 (n = 30 per condition), we found no advantage for the multicomponent treatment over the attention-placebo condition.  Subjects in both treatment conditions showed significant reductions in GI symptoms, as measured by daily symptom diaries, and significant reductions in trait anxiety and depression. The GI symptom reductions held up over a 6 month follow-up. Possible explanations for the results are explored.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 1567347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1992;33 Suppl 6:S1-6.

The relationship between mind, brain, and seizures.

Fenwick PB.

Institute of Psychiatry, Maudsley Hospital, London, England.

The medical model of epilepsy suggests that seizures arise at random or in response to precise physiological events. Little weight is given to the part that ongoing brain activity may play in either precipitating or inhibiting seizures. In the focal epilepsies, the presence of damaged neurons that fire in the epileptic mode continuously and are called pacemaker cells has been demonstrated  in both animal models and human epilepsy. If these pacemaker cells are firing all the time, why then do seizures arise only spasmodically? Behavior can be thought  of as changes in the excitation and inhibition of populations of neurons. Therefore, it is likely that these excitatory and inhibitory waves will either increase or decrease the likelihood of seizures arising. The conditioning of the  neurons to fire in volleys in a biofeedback paradigm, the conditioning of seizures in a classic Pavlovian sense, and the occurrence of seizures in response to behavioral changes has been shown in animal models of epilepsy and in humans.  There is now evidence that children can both inhibit and generate their own seizures spontaneously. Many adult patients have behavioral strategies that they  use either to inhibit or to stop the spreading seizures. In patients who have difficulties in coping with the stresses in their life, the voluntary generation  of seizures may come to form a response to difficult situations. Thus, any complete epilepsy program must consider the patient, the behavior, and the relationship between seizures and behavior.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 1486829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Exp Angew Psychol. 1992;39(2):216-28.

[Biofeedback of slow brain potentials]

[Article in German]

Kisil A, Birbaumer N.

Technische Universität Wroclaw, Polen.

Slow cortical potentials constitute neurophysiological indicators of cortical excitability. Behaviorally they correlate with attention and motor preparation. A system for biofeedback and self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCP) has  been developed. The portable system allows on-line visual feedback of filtered and corrected slow brain potentials in a predetermined sequence of trials. Three  different algorithms for transforming the original SCP-signal into a feedback-signal have been developed and were compared in a controlled outcome study. With the optimal feedback method subjects were able to produce cortical positivity and negativity on command after three sessions. Increases and decreases of negativity of up to 20 microV were also achieved. Therefore a simple and portable PC-based device for the clinical application of SCP-biofeedback is now available.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1413918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1991 Sep;16(3):201-25.

Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

Lubar JF.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996-0900.

This article presents a review of work that my colleagues and I have been doing during the past 15 years developing a rationale for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treatment of ADHD employing EEG biofeedback techniques. The article first briefly reviews the history of research and theory for understanding ADHD and then deals with the development of EEG and event-related potential (ERP) assessment paradigms and treatment protocols for this disorder, including our work and that of others who have replicated our results. Illustrative material from our current research and child case studies is included. Suggestions for future experimental and clinical work in this area are presented and theoretical issues involving the understanding of  the neurophysiological and neurological basis of ADHD are discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 1932259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 1991 Aug;62(3):180-6.

[Comparison of learning and concentration effects of "knowledge of results (KR)"  in alpha-wave feedback training]

[Article in Japanese]

Hashimoto K.

Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, Kanazawa University.

Effects of KR on biofeedback have conventionally been limited by learning factor. The effects of feedback on an increase in EEG alpha have been believed to be so limited as well. However, the effects of KR are also believed to include factors  such as motivation and concentration. In this study, the tendencies for alpha rhythm to change were analysed and compared under 3 different KR conditions in order to demonstrate the existence of the later factors. Effects of two parameters, alpha index and microvolt integral value, were also compared. The KR  conditions consisted of three types with regard to an increase in alpha rhythm: true-KR, false-KR, and mixed-KR. Ten female college students underwent the feedback task for 10 minutes under each condition. It was shown that (1) the degree of achievement and temporal profile under three KR conditions demonstrated the involvement of learning factor as well as motivation and concentration factors, and (2) alpha index showed the effects of learning, motivation and concentration in KR more distinctly than the microvolt integral value.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 1749126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1991 Jan-Feb;21(1):17-23.

The significance of unrecognized feedback stimuli in cognitive activity.

Kostandov EA, Azurmanov YuL .

V.P. Serbskii All-Union Scientific Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry, Moscow.

The role of unrecognized forms of reinforcement in the function of the discrimination of microintervals of time was investigated in emotionally excitable adults. The word "good" [""khorosho""] (positive reinforcement) and a word associated with the subject's negative emotions (negative reinforcement) were utilized as feedback stimuli. Experimental confirmation was obtained of the  hypothesis that unrecognized phenomena of the external milieu can exert an influence on conscious mental activity and on the learning process in man. Unrecognized semantic stimuli can fulfill the function of a reinforcing factor, and thus participate in the process of learning a cognitive activity accomplished at the conscious level.

PMID: 2062423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991 Jan;23(1):123-9.

The influence of electrocortical biofeedback on performance in pre-elite archers.

Landers DM, Petruzzello SJ, Salazar W, Crews DJ, Kubitz KA, Gannon TL, Han M.

Exercise and Sport Research Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-0404.

The purpose of the present research was to determine whether EEG biofeedback training could improve archery performance as well as self-reported measures of concentration and self-confidence. Experienced pre-elite male (N = 16) and female (N = 8) archers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (a)  correct feedback (i.e., greater left hemisphere low frequency activity), (b) incorrect feedback (i.e., greater right hemisphere low frequency activity), and (c) no feedback control. The pretest and posttest consisted of 27 shots, with EEG data collected for the left and right temporal hemispheres (T3, T4). Feedback subjects were then given EEG biofeedback, while control subjects rested for 30 min. Analyses indicated that only the performance measure was significant. The correct feedback group significantly improved performance, while the incorrect feedback group showed a significant performance decrement from pre- to posttest (Ps less than 0.05). The control group showed no significant pre-post differences in performance. EEG analyses showed differences that were consistent with the training given to the incorrect, but not the correct, feedback group. Overall, the results provide some support for the use of known relationships between EEG and performance as an effective means of providing biofeedback to affect the performance of pre-elite archers.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 1997806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1991;91(8):12-4.

[EEG in patients with infantile cerebral palsy before and after the treatment by  the method of functional biofeedback]

[Article in Russian]

Shaĭtor VM, Bogdanov OV.

The paper is concerned with a study into the mechanisms of central restructures in formation of a new motor stereotype using functional biomonitoring (FBM) after different pharmacological exposures. There were 117 patients aged 5 to 14 years with spastic forms of infantile cerebral paralysis. Biomonitoring sessions were carried out with the aid of portable indicators. Pharmacological correction was performed by midocalm or galanthamine or by combining the latter one with ganglerone++. The treatment course consisted of 15 training sessions. To study the EEG structure, use was made of the method of computing conditional probabilities of one wave of the EEG, provided it was preceded by any other one.  Analysis of the dynamics of the biorhythmical structure of the EEG revealed the common mechanism of restructuring the central components of movements regulation  for all the patients' groups using FBM. That mechanism lay in a highly significant increase of interrelated correlations of the main components of the EEG to the alpha-component together with formation or gain of the "alpha-nucleus". The patients' group who underwent biomonitoring sessions after galanthamine and gangleron administration manifested, as compared to the other groups, a highly significant transformation of teta- and delta-components to the  alpha-frequency range and enhancement of interrelation of teta-components in the  "working" hemisphere. This was coupled with the most beneficial data on the patients' status.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 1661502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1990 Nov-Dec;16(6):71-6.

[Efficacy of electroencephalographic biofeedback in autonomovascular dystonia and cerebral arachnoiditis]

[Article in Russian]

Chernigovskaia NV, Sviatogor IA.

PMID: 2091971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1990 Nov-Dec;16(6):63-70.

[Change in background EEG during elaboration of a new motor skill in children using biofeedback. II. Change in EEG parameters in pediatric cerebral palsy patients and healthy children after a course of biofeedback]

[Article in Russian]

Bogdanov OV, Pinchuk DIu, Mikhaĭlenok EL.

PMID: 2091970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1990 Nov-Dec;16(6):57-62.

[Change in background EEG during elaboration of a new motor skill in children using biofeedback. I. Differences in quantitative EEG parameters of pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and healthy children]

[Article in Russian]

Bogdanov OV, Pinchuk DIu, Mikhaĭlenok EL.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 2091969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1990 Nov-Dec;(6):38-42.

[The combined use of functional biocontrol and acupuncture reflexotherapy in children with the spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy]

[Article in Russian]

Shaĭtor IN, Bogdanov OV, Shaĭtor VM.

An optimal method of rehabilitation is outlined for children with movement disorders due to spastic cerebral paralysis. It implies combined use of functional biocontrol and acupuncture. In drug intolerance the treatment acquires special significance. The effectiveness of these two modalities comes from mutual potentiation effect on central regulation of motor functions as shown by electrophysiological findings. Marked positive shifts in clinical and electrophysiological patterns develop within 15 training procedures with the external feedback in addition to 11 sessions of acupuncture.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 2077735 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1990 Sep;27(5):575-85.

Awareness of P300-related cognitive processes: a signal detection approach.

Sommer W, Matt J.

Fachgruppe Psychologie, Universität Konstanz, Federal Republic of Germany.

Although the P300 component of the human event-related potential is purported to  indicate consciousness of an event, it is unclear which of the P300-related processes, if any, are accessible to awareness. This study explored awareness of  such processes in Bernoulli series of auditory stimuli using signal detection theory and selective averaging of ERPs according to the subjects' classifications. Following targets eliciting appropriate P300 amplitudes, the subject was requested to classify his brain response as small, medium, or large,  whereupon visual feedback was given about the correctness of the response. Averaging the ERPs according to the subjects' classifications showed P300 amplitudes to increase with the classification category, whereas the prestimulus  and post-P300 event-related potentials were unrelated to the category. Signal detection analysis revealed non-zero sensitivity measures for the P300 amplitude  categories. Although no conclusive suggestion can be made at present as to the basis of the P300 discrimination ability found here, it was possible to rule out  electro-ocular and electromyographic activity, the preceding auditory stimulus, and the prior feedback given, as cues for discrimination.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 2274621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1990 Sep;9(2):151-65.

Biofeedback-produced hemispheric asymmetry of slow cortical potentials and its behavioural effects.

Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W.

Department of Clinical and Physiological Psychology, Eberhard-Karls-Universität,  Tübingen, F.R.G.

Two studies served to examine behavioural effects of slow cortical potentials (SPs). SPs were manipulated by means of a biofeedback procedure. The ability of human subjects to alter SPs differentially between the two hemispheres--specifically over the lateral aspects of the central sulcus--was tested by providing feedback of the SP difference between C3 and C4. In Expt. I,  21 of the 45 subjects produced hemispheric asymmetries of more than 2 microV between C3 and C4 on an average after 80 trials of analogue, continuous and immediate feedback. In Expt. II, SP changes were fed back digitally at the end of each trial. Within 120 trials, 20 of the 48 subjects reached the criterion of a minimum 2-microV difference in SPs between C3 and C4 on the average. Average differentiation remained significantly below the SP differentiations achieved for continuous feedback. Trials with feedback were followed by 'task' trials without  feedback, during which subjects were still requested to produce SP changes but also had to complete a task: Either sensorimotor tasks (Expt. I) or forced choice handedness tasks (Expt. II) were presented to evaluate behavioural consequences of hemispheric SP differences. In subjects achieving the required SP differentiation it affected the behavioural output in agreement with the known functions of the respective cortical area.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 2228749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1990 Mar;15(1):27-35.

Neurological evaluation of chronic headache patients: is laboratory testing always necessary?

Morrill B, Blanchard EB, Barron KD, Dentinger MP.

State University of New York, Albany.

A review of records was conducted to examine the utility of doing routine laboratory testing (EEG and skull X rays) versus testing at the discretion of the attending neurologist on patients presenting for the nonpharmacological treatment of chronic headache. A total of 278 patients underwent neurological evaluation as part of a routine assessment prior to beginning self-regulatory treatment for headache. The first 112 subjects received routine laboratory tests of EEG and skull X-ray films. The second set of 166 subjects received laboratory tests only  when deemed necessary by the neurologist. The rate of abnormal EEG in chronic headache sufferers was no greater than that found in the normal population, and only one or two potentially serious abnormalities were found on any laboratory test. A higher rate of abnormality was found when the CT scan was used in conjunction with clinical judgment. The majority of clients with abnormal laboratory tests (most of which were mildly abnormal) still saw substantial headache reduction with self-regulatory treatment for chronic headache. The authors suggest that routine laboratory testing may not be necessary and should be left to the discretion of a qualified neurologist.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 2361145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biomed Sci Instrum. 1990;26:17-23.

Autoregressive spectral filter studies on the sensorimotor rhythm EEG state variable.

Turbes CC, Schneider GT.

Department of Anatomy, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska 68178.

These studies concern the EEG rhythms of the sensory motor cortex in cats. The cat generates a 12H to 16Hz rhythm related to the MU (Rolandic) rhythm in man. The behavioral state required to generate the rhythm in man and the cat requires  complete immobility and alertness. The MU rhythm in man centers around 9Hz and in the cat at 12Hz to 16Hz. This rhythm is used in the biofeedback training for the  treatment of intractable seizures in man. It has also been used (12 Hz to 16 Hz)  experimentally in animals. It is necessary to enhance the MU rhythm and simultaneously depress the seizure activity. Our interest has been to detect and  enhance the SMR rhythm (12 H to 16 Hz) in the cat. We found that when it is enhanced it also enhances the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials in other brain regions.

PMID: 2334763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;602:221-33.

The use of biofeedback in the treatment of disorders of childhood.

Barowsky E.

Department of Special Education, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York 10021.

Biofeedback has demonstrated its effectiveness in the treatment of childhood disorders over the cynicism of many clinicians. Its appropriateness to the pediatric population is not a function of the age of the subject, but of whether  the disorder is amenable to treatment. To reiterate, not all disturbances are the same. Incontinence in the child with spina bifida may be different from incontinence in the aged. Hyperactivity in children, while often defined globally, has many concomitants, some of which help to determine the efficacy of  biofeedback treatment. The instructions given are specific and easily understood  and can be comprehended even by some of the youngest children. Biofeedback deserves to be considered as the treatment of choice, in a wide range of disorders occurring in childhood.

PMID: 2240985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;602:67-96.

Effect of diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal CO2 biofeedback on respiration, EEG, and seizure frequency in idiopathic epilepsy.

Fried R, Fox MC, Carlton RM.

Hunter College, City University of New York, New York 10021.

Breathing rate (RR), end-tidal percent CO2, and EEG were obtained in three groups: psychiatric referral subjects presenting with anxiety, panic phobia, depression and migraine; a group of idiopathic seizure sufferers; and a group of  asymptomatic controls. Virtually all the noncontrol subjects were found to show moderate to severe hyperventilation and the accompanying EEG dysrhythmia. The seizure group subjects were taught diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal percent CO2 biofeedback. The training normalized their respiration and altered their EEGs and seizure frequency.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 2122789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1989 Sep;75(9):1177-83.

[The biorhythmological mechanisms of the adaptive self-regulation of functions: the connectedness and cyclicity of intercomponent and intersystem interactions]

[Article in Russian]

Vasilevskiĭ NN.

The paper summarizes studies carried out in the Dept. of Ecological Physiology of the Inst. Exptl. Med. and stemming from the D.A. Biriukov works. Biorhythmological basis of the mechanisms of adaptive self-regulation of functions is revealed. This enables to evolve new approaches to estimation of individual human adaptive features and of the ways of functional nonpharmacological correction of functions by means of the feedback biocontrol of neural, vegetative and somatic functions. The results of the studies have advanced human psychophysiology and found some practical application in medicine.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 2689243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1989 Jul;26(4):392-403.

Self-report during feedback regulation of slow cortical potentials.

Roberts LE, Birbaumer N, Rockstroh B, Lutzenberger W, Elbert T.

Subjects received exteroceptive feedback for bidirectional changes in slow cortical potentials or alpha power measured from the vertex. The slow potential group succeeded in shifting slow potentials toward negativity and positivity on feedback and transfer trials requiring these changes, after two sessions of training. Differentiation of negativity and positivity was accompanied by verbal  reports of somatomotor activation that occurred on trials on which negative slow  potentials were required (p less than .01). Vertical and lateral eye movements, chin and frontalis electromyogram, and heart rate did not differentiate between negativity and positivity trials in the slow potential negativity during feedback. Although the alpha power group did not succeed at controlling changes in alpha, evidence of a training effect appeared in verbal reports of emotional arousal (p less than .05) and focused vision (p less than .08) on alpha suppression trials in this group. We discuss the findings from the viewpoint that biofeedback tasks involving electrocortical responses are problems in the organization of action that subjects seek to solve.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 2798689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989 Apr;13(2):271-9.

Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics.

Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ.

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fort Lyon, Colorado 81038.

An alpha-theta brainwave biofeedfack training program was applied as a novel treatment technique for chronic alcoholics. Following a temperature biofeedback pretraining phase, experimental subjects completed 15 30-min sessions of alpha-theta biofeedback training. Compared to a nonalcoholic control group and a  traditionally treated alcoholic control group, alcoholics receiving brainwave training (BWT) showed significant increases in percentages of EEG record in alpha and theta rhythms, and increased alpha rhythm amplitudes. Alcoholics receiving BWT showed a gradual increase in alpha and theta brain rhythms across the 15 experimental sessions. These experimentally treated alcoholics showed sharp reductions in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory) compared to  the control groups. Alcoholics receiving standard medical treatment (abstinence,  group psychotherapy, antidepressants) showed a significant elevation in serum beta-endorphin levels at the conclusion of the experiment. This neuropeptide is an index of stress and a stimulant of caloric (e.g., ethanol) intake. Application of brainwave treatment, a relaxation therapy, appears to counteract the increase  in circulating beta-endorphin levels seen in the control group of alcoholics. 13-month follow-up data indicate sustained prevention of relapse in alcoholics that completed alpha-theta brainwave training.

PMID: 2524976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Cybern. 1989;60(3):203-12.

Detection of feedback in the central nervous system using system identification techniques.

Schnider SM, Kwong RH, Lenz FA, Kwan HC.

Scientific Staff, Bell-Northern Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

An analysis method to detect the presence of feedback between biological signals, particularly those associated with the central nervous system, is presented. The  technique is based on recent results in the system identification literature involving the concept of a feedback free process. It may be applied to volume conducted signals such as EEG and EMG, as well as to neuronal spike trains through the use of a data transformation procedure. The utility of the technique  is then demonstrated in a study of the relationship between Parkinsonian tremor and certain tremor cells found in the thalamus of Parkinsonian patients, using data collected during thalamotomies. The results obtained suggest that feedback mechanisms may be an important factor contributing to Parkinsonian tremor.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 2923925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1989 Jan-Feb;39(1):28-36.

[Relation of the individual specificity of emotional autoregulation controlled by EEG feedback to the influence of a genetic factor as revealed by a twin study]

[Article in Russian]

Suvorov NF, Mikheev VF.

On the model of biofeedback connection by the given parameters of the EEG alpha-rhythm the dynamics of bioelectrical and vegetative characteristics and correlative connections between them were compared in the pairs of mono- and dizygotic twins. More likeness in the dynamics of the studied parameters was found in the pairs of genetically identical monozygotic twins. There was a maximum increase of the objective similarity characteristics in the moment of activity realization, judging by the change of alpha-rhythm parameters. The obtained results testify to genetic determination of individual specific styles in organization of complex integrative processes of the higher nervous activity.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 2735128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1989 Jan-Feb;39(1):20-7.

[Dynamics of the reactions of nonspecific and somatic activation while learning adaptive biocontrol]

[Article in Russian]

Smirnov SA, Kozlovskaia IB.

Dynamics of characteristics of respiration, cardiac, muscular and EEG-activities  was studied in volunteers during their learning of voluntary control of skin resistance and temperature by means of biological feedback. Initial stage of learning of adaptive biocontrol was connected with involvement of systemic activation reactions, which had similar characteristics during control of various vegetative parameters both at their increase and decrease. The revealed activation shifts represent non-specific reaction characteristic of learning and  extinction at gradual specialization and consolidation of control habit. Characteristics of learning dynamics confirmed N. Miller's hypothesis that adaptive biocontrol represents a form of instrumental conditioning. At the same time, the involvement of systemic reactions is not an obligatory condition of adaptive biocontrol learning. This fact confirms the presence of various "individual strategies" of learning and existence of a sufficiently wide spectrum of physiological mechanisms of visceral processes central control which could be  included at learning of voluntary control of visceral parameters.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 2735127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychosom. 1989;36(1-4):23-33.

The effects of electrode placement upon EEG biofeedback training: the monopolar-bipolar controversy.

Fehmi LG, Sundor A.

Roles of tradition, convenience, and noise or artifact rejection are discussed with regard to the monopolar versus bipolar electrode placement controversy in electroencephalography (EEG). Particular emphasis is placed on the relevance to biofeedback. The crucial interactions between the differential amplifier, brain waves, and monopolar/bipolar placements are discussed. Through logical analysis and empirical observation, it is demonstrated how the very nature of the EEG's differential amplifiers must destroy those elements of brain activity which are common to the recording electrodes. Controlled experiments further illustrate the critical importance of electrode placements. Various methods, including preferred electrode placements, are presented to help resolve recording problems that frequently arise. It is concluded that there are serious implications for researchers, EEG clinicians, biofeedback providers, and their clients in preferring one type of electrode placement technique over the other. EEG recording accuracy is affected by this choice.

PMID: 2599783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1988 Aug;6(3):185-94.

EEG biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic seizures.

Tozzo CA, Elfner LF, May JG Jr.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306.

Research utilizing sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) biofeedback with epileptics suggests that it is useful in decreasing seizures. Subjects were 6 young adults with a diagnosis of epilepsy of at least two years who had been unable to control their  seizures with different regimens of anticonvulsant medications. Subjects ranged from severely mentally handicapped to above average functioning. Seizure type, frequency, and duration were recorded by subjects and caretakers. Measures of operant learning were percent time in SMR. The experiment utilized a single subject multiple baseline design which consisted of 6 phases: baseline one, relaxation training; baseline two, biofeedback training one; baseline three, biofeedback treatment two and follow-up. The results of this study are in agreement with other studies using SMR biofeedback. All subjects were able to significantly increase percent time in SMR. Five out of the 6 subjects demonstrated decreases in seizure frequency during the treatment phase. Two of the 6 subjects benefited from relaxation training. Four subjects demonstrated significant negative correlations between percent SMR and seizure rats. Consistent with other studies utilizing multiple baseline designs, a majority of  the subjects did not follow the design of the study.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 3136105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1988 Jun;6(2):79-89.

Erratum in:     Int J Psychophysiol 1988;6(4):361.

Learning abilities and disabilities: effective diagnosis and treatment.

Mangina CA, Beuzeron-Mangina JH.

Montreal Research and Treatment Center for Learning Abilities and Disabilities, Canada.

An integrated theoretical and methodological framework is presented for the effective diagnosis and treatment of varying degrees of learning abilities and disabilities. This methodology is based upon: (1) the degrees of 'analytical-specific perceptual skills' as measured by the Mangina test; (2) the  identification of standardized physiological activation level parameters; (3) a standardized psychophysiological therapeutic treatment procedure (Mangina method) of 'optimal' physiological activation simultaneously combined with 'analytical-specific perceptual stimulation'.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 3397319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Neurosci. 1988 Mar;39(1-2):101-16.

Slow brain potentials, imagery and hemispheric differences.

Birbaumer N, Lang PJ, Cook E 3rd, Elbert T, Lutzenberger W, Rockstroh B.

Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology, University Park.

On the basis of Lang's (1979) theory of emotional imagery three experiments were  conducted to investigate the relationship between slow cortical potentials (SP) and emotional imagery. According to the assumptions of Lang's theory and our model (Rockstroh et al., 1982) of SP-function imagery ability should be related to a person's capacity to generate and suppress preparatory activity in cortical  networks "on demand." In order to test this hypothesis subjects in Experiment I were trained to regulate right- versus left-hemispheric SP-differentiation within an instrumental learning paradigm. Thirty-four subjects were reinforced for achieving maximal SP-differences between electrode locations C3-C4 over a 6 s interval across 120 trials. Success in the SP-regulation task correlated significantly (r = .37) with the capacity for vivid imagery as measured with the  Questionnaire for Mental Imagery (QMI). In Experiment II instructions to imagine  right- versus left-hand movements were introduced successively over 5 sessions of SP-self-regulation. Imagery clearly modified right- versus left-hand EMG-differentiation but had no influence on cortical SP-differentiation. Experiment III tested the influence of already achieved SP-regulation at the vertex on the perceived vividness of emotional images introduced after the SP-biofeedback training. Again, clear effects of imagery content on autonomic variables (HR, SCR) were found. However, SP-amplitude and SP-polarity had no effect on perceived vividness, arousal or emotional content. It may be concluded  from the results of Experiment II and III that SPs either are not the crucial parameter to represent the cortical efferent outflow component of imagery, or that the dual task of SP-self-regulation and imagery prevented covariations to show up. Experiment I, on the other hand, points toward a positive relation of imagery-ability as a trait-variable and brain-self-regulation abilities.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 3384563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1988 Mar-Apr;29(2):163-71.

Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy: effects of  EEG feedback training.

Lantz DL, Sterman MB.

Neuropsychology Research, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Sepulveda, California 91343.

A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline, postcontrol period, and posttraining period to 24 drug-refractory subjects with epilepsy participating in a study of sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) normalization feedback training. Results revealed the following. First, subjects  exhibited significant baseline deficits in psychosocial, cognitive and motor functioning. Second, certain tests discriminated subjects before training who were subsequently above and below the median in seizure reduction following EEG training. Subjects who showed the greatest seizure reduction performed better on  a test of general problem-solving ability but not on other cognitive tests and worse on tests involving strong motor components and were more intact psychosocially. These subjects also took significantly fewer medications in combination than did less successful subjects. Third, improvement on several measures occurred following participation in the study. Cognitive and motor functioning improved only in subjects with the greatest seizure reduction and only after actual training as opposed to control conditions. Psychological functioning, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) improved in both outcome groups. MMPI improvement, unlike cognitive improvement, was as likely to occur after control conditions, when seizure reduction had not yet occurred, as after EEG training. Thus, MMPI changes apparently reflected the nonspecific benefits of participation in this study.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 3349967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1988 Mar-Apr;29(2):172-83.

Effects of a behavioral intervention on epileptic seizure behavior and paroxysmal activity: a systematic replication of three cases of children with intractable epilepsy.

Dahl JA, Melin L, Leissner P.

Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Orebro Medical Center Hospital, Sweden.

Three children with very frequent refractory epileptic seizures underwent a behavioral intervention consisting of symptom discrimination, countermeasures, contingent relaxation, and positive reinforcement for correct responses in a systematic replication series. The studies involved a 6-h nonintervention base rate, a 6-h treatment phase, and a 6-h nonintervention follow-up under laboratory conditions for each child. Neurophysiologic and behavioral measures of the effects of treatment were made using electroencephalogram (EEG)-video equipment.  Effects of treatment were assessed by using a random sample of EEG-video sequences in base rate and follow-up. Results showed that no significant reduction of either seizure behavior or paroxysmal EEG activity was found subsequent to training in discrimination of early paroxysmal activity and/or sensations preceding seizures. Both seizure behavior and paroxysmal activity were significantly reduced in all three cases following intervention with an adapted countermeasure technique. No additional effects could be noted subsequent to the  application of either contingent relaxation or positive reinforcement for correct responses. Paroxysmal EEG changes and seizure behavior were highly correlated. Reduction of the clinical manifestation or seizure response by behavioral manipulation was accompanied by a reduction of the total amount of paroxysmal activity as measured by the EEG.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 3280306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1987 Dec;5(4):253-60.

Modification of EEG asymmetry induced by auditory biofeedback loop during REM sleep in man.

Sockeel P, Mouze-Amady M, Leconte P.

Laboratoire des Acquisitions Cognitives et Linguistiques, Universite de Lille III, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

Several studies have emphasized the relationship between (1) rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) and learning, and (2) between REM sleep and asymmetry in EEG activity. Since we have shown that obtaining operant conditioned responses via auditory biofeedback during REM sleep is feasible, we demonstrate here that REM contingent auditory stimulations (white noise stimulation or interruption of a continuous white noise stimulation) lead to differential changes in phasic and tonic components of REM sleep. Whereas during baseline nights a relative right activation is found in the medium bands of EEG frequencies, our procedure seems to induce a systematic interhemispheric change during experimental nights. A new  approach to the information processing hypothesis during REM sleep is proposed in terms of functional lateralized modifications of the EEG.

PMID: 3436843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1987 Dec;12(4):273-9.

Relaxation with biofeedback-assisted guided imagery: the importance of breathing  rate as an index of hypoarousal.

Fried R.

Hunter College, City University of New York, NY 10021.

Fifteen men and 35 women, suffering from a number of psychological and somatic disorders, were taught to relax by biofeedback-assisted deep-diaphragmatic breathing together with guided mental imagery. No instructions were given about rate. Breathing rate and pattern, PETCO2, and EEG were monitored before training  and after the first three 2-minute training trials (session 1). In 27 subjects (54%), breathing patterns and rate were noted to resemble those reported by meditation practitioners (3 to 5 b/min). The PETCO2 and EEG changes support a hypothesis of metabolic hypoarousal. Four subjects spontaneously reported experiencing altered awareness. A centrally mediated hypoarousal response is tentatively implicated.

PMID: 3331297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1987 Aug;25(1):11-22.

Control of masseter muscle tension during sleep.

O'Rourke D, Harsh J, Cantrell P, Badia P, Purzycki E, Culpepper J, Purvis B.

Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg 39401.

This study evaluated whether muscle tension could be controlled during sleep. Twelve volunteers were assigned to an experimental condition or to a no treatment control group. Experimental subjects were instructed to reduce the tension in their masseter (jaw) muscle when signalled with an auditory tone. These subjects  demonstrated cue-controlled tension reductions during awake training sessions. Although both groups evidenced muscle tension increases in response to the tones  presented during sleep, experimental subjects produced significantly smaller increases in response to tone stimuli than did control subjects. More importantly, experimental subjects sustained lower tonic levels of muscle tension throughout the sleep sessions than did control subjects. Sleep was moderately disrupted for subjects in both groups. However, experimental subjects evidenced the greatest tension reductions during those responses in which they shifted to a lighter stage of sleep rather than fully awakening. These data suggest that muscle tension can be moderated during sleep.

PMID: 3447634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1987 Jul-Aug;37(4):625-33.

[The role of feedback in the dynamics of functional asymmetry of brain hemispheres in man]

[Article in Russian]

Kostandov EA.

Reaction time, number of correct evaluations of time microintervals, and P300 wave were studied in healthy adult subjects. The role is shown of feedback stimuli in training of a subject to discriminate short intervals and in changes of interhemispheric functional relations. These relations change in the course of training as a result of lateralized activation of the left hemisphere. Training with informative feedback is more efficient in the left hemisphere. The right hemisphere in lesser extent than the left one is subject to correcting influence  of the feedback. In this sense the former is more autonomous.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 3673255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Laryngol Rhinol Otol (Stuttg). 1987 Jul;66(7):386-8.

[Complementary acoustic EEG control while recording early acoustically evoked potentials]

[Article in German]

Hofmann G, Knothe J.

Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, der Medizinischen Akademie Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden.

An easily performed method for the additional acoustical assessment of the EEG quality by the investigator during recording of human brainstem potentials is presented. By means of feedback of the audibly transposed "noiselike" EEG voltage to the opposite ear of the examined subject (instead of the usual masking noise)  the subject can perceive self-produced disturbances (muscle activities) and minimize them for the period of examination. An example shows how this additional rejection of artifacts via "biofeedback" can effectively support methods that are already in use.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      English Abstract

PMID: 3657354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1987 Jun;12(2):105-19.

Task-related stress and EEG alpha biofeedback.

Tyson PD.

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Establishing a contingency between stress and a physiological response is essential in biofeedback. The sensitivity of high alpha to contingent stress was  investigated by manipulating conditions known to influence stress, such as the distribution, predictability, and controllability of stressful stimuli, and number of tasks performed. Forty subjects were divided into stress and non-stress groups. Within each group, one-half had the dual-task of anticipating and increasing alpha activity. The other half was initially instructed to only anticipate alpha and, later, had the dual task of anticipating and controlling alpha. No feedback training was included to distribute the task-related stressor  and allowed the assessment of self-control. All of the stress manipulations significantly influenced the effects of stress on alpha production. The dual-task subjects produced less alpha and less self-control than did training with control phased in after subjects learned to anticipate alpha. Without stress, phased-in control produced highly significant increases in alpha production and self-control without feedback. The use of an alpha-contingent feedback paradigm and anticipation training was related to the therapeutic applications of alpha feedback to stress and anxiety.

PMID: 3427121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Med Electron. 1986 Oct;17(5):101-64.

Buyers guide & market analysis: biofeedback; catheters & catheterization systems; diagnostics; digital radiography; electrodes for ECG, EEG, EMG; Holter services;  magnetic resonance imaging; mammography; patient monitors; stimulators, defibrillators.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 10279054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jul;4(2):91-7.

A simple and a complex tic (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome): their response to  EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training.

Tansey MA.

This study presents a clinical treatment regime for the treatment of tic manifestation, both simple and complex. The response of a case of simple tic and  a case of complex tic (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome) to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training are presented. Specifically, the simple and the complex tic, both of long duration, were eliminated via this EEG biofeedback training procedure. It is hypothesized that this exercising of the sensorimotor cortex resulted in increased activation of this cerebrocortical subsystem and was reflected in increased voluntary muscle control and a heightened threshold for random motor discharge, resulting in the elimination of both tics as in the response of cases of epilepsy with motor involvement to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. The additional psychophysiologic sequelae of the complex tic--attention deficit disorder--remediated in the manner of the response of learning-disabled to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 3460976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1986 Jun;11(2):167-9.

Battery modifications for Autogenic Systems Inc., equipment.

Hoare JW, Bird EI, Wilson VE.

PMID: 3567237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1986 Apr;62(2):467-74.

Alpha enhancement: a comparison study of biofeedback, open focus training, and control procedures.

Drennen WT, O'Reilly BK.

Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208.

Alpha wave production has been related to affective and physiological arousal states since Berger's (1929) initial research. More recently, the possibility of  subjects' control of alpha production has been investigated via the innovation of biofeedback procedures. Research conducted by Kamiya in the 1960s and others led  to the early conclusion that alpha-wave production could be controlled and that such control could facilitate enhancement of a person's state of physical and psychological well-being. Subsequent research data have questioned these conclusions. The present study focused upon alpha-wave production with or without a procedure for relaxation called "open-focus training." Twenty subjects were divided into four equal groups and seen for three 20-min. sessions. Results suggested a deterioration of alpha production with all groups combined, no significant differences between the biofeedback and no biofeedback control groups (without "open-focus training"), and greater decrease in alpha production during  each session in the "open-focus" groups (with or without biofeedback). These unusual results and their implications are discussed.

PMID: 3332312 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jan;3(3):163-70.

Effects of feedback control on EEG alpha asymmetry during covert mental tasks.

De Pascalis V, Silveri A.

EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) was recorded bilaterally from O1-P3 and O2-P4 during two eyes-closed sessions in 40 women. During one session subjects performed two covert right-hemisphere activation tasks and two covert left-hemisphere activation tasks (no-biofeedback condition). During the other session subjects performed the same tasks while trying to control their EEG asymmetries, being provided with EEG asymmetry auditory feedback (biofeedback condition). The ratios of integrated EEG alpha amplitudes were calculated as measure of hemispheric asymmetry, and the number of times that the right and left alpha had the same phase angle was determined as index of hemispheric synchrony (alpha phase index). In both conditions, subjects rated orally after each task their degree of subjective fullfilment of the task. There were significant differences between the EEG asymmetry during right- and left-hemisphere tasks. Significant differences of integrated alpha amplitudes and ratios between the no-biofeedback  and biofeedback condition were also found. There was more hemispheric asymmetry in the biofeedback than in the no-biofeedback condition, and a significantly higher alpha phase index. There was no correlation between fullfilment ratings and alpha ratios in the no-biofeedback condition, but there was such correlation  during right and left hemisphere tasks in the biofeedback condition. The study demonstrated that biofeedback regulation and covert mental activity can have effects on EEG alpha asymmetry which are cumulative.

PMID: 3949592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychosom Med. 1986 Jan-Feb;48(1-2):67-72.

EEG alpha reactivity and self-regulation correlates of smoking and smoking deprivation.

Szalai JP, Allon R, Doyle J, Zamel N.

Twelve nonsmokers, ten ex-smokers, ten deprived smokers (2-3 hours), and ten nondeprived smokers were exposed to a short-term (18-sec) vigilance task and underwent 6 min of biofeedback-assisted alpha amplitude enhancement and suppression training. Cigarette smoking was found to be associated with decreased alpha suppression to the vigilance task. However, no consistent role of cigarette smoking in alpha self-regulation emerged from the results.

PMID: 3945718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Eur Neurol. 1986;25 Suppl 2:128-33.

Vigilance, sleep and epilepsy.

Vieth J.

The correlations between vigilance and epilepsy are manifold. Nearly all epileptic seizures cause a diminution of vigilance extending to unconsciousness.  Many of the influences triggering or inhibiting epileptic seizures produce alterations of vigilance or are produced by them. Nearly all chemical influences  more or less cause diminution of vigilance. The enhancement of vigilance may inhibit seizures. Decreasing vigilance may act vice versa. As a means to enhance  vigilance afferent stimuli are able to trigger seizures. This may be accomplished when singular or rhythmic stimulation of afferents gets the already excited neuronal system oscillating. This principle is also responsible for the strong correlation between triggering of seizures and the sleep/waking cycle with its different grades of neuronal synchronization. On the other hand, inhibition of seizures is possible by a continuously applied stimulation load, which may disturb the increasing excitatory oscillation. Also, conditioning may trigger or  inhibit seizures. But the EEG biofeedback only is used to decrease abnormal neuronal activity.

PMID: 3758115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Neurobiol. 1986;5(1):67-9.

Patterns of stimulus- and self-induced slow brain potentials--a sign of task-specific preparation.

Elbert T.

Does the scalp distribution of slow shifts in human brain potentials depend upon  the processing demands? The question was approached applying two different paradigms. In the first study, the anticipation of haptic tasks presented to either of the hands was found to give rise to a contralateral slow negative brain potential (SP). The second study demonstrated that comparable hemisphere-specific patterns can be self-induced by means of biofeedback training. These results suggest that negative SPs (like the CNV) indicate preactivation of those brain-regions that process the expected task.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 3700150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1986 Jan;37(1):27-33.

A review of biofeedback for mental disorders.

Futterman AD, Shapiro D.

Although biofeedback was developed by psychologists, it has been most widely used in the treatment of psychophysiological and medical disorders and less frequently used to control symptoms of psychopathology and mental disorders. The authors review studies in which biofeedback was used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol and drug dependence, and tardive dyskinesia. The studies indicate that biofeedback can help selected patients modify specific responses or response patterns associated  with a mental disorder. It appears to be most suitable for patients and disorders in which physiological processes can be identified as relevant. However, the findings offer little support for biofeedback as the treatment of choice for any  mental disorder.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 3510953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jan;3(3):211-8.

The myth and the symbol of biofeedback.

Kimmel HD.

This paper argues that biofeedback suffers from misrepresentation of its historical background and early development, false claims about its effects (e.g. mind-expansion) and that it now symbolizes political and social positions with which it has no connection. The myth that biofeedback arose as a revolutionary break from established science is shown to be false. The symbolization of biofeedback as antifascist and libertarian is also debunked. Unfair demands on biofeedback for miracle cures and excessive profiteering from the biofeedback technology are also criticized. It is urged that scientists and clinicians who know better about the real history and applicability of biofeedback should speak  out whenever possible against these misrepresentations.

PMID: 2419296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1985 Nov;3(2):85-99.

Brainwave signatures--an index reflective of the brain's functional neuroanatomy: further findings on the effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities.

Tansey MA.

Eight boys, ages 7 years 11 months to 15 years 3 months, were provided with long-term--symptom duration--sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training for the remediation of their learning disabilities. Concurrently, the simultaneous recording of five frequency bands of brainwave activity (5 Hz, 7 Hz, 10 Hz, 12 Hz and 14 Hz), from one active electrode equidistant from reference and ground, was  intended to provide a glimpse of the 'brainwave signature' reflective of the dynamic and synergistic processes involved in such cerebro-neural activation and  the brain's global response to such an alteration in the sensorimotor subnetwork. Overall, the main effect of this procedure, for the biofeedback and subsequent conditioning of increased 14 Hz neural discharge patterns over the central Rolandic cortex in a clinical office setting, seems to be to increase bilateral sensorimotor transactions resulting in substantive remediation of the learning disabilities of the recipients of such training--by way of internally exercising  of, and/or recruitment of additional neural activation within, the sensorimotor subnetwork/matrix. Observation of the changing brainwave signatures showed a tendency for decreased slow wave activity concomitant with increases in fast wave activity, for cases with a Full Scale I.Q. within the range of 76 and 85; with those cases with a Full Scale I.Q. within the range of 102 and 116 exhibiting increased amplitudes over most of the monitored bands, but with the increases being much less at the slower frequencies. It is noteworthy that those four subjects with either a significant Verbal greater than Performance, or Performance greater than Verbal, I.Q. Score discrepancy exhibited no less than a  40% greater increase in the lower of the two I.Q. scores; indicating that this SMR training procedure also resulted in an increased symmetry in the interhemispheric interactions reflective of the higher cortical functions for these no longer learning disabled boys.

PMID: 4077617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1985 Nov;3(2):81-4.

The response of a case of petit mal epilepsy to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training.

Tansey MA.

A 14-year-old girl, with a long history of absence seizures, sudden rages, spatial disorientation, and academic difficulties received long-term (33 sessions) EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. Operantly conditioned increases in the average amplitude of the 14 Hz neural discharge rhythm, over the central Rolandic cortex and cerebrolongitudinal fissure, resulted in a total cessation of her absence seizures; which had, prior to the EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training, occurred at the rate of 4-5 absences per hour. Concurrently, her sudden rages, spatial disorientation, and academic functioning  all evidenced significant remediation.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 3935613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Indian Med Assoc. 1985 Jun;83(6):191-5.

Non-volitional biofeedback therapy in nervous disorders.

Ramamurthi B, Vasudevan MC.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 4078339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1985 Mar-Apr;32(2):53-5.

[Importance of biofeedback in the treatment of pain]

[Article in Spanish]

Rodríguez Alvarez E.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 4001497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Exp Brain Res. 1985;59(2):282-95.

Reflex actions of muscle afferents on fusimotor innervation in decerebrated cats: an assessment of beta contributions.

Grill SE, Rymer WZ.

The existence of beta innervation in many cat muscles raises the possibility that spindle afferent discharge will excite beta motoneurons, augmenting spindle afferent discharge and thereby closing a positive feedback loop. In order to evaluate the strength of such a loop through beta motoneurons and muscle spindles, the stretch responses of muscle spindle afferents from medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles were studied in decerebrated cats before and after dorsal root section. If a positive feedback loop were operational, the spindle afferent stretch response should be diminished following dorsal root section by an amount related to the magnitude of positive feedback. After dorsal root section, the static positional sensitivities of our MG spindle  afferent sample were significantly reduced for 72% (13/18, p less than 0.05) of the afferents, and dynamic rate/length slopes were decreased for 88% (8/9) of a subset of the afferents studied. Similar reductions for 6 afferents from SOL were not found. To apportion these afferent changes to reflex excitation of either gamma or beta motoneurons, we recorded the stretch responses of gamma and alpha-type fibers in the same preparation. (We assume that the population of alpha-type fibers includes beta fibers). In keeping with other reports, alpha fibers were much more responsive to stretch than gamma fibers. The mean positional sensitivity for alpha fibers (1.29 +/- 0.92 pps/mm, n = 15) was greater (p less than 0.05) than that of gamma fibers (0.49 +/- 0.93 pps/mm, n = 18). Because of these differences in sensitivity, beta motoneurons are more likely (than gamma motoneurons) to be involved in a positive feedback loop, although some gamma contribution is also likely. Using equations based on a beta  position regulating scheme, differences in spindle positional sensitivity were used to estimate beta loop gain. The average loop gain was estimated to be 0.41 (n = 18). The contribution of such a beta configuration to reducing the sensitivity of muscle to changes in load and muscle properties is evaluated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 4029303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Brain Cogn. 1985 Jan;4(1):47-58.

The effects of visual feedback on hemispheric alpha asymmetries and reported processing strategies: a single-subject experimental design.

Jenkins P, Moore WH Jr.

A double reversal single-subject experimental design was used to study the effects of visual feedback on the hemispheric alpha asymmetries of a male subject during a linguistic task. Results indicated that the subject demonstrated flexibility in hemispheric alpha and corresponding processing strategies employed when an alpha biofeedback procedure was used. These results provide further support for the notion that right and left hemispheric activation is associated with different, yet compatible, cognitive strategies and that both can be manipulated under conditions of feedback.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 4027054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1984 Oct;77(11):1195-9.

[Biofeedback of blood pressure information in man: changes in the electroencephalographic power spectrum]

[Article in French]

Rozier J, Sabbah P, Bordes JP, de Toffol B, Dallocchio M.

Modifications of attention in cardiovascular field with the aim of a perceptive activity focused on a vegetative feature may include in man: a specific arousal component linked to significant visual information (blood pressure); an unspecific attention component (P300), obvious in modifications of averaged visual response in the same time to a background unsignificant stimulation.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 6441538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pediatr Clin North Am. 1984 Oct;31(5):1027-51.

Chronic and recurrent headaches in children and adolescents.

Gascon GG.

Headache is a common chronic and recurrent symptom in children and adolescents. The author discusses the prevalence of headache, its differential diagnosis, interpretation of symptoms, methods of assessment, and pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment approaches.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 6384900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Cheloveka. 1984 Sep-Oct;10(5):761-70.

[The problem of controlling the human functional state]

[Article in Russian]

Medvedev VI, Miroliubov AV.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 6526179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1984 Aug;59(1):203-11.

Anxiety, perception, and control of heart rate.

De Pascalis V, Alberti ML, Pandolfo R.

8 women and 8 men took Cattell's IPAT-anxiety questionnaire and later McFarland's test of ability to perceive heart activity. The second test involved subjects' tracking their own heart rates, then they enrolled in an EKG biofeedback session  to evaluate ability to increase and decrease heart rate from subjects' resting baselines. At the end of the session each subject completed Blanchard, et al.'s questionnaire to specify the cognitive strategies used for heart-rate control. Heart rate, abdominal respiration rate, respiration amplitude, EEG percent power  in theta, alpha, and beta bands were evaluated. Success of heart-rate decrease seemed to depend mainly on activity levels: the subjects who achieved high scores on the activity test decreased heart rate significantly better than did low scorers. The relationship between scores for perception of heart and increases in heart rate was nonsignificant: increased heart-rate seemed to depend on differences in respiration between the rest and periods of increase. The significant, negative correlation between trait anxiety and perceptions of heart  activity suggested that anxiety affected subjects' ability to perceive heart rate. The theta EEG power of the right hemisphere was significantly higher in subjects scoring high than for those low in perception of heart activity. During  heart-rate increase tasks subjects mainly reported use of 'arousal responses,' similarly during heart-rate decrease tasks they reported use of relaxation responses.

PMID: 6493936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1984 Jul-Aug;14(4):272-6.

Adaptive regulation of the biopotentials of the brain (alpha-rhythm) in patients  with neuroses.

Artemchuk NL.

PMID: 6472608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

318: Psychosom Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;46(4):315-31.

Behavioral control of intractable idiopathic seizures: I. Self-regulation of end-tidal carbon dioxide.

Fried R, Rubin SR, Carlton RM, Fox MC.

Eleven women and seven men with moderate to severe chronic hyperventilation and idiopathic seizures refractory to therapeutic serum levels of anticonvulsant medication were given diaphragmatic respiration training with percent end-tidal CO2 biofeedback. The training had a rapid correcting effect on their respiration, making it comparable to that of 18 asymptomatic control subjects. Ten of the seizure-group subjects were in the study at least 7 months and following treatment, 8 showed EEG power spectrum "normalization", restoration of cardio-respiratory synchrony (RSA), and their seizure frequency and severity were significantly reduced.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 6435147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Jun;9(2):265-78.

The effect of activation versus inhibition of feedback on perceived control of EEG activity.

London MD, Schwartz GE.

This study explores a model in which perceived control is affected by multiple sources of feedback at three different stages of the control sequence--person, response, and outcome. Behavior that enhances feedback is termed activation, while behavior that diminishes feedback is termed inhibition. The study tests the hypothesis that activation at any stage of the sequence leads to greater perceived control than inhibition. Eighty subjects increased or decreased their brain-wave activity (EEG) by making a tone go either on or off, using either an active or a passive strategy. Following 10 60-second trials, subjects rated their perception of control over their EEG activity. The hypothesis that making a tone  go on (activation of the outcome) leads to a greater perception of control than making the tone go off (inhibition of the outcome) was confirmed only when subjects decreased their EEG activity. Perceived control was not significantly correlated with actual control, supporting the expectation that they are separately mediated. The results did not support the hypothesis that increasing EEG activity or using an activity strategy would lead to a greater perception of  control than decreasing EEG or using a passive strategy. These findings are interpreted as evidence that attention to feedback may be necessary for the predicted bias in perceived control to occur, and that activation and inhibition  should be operationalized as the absolute presence versus absence of feedback in  testing the hypothesis for the first two stages of control.

PMID: 6509115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Jun;9(2):139-60.

Operant control of EEG and event-related and slow brain potentials.

Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N, Elbert T, Lutzenberger W.

Research on operant control of brain potentials is reviewed. From single-unit firing and spontaneous EEG activity to event-related potentials such as sensory and pain evoked potentials, and slow potential shifts, most of the aspects of electrical brain activity have been investigated. Results produced by conditioning of spontaneous EEG oscillations (alpha and theta) dampened the early enthusiasm: e.g., no increase above baseline levels could be achieved and no reliable behavioral effects became manifest. Evidence accumulates, however, that  operant conditioning of the sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) may lead to successful self-regulation and that epileptic patients may profit from the training. First steps in the conditioning of brainstem, as well as pain evoked potentials suggest that self-regulation of EPs can be achieved by adequate biofeedback procedures. If some of the observed behavioral effects prove to be stable, the therapeutic usefulness seems to be within reach. A comparable progress has been achieved for  the operant control of slow potentials (DC-shifts across seconds). Biofeedback procedures have been used successfully as a scientific tool to achieve systematic variations on a psychological level and to record psychological covariations. This method may provide insights into the behavioral meaning of electrical brain  activity.

PMID: 6509107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Genet Psychol Monogr. 1984 May;109(2D Half):251-78.

The psychological effectiveness of pain management procedures in the context of behavioral medicine and medical psychology.

Trifiletti RJ.

The application of operant, biofeedback, and cognitive-behavioral approaches to the management of chronic pain is reviewed. A conceptual and methodological overview of treatment studies is provided from the perspective of recent psychological and multidimensional viewpoints concerning the chronic pain experience. Difficulties in interpreting the clinical efficacy of pain management procedures are highlighted and the need for further controlled outcome studies is recommended, particularly in demonstrating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral procedures. Lastly, implications for further research investigating the relationships between individual coping styles and chronic pain are discussed.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Review

PMID: 6234197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Mar;9(1):1-23.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting.

Lubar JO, Lubar JF.

Six children were provided with long-term biofeedback and academic treatment for  attention deficit disorders. Their symptoms were primarily specific learning disabilities, and, in some cases, there were varying degrees of hyperkinesis. The training consisted of two sessions per week for 10 to 27 months, with a gradual phase-out. Feedback was provided for either increasing 12- to 15-Hz SMR or 16- to 20-Hz beta activity. Inhibit circuits were employed for blocking the SMR or beta  when either gross movement, excessive EMG, or theta (4-8 Hz) activity was present. Treatment also consisted of combining the biofeedback with academic training, including reading, arithmetic, and spatial tasks to improve their attention. All children increased SMR or beta and decreased slow EEG and EMG activity. Changes could be seen in their power spectra after training in terms of increased beta and decreased slow activity. All six children demonstrated considerable improvement in their schoolwork in terms of grades or achievement test scores. None of the children are currently on any medications for hyperkinetic behavior. The results indicate that EEG biofeedback training, if applied comprehensively, can be highly effective in helping to remediate children who are experiencing attention deficit disorders.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 6487671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1984 Mar;35(3):263-7.

An overview of the classification, causes, and treatment of headache.

Ziegler DK.

Headache has been documented as the reason for approximately 18 million office visits per year in the United States, and may be the most prevalent central nervous system condition for which patients consult doctors. The author presents  an overview of the literature on classification, causes, and treatment of headache, including uncertainties about diagnostic criteria for migraine and about differentiation of migraine from muscle contraction headache. He discusses  treatment of headache in relation to management of the acute attack, avoidance of trigger factors, and pharmacological and nonpharmacological prophylaxis.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 6368359 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Minerva Med. 1984 Feb 11;75(5):143-52.

[Cigarette smoking. A pilot project of dehabituation and experimental research]

[Article in Italian]

Badellino F, Collecchi P, Crotti N, Foppiani E, Massa T, Morasso G, Rosadini G, Sannita WG, Vaccari A, Valerio F.

An interdisciplinary approach was adopted in a pilot programme research project as the most effective way to obtain concrete results in curing tobacco-addiction. The various stages and effects of the treatment are analysed as a means of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The early results are reported under separate headings according to treatment type (psychological, neurophysiological, dietary, clinical, chemical).

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     English Abstract

PMID: 6366618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Psychophysiol. 1984 Feb;1(2):163-77.

EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: some effects on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities.

Tansey MA.

This study presents a clinical treatment regime for pathological interhemispheric dysfunction with respect to a population of learning disabled boys. The results obtained replicate and extend earlier findings with respect to operantly conditioned increases in amplitude of sensorimotor transactions and its positive  effect on learning disability. Specifically, the biofeedback, and subsequent conditioning, of increased 14 Hz neural discharge patterns (sensorimotor rhythm-SMR) over the central Rolandic cortex, appeared to increase bilateral sensorimotor transactions resulting in substantive reduction/remediation in the learning disabilities of the recipients of such EEG biofeedback training.

PMID: 6542077 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1984 Jan;21(1):54-62.

Discrimination of sensorimotor EEG (12-15 Hz) activity: a comparison of response, production, and no-feedback training conditions.

Cinciripini PM.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 6701245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1984;425:653-66.

Biofeedback of event-related potentials.

Rosenfeld JP, Stamm J, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N, Roger M.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 6588887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1983 Dec;8(4):585-600.

Attention and regulation of EEG alpha-attenuation responses.

Mulholland T, Goodman D, Boudrot R.

Two experiments with 16 normal adults of both sexes tested the hypothesis that inattention to a biofeedback display is associated with increased variability of  those physiological processes that had been regulated by the biofeedback. Each experiment was a repeated-measures-on-independent-subjects-design. Dependent variables were the time durations and the mean rms power of two mutually exclusive segments of the parietal-occipital EEG: alpha and not-alpha segments. Independent variables were combination of counting tasks and instructions to look at, listen to, and count visual and auditory flashes and clicks. The durations of alpha and not-alpha segments were controlled or regulated by means of an alpha-contingent visual feedback stimulus, Attention to the feedback stimulus was challenged by instructions to count other, noncontingent stimuli. Control of alpha and not-alpha segments was least for conditions of (1) "sham" feedback, and (2) feedback with instructions to count noncontingent auditory clicks, which were presented 3/sec while the feedback visual stimuli were occurring. A new EEG test  of attention and distraction was suggested.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 6675733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Physiol. 1983 Nov-Dec;9(6):430-3.

Correlation between characteristics of voluntary control of EEG rhythms with parameters of operant activity.

Markman VG, Kurguzov SS, Khandov MZ.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 6680386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1983 Nov;20(6):690-5.

Biological rhythms in arousal indices: a potential confounding effect in EEG biofeedback.

Gertz J, Lavie P.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 6657858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1983 Sep;8(3):351-61.

Concordance among self-regulated responses: is self-regulatory ability a psychophysiological "trait"?

DeGood DE, Dale JA, Anderson DE, Buckelew SP, Martin SL.

The purposes of this study were to examine whether or not self-regulation of physiological responses demonstrates day-to-day reliability, to determine the degree of individual subject consistency (or concordance) in the ability to self-regulate across several different physiological responses, and, finally, to  explore the impact of biofeedback training on interresponse concordance. Twenty normal subjects participated in six bidirectional self-regulation sessions-the first and last sessions involving instructions only, and the remainder, biofeedback. Self-regulation scores consisted of the absolute difference between  increase and decrease trial means. The average test-retest reliability coefficients (rs) for the self-regulation scores, across the four biofeedback sessions, were a highly significant .50, .68, .30, and .47 for EEG, EMG, HR, and  SCL, respectively. By contrast, the average concordance among the self-regulation scores for the four feedback sessions, estimated by Kendall's coefficient of concordance, was a marginally significant 39% of the possible variance of the rank sums. This corresponds to an average between-response rs value only of .19.  The concordance level from the initial no-feedback (i.e., instructions only) session was not significant. Multivariate concordance levels did increase during  the first three feedback sessions, but declined at the fourth, and again was nonsignificant during the final no-feedback session. Among the individual self-regulation response pairings, only the EEG/EMG combination was consistently  associated during the no-feedback sessions. The present results suggest that self-regulatory ability is neither a highly unitary "trait"-like phenomenon nor an entirely response-specific event, but may vary considerably as a function of subject factors, or the situational circumstances, under which it is measured.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 6671104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Acta Astronaut. 1983 Aug;10(8):591-8.

Biofeedback monitoring-devices for astronauts in space environment.

Rotondo G, Pancheri P, Monesi F, Grantaliano G, DePascalis V.

University of Rome, Italy.

After a reconsideration of the state-of-the-art in biofeedback research the implementation of biofeedback systems is envisioned as a countermeasure of stress for the psychoprophylaxis of the astronaut. A one-session experiment performed on two groups of subjects to assess the interference from EMG-feedback on the performance in a simultaneous psychomotor trial with a view to expanding biofeedback application is described. The results show that the experimental group performed in the same way as the control without feedback, but with less CNS activation. Some general conclusions are drawn from the advances in technology.

PMID: 11541560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1983 Aug;24(4):444-54.

Control of chronic experimental focal epilepsy by feedback caudatum stimulations.

Psatta DM.

The effects of feedback caudate nucleus (CN) stimulations (5 cycles/s, 0.3 ms, 1-5 V, 1-3 s) on the interictal spiking activity of epileptic foci automatically  detected by a neuroanalyzer were followed in adult cats during 2-3 weeks of training. Spike depression occurred instantly after the onset of feedback stimulation, became stable after 3-4 days of operant training, and persisted with very little current reinforcement in a daily training schedule. No comparable effects were obtained either by random CN stimulation or by contingent stimulations of other subcortical structures such as the thalamus, the mesencephalic reticular formation, or the hypothalamus. A recovery of recurrent inhibitory caudate-cortical loops is presumed to contribute to the progressive normalization of cortical excitability obtained by training.

PMID: 6603358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurol Psychiatr (Bucur). 1983 Apr-Jun;21(2):63-75.

EEG and clinical survey during biofeedback treatment of epileptics.

Psatta DM.

PMID: 6867583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1983 Mar;8(1):25-37.

EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder.

Tansey MA, Bruner RL.

The serial application of electromyographic (EMG) and sensorimotor (SMR) biofeedback training was attempted with a 10-year-old boy presenting a triad of symptoms: an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, developmental reading disorder, and ocular instability. Symptom elimination was achieved, for all three aspects of the triad, following the procedure of first conditioning a decrease in EMG-monitored muscle tension and then conditioning increases in the amplitude of  sensorimotor rhythm over the Rolandic cortex. The learned reduction of monitored  EMG levels was accompanied by a reduction in the child's motoric activity level to below that which had been achieved by past administration of Ritalin. In addition, the attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity was no longer diagnosable following the EMG biofeedback training. The learned increase in the amplitude of monitored SMR was accompanied by remediation of the developmental reading disorder and the ocular instability. These results remained unchanged, as ascertained by follow-ups conducted over a 24-month period subsequent to the termination of biofeedback training.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 6882815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Addict Behav. 1983;8(3):277-85.

Biofeedback: a possible substitute for smoking, experiment I.

Griffith EE, Crossman E.

Biofeedback techniques were utilized in this study to identify those physiological variables which possibly contribute to maintenance of cigarette smoking and to investigate the hypothesis that smoking frequency would decrease when individuals were trained via biofeedback procedures to increase 8-12 Hz occipital EEG activity as a substitute for smoking. Results of the study indicate that of the six smokers physiologically monitored, the following physiological changes occurred while actually smoking one cigarette: four smokers increased the percent of time they were producing 4-8 cycle per second (Hz) brain waves; five smokers increased their heart rate (beats per minute); all six smokers decreased  their 8-12 Hz activity. Immediately after the smoking of one cigarette, six of the smokers demonstrated an increase in their heart rate and four of the smokers  demonstrated a decrease in their skin temperature. There did not appear to be any specific consistent brain wave change across the subjects. Two smokers, who were  able to continue producing high levels of 8-12 Hz activity without use of the biofeedback equipment, were able to quit completely at the end of an eight-month  followup period.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 6666692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Psychosom Res. 1983;27(6):515-32.

Effectiveness of biofeedback for treating migraine and tension headaches: a review of the evidence.

Holmes DS, Burish TG.

A review of the research reveals no evidence that finger temperature biofeedback  training or temporal artery pulse biofeedback training is effective for treating  migraine headaches. On the other hand, there is evidence that EMG biofeedback training is effective for treating tension headaches, but the EMG biofeedback training is not more effective than less complex and less expensive relaxation training. Reasons for the ineffectiveness of biofeedback training are discussed.  The results of the controlled investigations are in sharp contrast to the prevailing beliefs and the results have a variety of implications.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 6363681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Dec;7(4):421-33.

Alpha enhancement, autonomic activation, and extraversion.

Knox SS.

Autonomic activation as reflected by heart rate, skin conductance, muscle tension, and T-wave amplitude of the electrocardiogram were registered during biofeedback training of EEG alpha. The group of 25 subjects showed significant enhancement of alpha but no systematic change in autonomic activation. This result was interpreted as supporting Eysenck's theory of two feedback loops for mediating cortical arousal. According to this theory, autonomic changes would not be expected to accompany changes in cortical arousal during resting conditions lacking emotional content and, therefore, not involving the visceral brain. Although some of the subjects who succeeded in increasing alpha experienced it as positive and others as strenuous, alpha change did not correlate significantly either with the dimension of extraversion, or with those of locus of control and  neuroticism.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7165777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Dec;7(4):479-90.

Neuroleptic-like electroencephalographic changes in schizophrenics through biofeedback.

Schneider SJ, Pope AT.

Nine schizophrenic patients participated in a study which explored whether EEG feedback techniques could effect changes in the EEG similar to those associated with neuroleptic-induced improvement. During five sessions, each patient was presented feedback signals which continuously reflected the discrepancy between characteristics of the patient's EEG power spectral profile and spectral profile  characteristics associated by past research with neuroleptic induced clinical improvement. Significant within-session changes were observed for two of three EEG power spectrum bands of interest. No significant session-to-session EEG changes were observed. The results suggest that the EEG of schizophrenics can be  temporarily altered, using feedback techniques, in a way that mimics the EEG changes that have been shown to occur with neuroleptic induced clinical improvement.

PMID: 6131700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann Intern Med. 1982 Oct;97(4):584-98.

Recent developments in the diagnosis and therapy of epilepsy.

Engel J Jr, Troupin AS, Crandall PH, Sterman MB, Wasterlain CG.

Recent advances in the diagnosis of epilepsy include the development of a clinically useful classification of epileptic seizures and the recognition of specific epileptic disorders. These advances have been aided by the advent of x-ray computed tomography, long-term electroencephalographic telemetry, and video monitoring. Techniques for functional imaging of the human brain promise even greater diagnostic capabilities. New antiepileptic drugs have improved medical management, and technical and theoretical advances in pharmacokinetics have permitted physicians to design balanced dosing for individual patients. Although  currently underused, surgical treatment of partial complex epilepsy can be safe and effective when used appropriately. Operant conditioning of electroencephalography may become another practical alternative therapy. Contributions of basic research to understanding the complications of status epilepticus have influenced treatment protocols and greatly improved the prognosis of this potentially lethal condition.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 6812475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Sep;7(3):269-82.

Reduction of variability of EEG occipital, parietal, and central alpha rhythms by visual feedback stimulation.

Mulholland T, Goodman D.

Two experiments, each with 24 normal right-handed adults, examined variability of the response of EEG alpha rhythms during repeated visual stimulations that were contingent on the occurrence of those rhythms. Within-trial variability of alpha  durations and no-alpha (alpha blocking) durations were recorded from bipolar derivations along two bilateral posterior-anterior lines. Variability was significantly lower for: (1) the contingent EEG connected to the stimulus compared to the contralateral EEG, which was recorded simultaneously but was not  connected to the stimulus; (2) occipitoparietal EEGs compared to parietocentral EEGs; (3) alpha durations compared to no-alpha durations. Differences in variability among the four EEG locations on the left or the right side were significant for contingent EEGs but not for contralateral nonconnected EEGs. The  results were interpreted to be a demonstration that feedback EEG method can be applied to research on the functional topography of an EEG response to sensory stimuli in terms of the reduction of variability of the response that can be achieved with feedback.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 7171635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Sep;7(3):283-99.

Biofeedback of alveolar carbon dioxide tension and levels of arousal.

Naifeh KH, Kamiya J, Sweet DM.

This is a preliminary study designed to investigate the potential usefulness of alveolar (lung) CO2 feedback training in promoting sleep onset in primary insomniacs. The present study was undertaken to determine if normal subjects could, without obvious manipulation of breathing, bring alveolar (lung) CO2 tension under voluntary control using biofeedback techniques and, if so, whether  this control would be accompanied by shifts in level of wakefulness. Subjects participated in five baseline and five training sessions in which EEG, alveolar CO2 tension, and thoracic/abdominal respiratory movement were monitored. The feedback consisted of a pitch-modulated tone plus visual scores. We found that CO2 tension in awake portions of "up" trials was significantly higher than for awake portions of "down" trials (p less than .01), indicating that learning had occurred. In the initial trials, when subjects raised CO2 tension they became drowsy and often fell asleep, and when they lowered CO2 tension they aroused themselves. However, when subjects were awakened immediately upon falling asleep, there developed a decoupling of EEG and CO2 changes. The presence of such a decoupling phenomenon makes it unclear whether CO2 feedback will be useful in promoting sleep onset in primary insomniacs.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 6816297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurol Psychiatr (Bucur). 1982 Jul-Sep;20(3):145-51.

Regional EEG desynchronization induced through biofeedback in normal subjects.

Psatta DM.

PMID: 6813940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):223-35.

The treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback: a replication study.

Hauri PJ, Percy L, Hellekson C, Hartmann E, Russ D.

To replicate a previous study, 16 psychophysiological insomniacs were randomly assigned to either Theta feedback or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback. Evaluations by home sleep logs and by 3 nights in the laboratory were done before biofeedback, immediately after biofeedback, and 9 months later. Results from this study replicate previous findings. Both Theta and SMR feedback seemed effective treatments of insomnia according to home sleep logs. According to evaluations at  the sleep laboratory, tense and anxious insomniacs benefited only from Theta feedback but not from SMR feedback, while those who were relaxed at intake but still could not sleep benefited only from SMR but not from Theta feedback.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7138954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):211-21.

Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application  of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity.

Jackson GM, Eberly DA.

An electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback procedure was used in a pilot study  to decrease the percent of time in alpha wave activity with five mentally retarded adults while engaged in an arithmetic test. Analysis of intrasubject and intersubject data revealed an overall significant decrease in the number of alpha events and percent of time in alpha wave activity as compared to baseline conditions. Such a decrease indicated facilitated attention by EEG definition. A  collateral increase in percent of problems completed correctly and decrease in the number of distractible head-turning responses were noted. An automated method of determining head position was used and shown to be reliable in comparison to a human observer.

PMID: 7138953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):193-209.

A double-blind investigation of the relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback training.

Whitsett SF, Lubar JF, Holder GS, Pamplin WE, Shabsin HS.

The sleep EEGs of eight medically refractory epileptic patients were examined as  part of a double-blind, ABA crossover study designed to determine the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback for the control of seizures. The patients were initially reinforced for one of three EEG criteria recorded from electrodes placed over sensorimotor cortex: (a) suppression of 3- to 7-Hz activity, (b) enhancement of 12- to 15-Hz activity, or (c) simultaneous suppression of 3- to 7-Hz and enhancement of 11- to 19-Hz activity. Reinforcement contingencies were reversed during the second or B phase, and then reinstated in their original form during the final A' phase. All-night polysomnographic recordings were obtained at the end of each conditioning phase and were subjected to both visual and computer-based power spectral analyses. Four of the patients showed changes in their nocturnal paroxysmal activity that were either partially or totally consistent with the ABA' contingencies of the study. The spectral data proved difficult to interpret, though two trends emerged from the analyses. Decreases in nocturnal 4- to 7-Hz activity were correlated with decreases in seizure activity, and increases in 8- to 11-Hz activity were correlated with decreases in seizure activity. These findings were shown to strengthen the hypothesis that EEG biofeedback may produce changes in the sleep EEG that are related to seizure incidence.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7138952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1982 Mar;19(2):218-30.

The choice of feedback stimulus can determine the success of alpha feedback training.

Tyson PD.

PMID: 7071301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1982 Mar;19(2):211-7.

The effects of slow cortical potentials on response speed.

Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7071300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1982 Feb-Mar;14(1-2):99-111.

Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N.

Twenty subjects learned to control slow potential (SP) shifts of the brain by means of a biofeedback procedure. Depending upon the pitch of a signal tone, negative SP shifts had to be increased or reduced during intervals of 6 sec each. Visual feedback of the actual SP shift was given. Blocks of training trials alternated with blocks of test trials without any feedback of the SPs. At the end of every test trial a simple arithmetic problem had to be solved by the subjects. Subjects performed the computation in a shorter time interval if an increased negativity preceded task onset as compared to slower response times during suppression of negativity. Results suggest that cortical negativity reflects unspecific preparation for cerebral performance.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7104426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ment Retard. 1982 Feb;20(1):30-2.

Occipital alpha training in mentally retarded adolescents.

Thorson G, Lipscomb T.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7087788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Act Nerv Super (Praha). 1982;Suppl 3(Pt 2):338-41.

A biofeedback method for the control of heart rate.

Radil T, Bohdanecký Z, Fires M.

A heart rate biofeedback system consisting of a JPR 12 minicomputer (12 bit, 4 K), of input devices (an electronic circuit triggered by the EEG R-waves or a photoelectric ear lobe pulse detector and of output devices (a feedback indicator of successful or unsuccessful heart rate control during the preceding time interval, the teletype and the paper tape punch) is described. The actual heart rate is measured and compared with levels differing from the average by a preselected number of pulses/min. When a preset criterion is met, the levels are  shifted automatically. In control session shuffled data from the preceding experimental session are used for feedback.

PMID: 7183100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1982;82(8):34-9.

[Method of biocontrol in the complex treatment of cerebral arachnoiditis]

[Article in Russian]

Chernigovskaia NV, Movysiants SA, Kaidanova EA, Vereshchagina AA.

The authors analyze the results of using the method of adaptive biocontrol of the brain bioelecrical activity in combined treatment of 60 patients suffering from cerebral arachnoiditis. Use was made of a biocontrol modification in which the external feedback signals were formed on the basis of the pathological pattern of the patient's EEG or the alpha-activity. For the first time the slow-wave components of the delta range (2 to 4 Hz) were taken for the controlled parameter in the regulation of epileptiform activity. As a result of the treatment showed a favourable effect that was exhibited by clinical, psychological, and eletrographic findings. Factors influencing significantly the results of the biocontrol are specified. The results of control experiments were also analyzed.  The analysis confirmed the specificity of the biocontrol as a therapeutic method, and the fact that is effect is different from that of placebo. The biocontrol method is recommended for use in the treatment of nervous diseases as a method of directed use of the brain reserve capacities.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 7136376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Med Eng Technol. 1982 Jan-Feb;6(1):19-24.

EEG alpha-biofeedback training: an experimental technique for the management of anxiety.

Hare JF, Timmons BH, Roberts JR, Burman AS.

This paper outlines the design of a specialized alpha-biofeedback system for use  in the treatment of anxiety. The relationship of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha activity to various anxiety states is described, and the rationale for use  of alpha-biofeedback training with chronic anxiety patients is explained. Those features of the specialized system, and associated training methods, which are considered essential for this particular application are described and include the following: (1) use of visual feedback and eyes-open training; (2) use of oculomotor influences to facilitate alpha production; (3) encouragement of a passive attitude in the patient by using both verbal instructions and 'low-information' feedback with covert shaping. The training procedures used and  the design and function of the instrument are described. The initial clinical results obtained with this equipment are also presented.

PMID: 7120349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1982 Jan;19(1):71-4.

Patterns of feedback EEG response and control in depressed patient.

Danesino A, McLaughlin T, Burke W, Schneck P.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 7058243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pain. 1982 Jan;12(1):1-21.

Psychological interventions for chronic pain: a critical review. I. Relaxation training and biofeedback.

Turner JA, Chapman CR.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 7036049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1981 Dec;13:271-9.

Principal component analysis of slow brain potentials during six second anticipation intervals.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N.

The comparison of principal component analyses between seven experimental studies demonstrates a remarkable similarity of the extracted components. Slow scalp-recorded potentials of the brain (SPs) during a constant 6 sec foreperiod can be described by an early frontal, and a late preparatory component. Furthermore, an additional intermediate component may be retained by the PCA. This component seems to reduce the between-subject variance and often describes processes dependent on stimulus repetition. There is evidence favoring the varimaxed solution of the PCA for the parametrization of most of the experimental data.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7342997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Exp Psychol Gen. 1981 Dec;110(4):518-46.

Strategies of arousal control: biofeedback, meditation, and motivation.

Cuthbert B, Kristeller J, Simons R, Hodes R, Lang PJ.

A series of four experiments assessed the effects of instructions to lower heart  rate on heart rate change and general arousal reduction. Various conditions of biofeedback, cognitive load, incentive, knowledge of results, and the experimenter-subject relationship were tested. Experiment 1 compared physiological responses to the delivery of direct organ feedback (i.e., heart rate) with responses to electromyographic biofeedback from the frontalis muscle area and with responses to a nonfeedback tracking task. The results suggest that  neither heart rate nor muscle tension feedback is an especially powerful method for achieving sustained reductions in heart rate. Furthermore, although some specificity of physiologic pattern is apparent, biofeedback is no more effective  in lowering general activation level than simple instructions to relax accompanied by a general knowledge of results. The second experiment was designed to assess the role of cognitive load in arousal reduction. Heart rate biofeedback was compared with a procedure involving minimal external information processing--the secular meditation exercise of Wallace and Benson. The results indicated a clear superiority for the meditation strategy in effecting reductions in cardiac rate and lowering activation. However, in a third experiment, meditation subjects lowered heart rate much less than observed in the previous study, and this time the reduction did not exceed that achieved by feedback subjects. Subsequent analysis suggested that the quality of the subject-experimenter relationship (active-supportive vs. formal-distant) was a significant variable in accounting for outcome differences. The above hypothesis  was supported by a fourth experiment. Under conditions of high subject-experimenter involvement, the superior meditation performance of Experiment 2 was reproduced; under low-involvement conditions the Experiment 3 result of no difference between training groups was obtained. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of any method for achieving relaxation (or physiological control) rests on a complex interaction between informational and motivational imperatives of the stimulus context and definable aspects of the interpersonal exchange between subject and experimenter. This research raises serious questions about the effectiveness of the usual biofeedback paradigm as an aid to arousal reduction and the cost efficiency of its applications in the clinical situation. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the great power in relaxation experiments of psychosocial and other moderator variables, and signal  the practical difficulty of their control when these variables appear to be as potent in changing physiology as the primary training methods.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 6459406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Neurol. 1981 Nov;38(11):700-4.

EEG operant conditioning in intractable epileptics.

Lubar JF, Shabsin HS, Natelson SE, Holder GS, Whitsett SF, Pamplin WE, Krulikowski DI.

Eight epileptic patients with mixed seizures refractory to medical control participated in a double-blind crossover study to determine the effectiveness of  operant conditioning of the EEG as an anticonvulsant procedure. Baseline levels of seizures were recorded for four months prior to the beginning of treatment. Participants then received false (noncontingent) feedback for two months followed by an ABA-patterned training program lasting a total of ten months. Subjects were assigned to three treatment groups based on different schedules of EEG feedback.  They were first trained (A1 phase) either to suppress slow activity (3 to 8 Hz),  to enhance 12- to 15-Hz activity, or to simultaneously suppress 3- to 8-Hz and enhance 11- to 19-Hz activity. This was followed by a B phase, in which patients  were trained to enhance slow activity (3 to 8 Hz). In the final phase (A2), the initial training contingencies were reinstated. Neuropsychological tests were performed before and after training, and changes in EEG activity as determined by Fast Fourier spectral analyses were analyzed. Five of eight patients experienced  a decrease in their mean monthly seizure rate at the completion of feedback training as compared with their initial baseline level.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7305698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981 Oct;62(10):469-75.

Biofeedback in rehabilitation: a review of principles and practices.

Basmajian JV.

Modern biofeedback is the technique of using electronic equipment to reveal instantaneously to patients and therapists certain physiologic events and to teach the patients to control these otherwise involuntary events by manipulating  the displayed signals (usually visual and/or acoustic). Diagnostic EMG and research on the fine control of motor units led to clinical EMG biofeedback. In rehabilitation it has gained a firm place in the treatment of upper motor neuron  lesions, particularly in retraining muscles and inducing relaxation of spastic muscles of stroke patients. In cerebral palsy and musculoskeletal disturbances, additional feedback transducers (electrogoniometers, pressure-sensitive and position-sensing devices) are gaining wider use. Spasmodic torticollis has proved to be particularly suitable for behavioral methods of treatment including EMG feedback.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 7030271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Exp Psychol Gen. 1981 Sep;110(3):415-28.

A rapprochement of the operant-conditioning and awareness views of biofeedback training: the role of discrimination in voluntary control.

Plotkin WB.

In order to adequately evaluate Cott, Pavloski and Black's claim that the discrimination of a physiological response is not necessary for the voluntary control of that response, this commentary presents a set of formal articulations  and clarifications of intentional action, voluntary control, discrimination, awareness, and physiological response. It is concluded on logical grounds that Cott et al. are necessarily mistaken and that the conceptual foundations of the issue have not been clearly articulated heretofore. Based upon this discussion, a rapprochement is offered of the operant conditioning and awareness views of biofeedback training, demonstrating that the awareness view is essentially a tautology that aids us in understanding what is meant by "voluntary control of the physiological response." Finally, the issue of mediation in biofeedback-augmented self-regulation is reconceptualized and it is argued that the search for a "neurophysiological mechanism" of voluntary control is meaningless, reflecting a misappropriation of the concept of voluntary control.

PMID: 6457083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Exp Psychol Gen. 1981 Sep;110(3):398-414.

Operant conditioning and discrimination of alpha: some methodological limitations inherent in response-discrimination experiments.

Cott A, Pavloski RP, Black AH.

Studies on the operant conditioning of central nervous system activity have produced results interpreted as demonstrating that responses, certain properties  of responses, or response-produced stimuli can function as discriminative stimuli. It is assumed that the feedback stimulus in biofeedback makes the subject aware of the internal response and that by becoming aware of the response, the subject can acquire voluntary control over it. In this context, awareness is operationally defined as the ability to use the response as a discriminative stimulus. Since direct evidence for the assumed relationship between control and discrimination is lacking, an attempt was made to test the hypothesis that discrimination of a response automatically leads to control over  that response. The discriminative stimuli were the presence and absence of occipital alpha electroencephalograph (EEG) activity. Data from two experiments are reported. The first study, employing naive subjects, was designed to answer the following questions: (a) Since pilot data indicated that subjects seemed to match their responses to the more probable type of trial, would increases in the  probability of a correct response result when the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha trials were held near .50? (b) If correct responding does increase, would performance of these subjects in an alpha feedback task be enhanced relative to that of subjects not previously given discrimination training? and (c) If subjects could not learn the discrimination task, would feedback training  enhance their performance in a subsequent discrimination task? Results from this  study indicate that holding the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha discrimination trials near .50 results in an absence of learning curves, but leaves open the possibility that sophisticated subjects are capable of discriminating alpha and nonalpha activity. The second study deals with two questions: (a) Can sophisticated subjects learn to discriminate occipital alpha activity from nonalpha activity? and (b) Does the procedure of providing subjects with salient stimuli, contingent on the presence and absence of alpha activity, establish stimulus control of the presence and absence of alpha activity? Results indicate that it is not possible to conclude that subjects can learn to discriminate alpha and nonalpha activity. However, learning to increase percent-time nonalpha or decrease percent-time alpha with respect to baseline levels by means of EEG-contingent stimulation provides subjects with the ability  to suppress percent-time alpha in the absence of feedback. Information gained in  both studies through subject interviews indicates that subjects most often acquired their control of alpha activity during feedback by a specific strategy and then used the strategy during the stimulus-control tests.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 6457082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Exp Psychol Gen. 1981 Sep;110(3):381-97.

Cortical alpha rhythm, biofeedback, and the determinants of subjective state.

Cott A, Pavloski RP, Goldman JA.

A critical assumption in the rationale for the clinical application of voluntary  control over central nervous system (CNS) activity is that there exists a direct  relationship between specific CNS activities and specific subjective mood states. The experiment reported here was based on the idea that a joint manipulation of both cognitive and physiological (i.e., alpha electroencephalographic [EEG]) variables would provide information required for an explication of the processes  involved in subjective mood change. Three main variables were considered in the present experiment. First, the instructions were designed to induce a "set" or expectations for either positive or negative changes in subjective mood. Second,  the type of feedback (alpha or not alpha) was varied. Those in the not-alpha feedback condition received feedback contingent on the absence of alpha activity, whereas those in the alpha feedback condition received feedback contingent on the presence of alpha activity. Third, an estimate of each individual's baseline alpha density was obtained, and on this basis subjects were classified as high-baseline or low-baseline subjects. Baseline alpha density, alpha density during training, and subjective mood were all considered as continuous variables. The results of the present study indicate that biofeedback of the cortical alpha  rhythm is neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition for changes in subjective mood. In addition, the type of instructions designed to set subjects for positive or negative alterations in subjective states is predictive of changes in subjective state reported during alpha biofeedback training as well as of success at controlling and changing EEG during feedback training. The data presented here permit a direct examination of the actual relationship of EEG changes to changes in subjective mood state. Similar shifts in subjective mood state can be obtained with either increases or decreases in alpha activity. Further, both positive and negative subjective experiences can be associated with increases in alpha activity.

PMID: 6457081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1981 Aug;49(4):590-6.

Biofeedback as a placebo: anxiety reduction facilitated by training in either suppression or enhancement of alpha brainwaves.

Plotkin WP, Rice KM.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7264040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Physiol. 1981 Jul-Aug;7(4):241-6.

Role of feedback in adaptive control of pathological brain electrical activity.

Vereshchagina AA, Kaidanova EA.

PMID: 7346388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1981 Jul;67(7):970-7.

[Cyclic interaction of brain structures in different states and different types of activity]

[Article in Russian]

Suvorov NB, Vasilevskiĭ NN.

Special method of multichannel EEG analysis with the aid of the matrix of consistent zero-crossing points distribution within the multichannel EEG registration calculated for the different functional states and behaviour revealed the cyclic forms of bilateral interrelationship between the brain structures. The variety of consistent connections increases in EEG-biofeedback food behaviour and visual stimulation, but the cycles prolongation decreases. The combination of zero-crossing points consistently distributed for different brain  structures is typical for each functional state.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 7286329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981 Jul;38(7):752-8.

Treating psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback.

Hauri P.

After evaluating 165 insomniacs, 48 psychophysiologic insomniacs were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: electromyographic (EMG) feedback, combined EMG and theta feedback, sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback, and no treatment (control). Sleep evaluations by home logs and in the laboratory were done before and after biofeedback and nine months later. No feedback group showed improved sleep significantly more than did the controls. The amount of feedback learning correlated significantly with sleep improvement for the SMR group but not for the other groups. Initial tension of the insomniacs correlated positively with sleep improvement for the EMG group, but negatively with sleep improvement for the SMR group. Those treated with the biofeedback that seemed appropriate for their specific deficiencies showed significant sleep improvements, while those who received inappropriate feedback did not. Appropriate biofeedback methods may  be effective for specific types of insomnia, but these procedures offer no panacea for all poor sleep.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7247638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1981 Jun;9(2):251-81.

The use of biofeedback techniques with school-aged children exhibiting behavioral and/or learning problems.

Cobb DE, Evans JR.

This article reviews 44 studies that investigated the efficacy of biofeedback techniques in treating childhood behavioral and learning disorders. Although the  data suggest that children can learn voluntary control over a variety of physiological processes, methodological flaws make it impossible to specify the mechanisms responsible for such learning. Further, the data do not suggest that biofeedback techniques are superior to more conventional treatments in remediating learning or behavioral disorders. Suggestions for future research focus upon the elimination of methodological weaknesses, the use of more stringent diagnostic criteria, and the use of more sophisticated biofeedback equipment and procedures.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 7024384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Gac Med Mex. 1981 May;117(5):171-3.

[What's new in psychiatry? II. Advances in the area of psychophysiology]

[Article in Spanish]

Fernández-Guardiola A.

PMID: 7308658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1981 May;18(3):271-82.

P300 and feedback provided by absence of the stimulus.

Ruchkin DS, Sutton S, Munson R, Silver K, Macar F.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7291445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1981 Apr 15;75(8):353-6.

[Initial experiences with alpha-training]

[Article in German]

Atanassov K, Stelzer V, Stelzer W.

PMID: 7281777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Learn Disabil. 1981 Apr;14(4):204-8.

The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visual-spatial, and creative  skills in learning disabled male adolescents.

Cunningham MD, Murphy PJ.

PMID: 7229554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1981 Mar;6(1):45-56.

Biofeedback regulation of temporal EEG alpha asymmetries.

Suter S, Griffin G, Smallhouse P, Whitlach S.

Integrated EEG alpha was recorded from T3 and T4. Larger R alpha/L alpha ratios were defined as right asymmetry, relatively smaller ratios as left asymmetry. In  different phases of the study, participants attempted to identify the presence of the EEG asymmetries and to produce the EEG asymmetries during auditory biofeedback, and were tested on hemisphere-specialized cognitive tasks while attempting to produce the EEG asymmetries. Experiential descriptions of the EEG asymmetries were obtained throughout using a set of bipolar scales. Some participants were able to identify the presence of the EEG asymmetries (p less than .05). As a group there was numerically small but significant (p less than .05) biofeedback control of the EEG asymmetries, but no improvement across sessions of training. There were marked individual differences in the ability to  control the EEG asymmetries and in L alpha and R alpha during control. During baselines L alpha and R alpha were strongly positively correlated across time. Experiential descriptions were not consistent across participants. Effects of EEG asymmetries on performance of hemisphere-specialized tasks were demonstrated for  one participant.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 7260181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychother Psychosom. 1981;36(3-4):246-60.

Biofeedback and behavioral approaches in Japan.

Ishikawa H, Robinson A.

A number of studies and case histories involving the use of biofeedback and behavioral approaches throughout Japan have been selected from Japanese journals  and summarized. Areas of biofeedback research covered are experimental, clinical  and psychological/educational. The behavioral approaches mentioned have been limited to those currently being used in Japan in conjunction with various biofeedback modalities. A brief explanation of a new biofeedback-monitored multi-modal psychosomatic therapy approach developed in Japan, termed cybernation therapy, is also presented along with current Japanese thought on the use of biofeedback in psychotherapy.

PMID: 7345470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1981 Fall;5(3):405-12.

EEG biofeedback: physiological behavior modification.

Sterman MB.

The author reviews the use of operant conditioning to alter electroencephalogram  (EEG) patterns. A discrete rhythmic EEG pattern directly related to modulation of motor patterns (sensorimotor rhythm, SMR) was brought under voluntary control in  the cat. This technique was modified for use in epileptic human volunteers in order to reduce motor seizures. The use of a newer experimental design and its successful application in one subject is described.

PMID: 7301228 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1981 Jan;37(1):202-9.

The relationship of violence to alpha levels in a biofeedback training paradigm.

Mandelzys N, Lane EB, Marceau R.

Evaluated alpha levels in a biofeedback training paradigm in groups of violent and nonviolent offenders and controls (N = 40). Mean alpha frequencies were higher for the offender group than for the controls, while alpha density (percent time) was lower. The violent subset demonstrated significantly higher frequencies than their nonviolent counterparts, but lower alpha densities and integrated amplitudes. In addition, the results clearly indicated that biofeedback training  did not elevate significantly the levels of alpha production for any of the groups, above either the eyes open or the eyes closed baselines. The results of the between-groups comparisons were interpreted in terms of differences in cortical arousal as related to antisocial behaviors.

PMID: 7204601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol Beih. 1981;28:62-3.

[Recent research results in hypnosis from the USSR: b) The role of regional synchronization and biofeedback in the mechanisms of hypnotic suggestion]

[Article in German]

Monachov KK.

PMID: 6820514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1980 Nov 22;124(47):2004-9.

[Biofeedback]

[Article in Dutch]

Zitman FG.

PMID: 7442846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Fla Med Assoc. 1980 Sep;67(9):863-5.

Alternative methods of healing: biofeedback.

Hartje JC.

PMID: 7411096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychosom Med. 1980 Sep;42(5):463-80.

Comparison of four biofeedback treatments for migraine headache: physiological and headache variables.

Cohen MJ, McArthur DL, Rickles WH.

Forty-two migraine headache patients participated in an appraisal of biofeedback  for differential finger warming--forehead cooling, frontalis EMG relaxation, alpha enhancement and vasoconstriction of the temporal scalp arteries. All patients provided 8 weeks of baseline charting of headache and then received 24 training sessions in one of the above conditions. Headache charting continued throughout training and for 8 months posttraining. During the training period measures were made of each biofeedback variable plus forehead temperature, heart  rate, skin conductance, and finger pulse amplitude. Analyses revealed that all groups had a significant reduction in number of headaches per week with no change in intensity, disability or length of headache. Physiological changes were consistently small and unrelated to headache outcome. A nonspecific effect for biofeedback is suggested with the likely candidates being a relaxation phenomenon or a cognitive explanation based upon perceived control.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7008071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1980 Sep;49(5-6):558-76.

Quantitative analysis of training, sleep EEG and clinical response to EEG operant conditioning in epileptics.

Sterman MB, Shouse MN.

This report is a follow-up to a previous paper which described seizure rate changes with central cortical EEG feedback training in 8 poorly controlled epileptic subjects. Data examined here include associated training compliance and performance, sleep EEG spectra, clinical EEG and anticonvulsant blood levels. The study employed a double-cross-over, single blind ABA design applied to two subgroups of epileptic patients. Both groups had in common two training periods (A1, A2) in which either 12--15 c/sec (subgroup I, n = 4) or 18--23 c/sec (subgroup II, n = 4) was reinforced in the absence of 6--9 c/sec, movement or epileptiform discharge, and one training period (B) in which 6--9 c/sec was reinforced in the absence of 12--15 or 18--23 c/sec as well as movement and epileptiform discharge. Training periods occurred primarily in the home and lasted 3 months. Compliance with training instructions and response acquisition were demonstrated. Overall anticonvulsant blood levels were low and unrelated to  EEG or seizure changes. Clinical EEG findings corresponded to sleep EEG and seizure rate outcomes. Power spectral analysis of sampled non-REM sleep from all-night EEG recordings obtained after each training phase indicated contingency specific changes which were limited to sensorimotor recordings in subgroup I and  corresponded to the pattern of seizure rate changes in this group. EEG changes were also limited to sensorimotor cortex in subgroup II, but were linear and paralleled a progressive decrease in seizure rate. Both groups, however, showed the same pattern of EEG changes with seizure reductions; low and high frequencies were reduced and intermediate, rhythmic frequencies increased. Correlational analysis confirmed this relationship. The pattern, duration and topographic specificity of these changes suggested a normalization of sensorimotor EEG substrates related to the EEG feedback traning.

PMID: 6158436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1980 Aug;11(1):1-6.

Distribution of 'criterion' alpha in the resting EEG: further argument against the use of an amplitude threshold in alpha biofeedback training.

Knox SS.

The object of this study was to explore the relevance of an amplitude threshold for defining alpha in biofeedback studies. One of the lowest thresholds used in earlier studies (1.5 microV) was selected and the EEG base level of 94 subjects measured. Due to the importance of reinforcement rate in biofeedback, results were divided into three categories: under 25%, between 26-74%, and over 75% alpha. The results showed a positively skewed distribution with 68% of the subjects displaying under 25% alpha. The subjects' means on the control variables: anxiety, impulsivity, and monotony avoidance were within the range of  normal and did not correlate with the amplitude categories. The conclusion drawn  was that skewness is not the result of an abnormal sample but of an arbitrarily set amplitude criterion. On the basis of this data, an integrated alpha amplitude measure is advocated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7248400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1980 Jun;5(2):193-205.

Maintenance and generalization of 40-Hz EEG biofeedback effects.

Ford M, Bird BL, Newton FA, Sheer D.

Maintenance of conditioning of 40-Hz EEG activity was investigated in six adults  1 to 3 years after they had experienced biofeedback training to increase 40-Hz EEG. Subjects were first retrained to alternately increase and suppress 40-Hz EEG. All six subjects achieved a preset performance criterion in 16-20 minutes. Five of these subjects also subsequently demonstrated significant control of 40-Hz EEG without feedback. The sixth subject did not demonstrate control after 76 minutes and four sessions of attempted retraining with feedback. Transfer of 40-Hz EEG control to a problem-solving task was tested in all subjects in a final session. Cognitive test items were presented and subjects were instructed to alternately increase and suppress 40-Hz EEG while solving the problems. Rates of  40-Hz EEG in suppression periods during problem solving wer significantly greater than during suppression periods without problems. No significant differences in problem-solving performance were found comparing 40-Hz increase and suppression periods. This study supports previous research suggesting an association between  40-Hz EEG and mental activity, and suggests methods for further study of transfer of EEG biofeedback effects.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 7397274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Elektromyogr Verwandte Geb. 1980 Jun;11(2):81-3.

[Auditory electroencephalography (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Manaka S, Hori T, Takahashi H, Sano K, Kosugi Y, Takahashi T, Sekine M.

New monitoring method of EEG using auditory expression were proposed; (1) Multification method, (2) Frequency modulation method and (3) Harmonic musical scale method. The first has merit surveying the trend of EEG, the second detecting paroxysm and the third detecting abnormal basic activities.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 6777143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1980 Apr;36(2):548-51.

Heart rate changes associated with EMG and alpha biofeedback.

Travis TA, Partlow J, Bean JA, Kondo CY.

Physiological concomitants of relaxation are needed to characterize objectively the response to biofeedback training. Ss (N = 30) received either alpha, EMG, or  no biofeedback training. Heart rate, EMG, and alpha activity were measured in all groups. Increases in alpha and decreases in EMG were noted in their respective feedback groups. Heart rate, however, was not related systematically to these changes, and no significant changes in heart rate occurred in any group.

PMID: 7372830 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1980 Apr;36(2):508-13.

Effectiveness of alpha biofeedback therapy: negative results.

Watson CG, Herder J.

Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of psychiatric patients (N = 66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions, and their improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of  significant differential changes appeared among the three groups. A comparison of these negative results with an earlier study from our laboratory that had yielded positive findings suggested that clinical improvement in alpha biofeedback treatment may be the result of the relaxation training or special verbal instructions often incorporated into alpha training.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 7372823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Physiol Behav. 1980 Mar;24(3):617-9.

Relationship between cortical alpha and skeletal muscle blood flow in a feedback  task.

Poon LW, Peterson E, Williams RB, Thompson LW, Burdette LJ.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7375583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1980 Mar;5(1):57-73.

A comparison of relaxation techniques with electrosleep therapy for chronic, sleep-onset insomnia a sleep-EEG study.

Coursey RD, Frankel BL, Gaarder KR, Mott DE.

Two methods of relaxation therapy, electromyograph biofeedback and autogenic training, were compared to a nonrelaxation treatment, electrosleep therapy, in reducing sleep latency among 22 chronic, sleep-onset insomniacs. While none of the electrosleep patients improved on all-night laboratory electroencephalographic sleep records or daily home sleep logs, approximately one-half of the relaxation-treated patients showed marked improvement, which was  sustained over a 1-month follow-up period. Although some sleep and treatment variables differentiated relaxation therapy responders from nonresponders, external stress appeared to be the most salient factor. Successful and unsuccessful patients could not be differentiated on any of the psychological variables studied.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 6989409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1980 Mar;48(3):302-11.

Biofeedback of slow cortical potentials. II. Analysis of single event-related slow potentials by time series analysis.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N.

A single trial analysis of slow cortical potentials treating the EEG as a time series was developed. The method was applied to data resulting from an experiment on self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCP). Parametric models of the EEG were developed on the basis of autoregressive filter models and a two-component model of SCP (during 6 sec intervals), taking into account ocular influences as a further parameter. Results from different models were compared with each other and with results of averaging SCP data. For the present data time series analysis and traditional analysis provided qualitatively equal results, but fewer trials were necessary for analysis in the single trial approach and more detailed structures of the data became evident. If the EEG was filtered above 5 Hz it could be described by an autoregressive filter model of low order.  Ocular influences were estimated as too small in a non-filtered EEG compared to the filtered EEG.

PMID: 6153349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1980 Mar;48(3):293-301.

Biofeedback of slow cortical potentials. I.

Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

An experiment was performed to investigate the self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCP) found in a previous study (Elbert et al. 1979). Seventeen subjects received continuous visual feedback of their actual cortical shift perceptible as a rocket moving across a TV-screen during intervals of 6 sec; subjects had to direct the rocket into one of two goals representing more or less cortical negativity, depending on the pitch of two signal tones. Within two identical experimental sessions feedback trials alternated with test trials without feedback. Highly significant differences of SCP between the two required  polarities were demonstrated. The most pronounced differences were observed during test trials without feedback of the second session in which a positive shift below baseline level occurred when positivity (or less negativity) was required.

PMID: 6153348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Abnorm Psychol. 1980 Feb;89(1):67-78.

The role of attributions of responsibility in the facilitation of unusual experiential states during alpha training: an analysis of the biofeedback placebo effect.

Plotkin WB.

PMID: 7365120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 1980;40(1):227-38.

Pacing of behavioral and electroencephalographic events.

Radil-Weiss T, Bohdanecký Z, Lánský P.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 7424580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1980;250(6):1487-90.

[EEG correlates of voluntary heart control training in humans]

[Article in Russian]

Bogest AN, Talan MI, Chernigovskiĭ VN.

PMID: 7379689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1980 Jan;28(1):53-62.

Cognitive control in hypnosis and biofeedback.

Dumas RA.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 7353925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Psychol (Frankf). 1980;133(4):323-37.

Fast arousal changes enhanced by alpha biofeedback and their personal evaluations.

Trimmel M.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7345990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prog Brain Res. 1980;54:431-4.

Slow cortical potentials and response speed.

Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7220947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prog Brain Res. 1980;54:427-30.

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in normal subjects and patients with  frontal lobe lesions.

Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Bippus W, Breidt R.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 

PMID: 7220946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Rev Med Interna Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir Dermatovenerol Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir. 1980 Jan-Mar;24(1):1-8.

[Biofeedback therapy]

[Article in Romanian]

Rogozea R.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 6446125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Dec;4(4):299-312.

Operant conditioning of EEG rhythms and ritalin in the treatment of hyperkinesis.

Shouse MN, Lubar JF.

Enhanced voluntary motor inhibition regularly accompanies conditioned increases in the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), a 12--14-Hz Rolandic EEG rhythm in cats.A similar rhythm, presumably SMR, has also been identified in the human EEG. The clinical effectiveness of SMR operant conditioning has been claimed for epilepsy, insomnia, and hyperkinesis concurrent with seizure disorders. The present report  attempts to follow up and replicate preliminary findings that suggested the technique's successful application to hyperkinesis uncomplicated by a history of  epilepsy. SMR was defined as 12--14-Hz EEG activity in the absence of high-voltage slow-wave activity between 4 and 7 Hz. Anticipated treatment effects were indexed by systematic behavioral assessments of undirected motor activity and short attention span in the classroom. EEG and behavioral indices were monitored in four hyperkinetic children under the following six conditions: (1) No Drug, (2) Drug Only, (3) Drug and SMR Training I, (4) Drug and SMR Reversal Training, (5) Drug and SMR Training II, (6) No Drug and SMR Training. All hyperkinetic subjects were maintained on a constant drug regimen throughout the phases employing chemotherapy. Contingent increases and decreases in SMR occurred in three of four training subjects and were associated with similar changes in classroom assessments of motor inactivity. Combining medication and SMR training  resulted in substantial improvements that exceeded the effects of drugs alone and were sustained with SMR training after medication was withdrawn. In contrast, these physiological and behavioral changes were absent in one highly distractible subject who failed to acquire the SMR task. Finally, pretraining levels of SMR accurately reflected both the seve-ity of original motor deficits and the susceptibility of hyperkinetic subjects to both treatments. Although the procedure clearly reduced hyperkinetic behavior, a salient, specific therapeutic  factor could not be identified due to the dual EEG contingency imposed combined with associated changes in EMG. Despite these and other qualifying factors, the findings suggested the prognostic and diagnostic value of the SMR in the disorder when overactivity rather than distractibility is the predominant behavioral deficit.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 526475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Yale J Biol Med. 1979 Nov-Dec;52(6):581-96.

Biofeedback and the behavioral treatment of disorders of disregulation.

Schwartz GE.

This paper reviews biofeedback research from the perspective of cybernetic/feedback theory and applies the theory to the behavioral treatment of  psychosomatic disorders. The concept of disregulation is used to elucidate how environmental factors can modulate the central nervous system and effect homeostatic, self-regulatory control of peripheral organs. When feedback from peripheral organs is disrupted, it is hypothesized that disregulation occurs, leading to physiological instability and functional disease. Within this framework, biofeedback provides a new feedback loop that can help individuals regain physiological self-control. Basic research using biofeedback to enhance self-regulation of cardiovascular responses is reviewed. The use of biofeedback in the behavioral treatment of disorders such as tension and migraine headache, hypertension, and epilepsy are selectively reviewed and critically evaluated. The need to consider feedback mechanisms in behavioral and biomedical approaches to treatment is highlighted. Predictions regarding the potential inadvertent perpetuation of disregulation and disease through inappropriate biomedical intervention is also considered.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 395767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1979 Oct;65(10):1401-8.

[Compositional integration of nervous processes in mechanisms of adaptive autoregulation of functions and detection of ecologically significant stimuli]

[Article in Russian]

Vasilevskiĭ NN.

The latest data on regulatory mechanisms based on synchronization principle elucidate the selective responses of cellular systems to ecologically adequate stimuli, and the mechanisms of formation of the stable neurodynamic changes in separate cerebral structures. The elementary mechanism consists in facilitation of excitatory and inhibitory processes, which respectively increases or suppresses the current level of the brain functional activity. A more complex mechanism of the adaptive plasticity relies on associations involving motivational structures into the biorhythm control. The functional interaction among the cortex and subcortical structures increases at that, the cyclic pattern and the spatial-temporal composition of intracentral interrelationships alters, as well as the correlation between the central and the peripheral functions.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 389682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1979 Sep;9(2):129-49.

Sensorimotor rhythm feedback training and epilepsy: some methodological and conceptual issues.

Quy RJ, Hutt SJ, Forrest S.

This study examined the hypothesis that the enhancement of a 12-16 Hz sensorimotor rhythm in the EEG is inhibitory to epileptic seizure activity. The effects of training to enhance 12-16 Hz central EEG, to enhance 8-10 Hz central EEG, to suppress high voltage EEG activity, and of random feedback were compared  over a period of 12 months in three adult patients suffering from chronic, drug-refractory epilepsy. All three patients experienced a significant reduction  in seizure rate by the end of the study, but this was not related to any one particular training condition. It is suggested that the therapeutic mechanism might involve placebo effects, relaxation training, or a facilitation of EEG desynchronization, the effect being idiosyncratic to the individual patient.

PMID: 540111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Sep;4(3):229-36.

The use of EEG theta biofeedback in the treatment of a patient with sleep-onset insomnia.

Bell JS.

In this report, the treatment of a 42-year-old female with a complaint of chronic sleep-onset insomnia is described. Following the unsuccessful use of relaxation training, treatment consisted of 11 sessions of EEG theta rhythm (4--7 Hz) biofeedback. Theta density and five sleep indices were monitored throughout baseline, placebo, and treatment sessions. A significant increase in theta density was accompanied by reports of a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in total sleep time. This improvement was maintained after withdrawal of medication and at 3-month follow-up.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 486589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Sep;4(3):211-9.

Feedback control of human alpha rhythm from the central area.

Potolicchio SJ Jr, Zukerman AS, Chernigovskaya NV.

Twenty subjects, aged 17 to 25, were given from 5 to 10 sessions of training in controlling alpha. They were divided into three groups, respectively reinforced for increasing alpha from the central area, reinforced for decreasing alpha from  the central area, and given noncontingent reinforcement. Compared with the initial baseline, the alpha of the noncontingent subjects did not change, while those reinforced for increases were reliably higher and those reinforced for decreases reliably lower than the noncontingent group. A slight trend toward improvement during successive sessions was not reliable. Since the experiment was conducted in the Soviet Union, the subjects had no expectations of an "alpha experience." Although tests showed a slight elevation in mood at the end of the sessions, there were no differences among the groups. There was an increase in reports of fatigue after the training sessions. There were no reports of using visual or somatomotor maneuvers as a means of controlling alpha. Furthermore, alpha rhythm control was not found to be consistently correlated with changes in  heart rate, respiration, or mood, as determined by cross-correlation analysis.

PMID: 486587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychol Bull. 1979 Sep;86(5):1132-48.

The alpha experience revisited: biofeedback in the transformation of psychological state.

Plotkin WB.

PMID: 386402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Physiol Behav. 1979 Aug;23(2):411-3.

Automatic detection and operant reinforcement of slow potential shifts.

Siegel JM, Sterman MB, Ross S.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 504431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1979 Jun;48(3 Pt 1):765-6.

Changes in heart rate following eyes-closed alpha enhancement.

Bean JA, Kondo CY, Travis TA, Knott JR.

Subjects (n = 20 females 18 to 26 yr. old) who had been trained in an eyes-closed alpha-enhancement task were grouped according to performance and changes in heart rate were compared. Subjects who showed a facility for producing alpha also evidenced a small decrease in heart rate while a small increase in heart rate while a small increase in heart rate was shown by the low alpha-output group.

PMID: 482026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1979 Jun;48(3 Pt 1):698.

EEG alpha biofeedback and time perception.

Suter S, Dillingham C.

PMID: 482019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Jun;4(2):93-102.

Feedback delay and amplitude threshold and control of the occipital EEG.

Mulholland T, Boudrot R, Davidson A.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 476194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Jun;4(2):145-54.

Operant conditioning of brain steady potential shifts in man.

Bauer H, Lauber W.

Steady potential shifts (SPS) recorded from the scalp were conditioned operantly  by visual and acoustical feedback. Three groups of seven subjects were each tested with a different response-reinforcement contingency: positive reinforcement for a positive SPS after a cue stimulus, positive reinforcement for a negative SPS after a cue stimulus, and noncontingent reinforcement. The steady  potential shifts learned under these three conditions differed significantly. Negative shifts were associated with subjective feelings of activation, positive  shifts with inactivation. Cortical genesis and possible artifacts are discussed.

PMID: 476190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Jun;4(2):127-31.

Alpha detection: some comments on Hardt and Kamiya, "Conflicting results in EEG alpha feedback studies".

Lansky P, Bohdanecký Z, Indra M, Radil-Weiss T.

The problem of defining EEG alpha activity, and of detecting and measuring it, is outlined. Some advantages of a threshold method are presented and compared with an amplitude-integration method. Characteristics of percent-time scoring, based upon observable alpha spindles in the waking EEG, are discussed. A probability distribution of percent-time alpha as a function of detection threshold is derived and compared with empirical data.

PMID: 476188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1979 Jun;20(3):279-86.

EEG operant conditioning for control of epilepsy.

Wyler AR, Robbins CA, Dodrill CB.

We report the results of 23 severely epileptic patients who were given EEG feedback training. The paradigm reinforced the patients' 18 Hz activity over the  scalp approximation of their focus while suppressing temporalis EMG and low frequency EEG activity. In contrast to other studies using EEG feedback, only 43% of patients showed significant changes in seizure occurrence and a lesser number  were felt to have benefited clinically. None of our neuropsychological test parameters were helpful in identifying (prospectively or retrospectively) patients most likely to respond to this treatment. Although a few patients were significantly helped by this training, the mechanism for this effect is unclear.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 446436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Physiol. 1979 May-Jun;5(3):315-23.

Interaction between systems as the basic principle of organization of activity of the nervous system.

Zimkina AM, Markman VG, Timofeeva AN.

PMID: 548444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Psychol. 1979 May;102(1st Half):101-6.

Effects of true and inverted feedback on integrated occipital alpha.

Kondo CY, Travis TA, Knott JR, Bean JA.

Ambient illumination had no effect on baseline levels of alpha of 20 female university students who had their eyes closed, and significant increases from these levels were obtained through true but not inverted feedback procedures. These results indicate that alpha enhancement can be obtained in a manner that is not explicable in terms of disinhibition processes.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 458747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1979 Apr;48(2):586.

Individual differences in biofeedback performance: EEG alpha, skin resistance and EMG.

Suter S.

PMID: 461058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1979 Apr;35(2):364-9.

Correlates of alpha, beta and theta wave production.

Watson CG, Jacobs L, Herder J.

Studied the correlations of alpha, beta and theta time densities with psychological and psychophysiological variables in a psychiatric population (N =  76). The correlations of the EEG variables with measures of adjustment were small and barely exceeded chance expectations. Alpha and beta were correlated positively with pain threshold, while beta was related inversely to blood pressure. Theta was correlated positively with blood pressure and negatively with pulse rate. The implications of these findings for EEG biofeedback treatment were discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 457900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Mar;4(1):63-79.

A multivariate approach to the relationship between alpha waves and experience during feedback.

Tyson PD, Audette R.

PMID: 465577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1979 Feb;48(1):147-55.

Feedback control of hemispheric EEG alpha.

Fox CD.

PMID: 450611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Science. 1979 Jan 5;203(4375):73-5.

Reducing epileptic seizures through operant conditioning of central nervous system activity: procedural variables.

Cott A, Pavloski RP, Black AH.

Operant conditioning of the sensorimotor rhythm of the human electroencephalogram with time-outs contingent on epileptiform activity reduces epileptic seizure rates in patients whose seizures are not well controlled by medication. A comparison of this procedure with time-out training alone demonstrates that operant conditioning of the sensorimotor rhythm is neither necessary nor sufficient for seizure reduction.

PMID: 758682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1979 Jan;16(1):61-5.

A proposed feedback method for studying the inhibition of EEG responses to visual stimuli.

Mulholland TB.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 758629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1979;79(11):1539-44.

[Adaptive regulation of cerebral biopotentials (alpha-rhythm) in neurotic patients]

[Article in Russian]

Artemchuk NL.

With the aid of a feedback towards an increase in the EEG intensity, adaptive regulation of brain biopotentials (alpha-rhythm) was conducted in 22 patients with different forms of neurosis. It was established that in patients with an initial low level of alpha-rhythm its regulation was more significant, while in patients with an initially middle level of alpha-rhythms in the EEG, its regulation was less expressed. The clinical effect of regulation in all cases was positive. The study also demonstrated a crosscorrelation of connections in the process of regulation between such functions as alpha-rhythm-EMG, alpha-rhythm-SGR, etc. It is suggested that, regulation of alpha-rhythms can be accepted as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of patients with neuroses.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 516969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Neurosci. 1979;9(3):175-83.

The effects of self-regulation of slow cortical potentials on performance in a signal detection task.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N.

PMID: 489260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1979 Winter;18(1):143-53.

Application of biofeedback to treatment of children.

Conners CK.

PMID: 458062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1979 Jan;35(1):154-8.

Death anxiety: "state" or "trait"?

Pettigrew CG, Dawson JG.

Investigated relative effects of hypnosis, alpha biofeedback, prestige suggestion, and silence in attenuating experimentally induced increases in death  anxiety. Forty female undergraduate Ss at Louisiana State University were tested  on four measures of death anxiety: "Emotional" associations to "death" words, association response latencies to "death" vs. "neutral" words, Death Anxiety Scale, and Death Concern Scale. Ss then were assigned to four treatments: (1) Hypnosis, with anxiolytic post-hypnotic relaxation suggestions; (2) Nonhypnotic anxiolytic prestige suggestions; (3) EEG alphacontingent biofeedback; and (4) a 15-minute waiting period. After treatments, Ss viewed a tape-slide presentation that emphasized personal death and overestimated its probability from various causes. Ss then were retested on death anxiety measures, forms of which were counterbalanced within groups. Analysis of variance (at .05 and .01 confidence levels) failed to differentiate groups on either increases or decreases of death  anxiety. It was concluded that death anxiety may be a "trait" as opposed to a "state" phenomenon.

PMID: 422719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Biomed Eng. 1979 Jan;1(1):58-62.

Biofeedback instruments for the management of anxiety and for relaxation training.

Watson BW, Woolley-Hart A, Timmons BH.

An EEG alpha biofeedback system and a portable GSR monitor/feedback box are described. The rationale for the use of these instruments in the management of anxiety and for relaxation training, respectively, is also described, as well as  the training techniques presently in use at St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 395366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Fam Pract. 1979 Jan;8(1):55-9.

Can emotions precipitate seizures--a review of the question.

Minter RE.

Controversy over the emotional precipitation of seizures has existed for centuries. Large clinical studies have generally shown a significant proportion of seizures to be triggered by emotions. Laboratory studies have been reported which describe seizure activity on the electroencephalogram during periods of experimentally induced stress. However, very few pf these studies have utilized control groups and blind evaluators. The numerous reports of the emotional precipitation of seizures indicate that the phenomenon may be genuine and that further research is warranted. Research on emotional interventions such as biofeedback techniques and psychotherapy is the next step, and early work on these interventions is promising.

Publication Types:      Historical Article     Review

PMID: 366066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ir Med J. 1979;72(12 Suppl):19-23.

Alternatives to drugs. Biofeedback.

Rees L.

PMID: 43852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1978 Dec;3(4):385-408.

Biofeedback in the treatment of vascular headache.

Diamond S, Diamond-Falk J, DeVeno T.

PMID: 751684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Exp Neurol. 1978 Dec;62(3):735-47.

Effects of sensorimotor EEG feedback training on seizure susceptibility in the rhesus monkey.

Sterman MB, Goodman SJ, Kovalesky RA.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 108125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1978 Dec;45(6):699-710.

EEG feedback training of epileptic patients: clinical and electroencephalographic analysis.

Kuhlman WN.

To evaluate the clinical efficacy and mechanisms underlying EEG feedback training of epileptic patients, 5 adult patients with poorly controlled seizures were studied for 4--10 months during which quantitative analysis of seizures, the EEG, and serum anticonvulsant levels was conducted. Sustained seizure reduction did not occur during the first 4--5 weeks in which feedback signals were presented randomly in relation to the EEG. When feedback was then made contingent upon central 9--14 c/sec activity, seizures declined by 60% in 3 patients. Power spectral analysis showed upward shifts in EEG frequency, decreases in abnormal slow activity, and enhancement of alpha rhythm activity as a function of contingent training, but no specific EEG change was associated with seizure reduction in all patients. No evidence was obtained for the hypothesized involvement of a 'sensorimotor rhythm' or motor inhibition in the training effects. The lack of effect in two patients could not be attributed to insufficient training, lack of motivation, or to differences in seizure classification. A second phase of research showed that continued laboratory training was both sufficient and necessary for maintaining clinical and EEG effects. Results indicate that: (1) significant seizure reductions can occur with EEG feedback training which are not related to placebo effects, non-specific factors or to changes in medication; (2) EEG changes associated with such training can best be described as 'normalization'; (3) continued clinical investigation of EEG feedback training as a non-pharmacological adjunct to conventional therapy appears justified.

PMID: 84738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Br J Hosp Med. 1978 Nov;20(5):561-6.

Clinical applications of biofeedback.

Johnston D.

PMID: 737363 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1978 Nov;15(6):606-8.

Influences of subject self-selection on the EEG alpha-hypnotizability correlation.

Dumas RA, Spitzer SE.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 715138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1978 Nov;15(6):591-3.

Tension in the two frontales: electrode placement and artifact in the recording of forehead EMG.

Davis CM, Brickett P, Stern RM, Kimball WH.

PMID: 715135 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Psychosom Med Psychoanal. 1978 Oct-Dec;24(4):355-67.

[Psychophysiologic approaches in the etiology and therapy of psychosomatic disorders]

[Article in German]

Larbig W.

Psychosomatic phenomena were considered within the framework of psychophysiology  and general stress research. Startingpoint for an adequate understanding and interpretation of etiology and symptom-specifity of psychosomatic diseases are neurophysiologic-endocrinologic and psychodynamic findings. The familiarity with  the concept of the specifity-of-attitude-hypotheses is important, too. Concerning the described etiologic hypotheses three psychotherapeutic procedures are demonstrated: 1) Relaxation trainings combined with biofeedback techniques, 2) rational-emotive therapy, 3) social-skill training. Furthermore it is referred to the clinical importance of slow cortical potentials (contingent negative variation--CNV) as central nervous correlates of information processes in the treatment of anxiety and hyperactivation of the autonomous system in stress situations. Prognostic criteria and indication for different treatment procedures of psychosomatic disorders were discussed.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 726685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychiatr Pol. 1978 Sep-Dec;12(5-6):591-4.

[Attempt at using visual feedback in training EEG alpha rhythm in humans]

[Article in Polish]

Bahder M, Ciastoń M.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 724854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1978 Aug;45(2):290-4.

EEG feedback training: enhancement of somatosensory cortical activity.

Kuhlman WN.

The mu rhythm is a spontaneous electroencephalographic pattern which can be recorded over human somatosensory cortex in the absence of movement. Power spectral analysis across 50 sessions of EEG feedback training showed that mu activity could be systematically enhanced, whereas the 12--14 c/sec component of  low voltage fast activity could not be modified. Results indicate that long-term  modification of at least one normal cortical rhythm, initially present in the human EEG, is possible with feedback training but that training cannot produce such a rhythm.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 78840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Science. 1978 Jul 7;201(4350):79-81.

Anxiety change through electroencephalographic alpha feedback seen only in high anxiety subjects.

Hardt JV, Kamiya J.

Subjects who were either high or low in trait anxiety used alpha feedback to increase and to decrease their electroencephalographic alpha activity. The alpha  changes were tightly linked to anxiety changes, but only in high anxiety subjects (for whom anxiety was reduced in proportion to alpha increases, and was increased in proportion to alpha suppression). Low trait-anxiety subjects were superior at  both enhancement and suppression training, but their alpha changes were not related to anxiety changes. In both groups, anxiety changes were generally unrelated to either resting levels or changes in frontalis electromyograms and respiration rate. These results suggest that long-term alpha feedback training (at least 5 hours) may be useful in anxiety therapy.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 663641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1978 Jul;34(3):765-9.

Alpha biofeedback therapy in alcoholics: an 18-month follow-up.

Watson CG, Herder J, Passini FT.

In an earlier study on patients with alcohol problems, an experimental group given 10 hour-long alpha biofeedback training sessions showed greater improvement on State and Trait Anxiety scores than did a control sample. In the present study an 18-month follow-up was done on those Ss. The differences between the experimentals and controls in State and Trait Anxiety after 18 months were essentially identical to the differences between them immediately after treatment, which indicates that alpha training had long-range therapeutic effects. A difference between the groups on the Alcohol Rehabilitation Followup Questionnaire also suggested that alpha training may have been associated with some reduction in alcohol consumption as well.

PMID: 690224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1978 Jun;3(2):159-83.

Methodological issues in alpha biofeedback training.

Ancoli S, Kamiya J.

Current controversies concerning outcomes of EEG alpha feedback training are at least in part due to methodological differences among different studies. The aim  of this paper is to provide future and present researchers in this field with an  analysis of methods used in most of the studies published from 1968 to 1976, and  to comment on those methodological issues we think most important. These include  alpha assessment, training schedules, and uni- versus bidirectional training. This analysis is accomplished in part by a series of tables listing 45 studies and the detailed methodologies used. It is believed that the probabilities of successful feedback enhancement of alpha can be substantially improved by incorporating the following suggestions: (a) employing at least four training sessions, (b) the use of continuous rather than dichotomous feedback, supplemented by periodic quantitative scores of progress, and (c) using training  trials of at least 10 minutes' duration.

PMID: 687683 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1978 Jun;19(3):207-22.

Effects of central cortical EEG feedback training on incidence of poorly controlled seizures.

Sterman MB, Macdonald LR.

This study examined the clinical effects of central cortical EEG feedback training in 8 patients with poorly controlled seizures. After base-line recordings, patients were trained in the laboratory and then initiated on a double or triple crossover design using portable equipment at home, with bimonthly laboratory test sessions. Performance at home was monitored by a strip  chart recorder with the portable unit. Training was based on the simultaneous detection of two central cortical (C3--T3) EEG frequency bands (6--9 Hz and either 12--15 or 18--23 Hz), with reward provided for the occurrence of one in the absence of the other. The design consisted of successive 3 month periods of training, with reward contingencies reversed after each period without the subject's knowledge. Seizure incidence records were compared statistically before, during, and after the design. Six of the 8 patients reported significant  and sustained seizure reductions, which averaged 74%, following reward for either 12--15 or 18--23 Hz in the absence of 6--9 Hz. Response to positive reward for 12--15 Hz was specific, with seizure rates returning to base line when reinforcement contingencies were reversed. Reduced seizure rates following positive reward for 18--23 Hz were not altered with contingency reversals. A nonspecific interpretation of these effects is rejected in favor of an EEG normalizing hypothesis.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial

PMID: 354919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1978 Jun;46(3):389-404.

Psychophysiological effects of progressive relaxation in anxiety neurotic patients and of progressive relaxation and alpha feedback in nonpatients.

Lehrer PM.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 353095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1978 May-Jun;28(3):549-56.

[Directed regulation of human alpha-rhythm using feedback]

[Article in Russian]

Chernigovskaia NV, Tsukerman AS, Patolichchio S.

Directed control of intensity of the alpha-rhythm in the somatosensory cortical regions was examined in 20 healthy subjects in conditions of combined (visual and auditory) feedback connection. An attempt has been made to single out by means of control experiments, the factors influencing in such conditions of external stimulation the brain bioelectrical activity. A study was made of the changes in  effectiveness of biocontrol in multiple (five) sessions of training. Data are given on the dynamics of some vegetative functions in controlling brain biopotentials.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 676503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1978 Mar;3(1):13-28.

Behavioral and electroencephalographic correlates of 40-Hz EEG biofeedback training in humans.

Bird BL, Newton FA, Sheer DE, Ford M.

Two groups of eight adults successfully trained with biofeedback for increases in 40-Hz EEG responses in left or right hemispheres also demonstrated significant 40-Hz EEG increases during baseline periods, and increases in the contralateral hemisphere during training periods. No changes in heart rate, 40-Hz EMG, or 21- or 31-Hz beta, alpha, or theta EEG occurred over training days. Three subjects returning for additional training demonstrated suppression of 40-Hz EEG. A group  of four subjects experiencing daily bidirectional training produced substantial within-session control of 40-Hz EEG but no changes over days. Data from posttraining tests without feedback for successful subjects in both groups indicated significant control of 40-Hz EEG responses in the initial parts of these sessions, and some correlated changes in other EEG responses. Measures of successful subjects' experiences during training and control tests indicated awareness of changes in subjective concomitants of EEG responses. This study suggests further strategies for research on behavioral correlates of EEG activity.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 667188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1978 Mar;3(1):1-11.

Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG in humans.

Bird BL, Newton FA, Sheer DE, Ford M.

This study was a preliminary evaluation of biofeedback training of human subjects to control high-frequency EEG responses in the 35- to 45-Hz (40-Hz) and 21- to 31-Hz ranges. A total of 22 adult males divided into three groups were successfully trained for increases or suppression of 40-Hz EEG, or increases of 21- to 31-Hz EEG. Dissociation of rates of 40-Hz EEG recorded from scalp leads and 40-Hz EMG responses from prominent muscle contaminators, and partial dissociation of 40-Hz and 21- to 31-Hz EEG responses were noted. After biofeedback training, 8 subjects demonstrated increase and suppression of 40-Hz EEG without feedback. No consistent descriptors of subjective experiences accompanying EEG changes were reported by subjects in any of the groups. The study suggests the utility of biofeedback procedures in research on high-frequency EEG activity.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 667187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Addict Behav. 1978;3(1):13-8.

Self-reported alcohol and nicotine use and the ability to control occipital EEG in a biofeedback situation.

DeGood DE, Valle RS.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 654992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1978 Jan;15(1):40-52.

Long-term eyes-closed alpha-enhancement training: effects on alpha amplitudes and on experiential state.

Plotkin WB.

PMID: 625521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hum Physiol. 1978 Jan-Feb;4(1):94-105.

Operant conditioning of spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity.

Trubachev VV, Markman VG.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 376429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1977 Dec;18(4):481-8.

EEG operant conditioning in a monkey model: II. EEG spectral analysis.

Wyler AR, Lockard JS, DuCharme LL, Perkins MG.

EEG power spectral analysis was studied from 14 (alumina-gel) chronically epileptic, undrugged monkeys during an EEG operant conditioning experiment. The composite profile of the average epileptic monkey shows the majority of power to  be below 10 Hz. Because of the large variance in the data, no significant changes in the EEG power spectra could be detected as a function of conditioning. The possible reasons for this large variance are discussed. Hypothesis from previous  human "biofeedback" studies would allow the prediction that those frequencies corresponding to the mu and sensory-motor-rhythm should negatively covary with seizure frequency. Data from this study did not support such assertions. The method of using spectral analysis for quantifying changes in the EEG which covary with operant conditioning is evaluated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 412667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1977 Dec;18(4):471-9.

EEG operant conditioning in a monkey model: I. Seizure data.

Lockard JS, Wyler AR, Finch CA, Hurlburt KE.

EEG operant conditioning in an alumina-gel monkey model (N = 14) to decrease EMG, to increase 9 Hz or decrease 9 Hz, and to increase 23 Hz (18 Hz and 26 Hz in 2 pilot monkeys), respectively, was not consistently beneficial in reducing seizures. The data suggested: (1) that desynchronization of the EEG by reinforcing 18-26 Hz decreased in some animals the extent and severity of seizures while increasing seizure frequency; (2) that attending during conditioned EMG suppression reduced seizures somewhat; and (3) that the operant conditioning setting became stressful to the majority of monkeys under certain conditions, precipitating status epilepticus, gastrointestinal disturbances, and  shock, which culminated in the death of 3 animals. Certain precautions are discussed in the therapeutic application of this technique to epileptic patients.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 412666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1977 Oct 7;296:154-61.

EEG alpha activity and its relationship to altered states of consciousness.

Paskewitz DA.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 279242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1977 Oct 7;296:143-53.

On attempts to modify hypnotic susceptibility: some psychophysiological procedures and promising directions.

Wickramasekera IE.

PMID: 279241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1977 Oct;22(6):301-10.

Alpha and EMG feedback training in the prevention of drug abuse. A controlled study.

Lamontagne Y, Beauséjour R, Annable L, Tétreault L.

PMID: 922640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1977 Oct;25(4):348-60.

EEF alpha training, hypnotic susceptibility, and baseline techniques.

Crosson B, Meinz R, Laur E, Williams D, Andreychuk T.

PMID: 892941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Assoc Physicians India. 1977 Oct;25(10):733-7.

Bio-electric method to induce an yoga-like state.

Bhaskar PA, Ramamurthi B.

PMID: 615187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1977 Oct;25(4):361-71.

Developing a biofeedback model: alpha EEG feedback as a means for pain control.

Pelletier KR, Peer E.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 330421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Periodontol. 1977 Oct;48(10):639-42.

The use of biofeedback to control bruxism.

Kardachi BJ, Clarke NG.

A highly significant reduction in bruxism has been obtained using a biofeedback system. The concept that the etiology of bruxism is related to emotional stress is supported as biofeedback has been successful in controlling other stress-related parameters. The form of biofeedback used as an audible tone derived from amplified electromyographic data, relayed to the subject via an earpiece. Future work will be concerned with learning potential and the control of parafunctional activity; further investigation into the correlation between E.E.G. patterns and masticatory E.M.G. activity is necessary.

PMID: 269244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1977 Sep;2(3):255-8.

Independent biofeedback self-regulation of EEG alpha and skin resistance.

Suter S.

Skin resistance and EEG alpha were recorded concurrently during alpha biofeedback, in which the participant attempted to control alpha, and during skin resistance biofeedback, in which the participant attempted to control skin resistance. Alpha production changed significantly (p less than .001) during alpha biofeedback, indicating successful self-regulation of alpha, but did not change significantly during skin resistance biofeedback. Similarly, skin resistance changed significantly (p less than .001) during skin resistance biofeedback but did not change significantly during alpha biofeedback. The results show independent control of alpha and skin resistance, and may reflect independent self-regulation of cognitive and somatic tension-relaxation systems.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 922059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1977 Sep;14(5):431-8.

EEG alpha-hypnotizability correlations: a review.

Dumas RA.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 333496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

ARN J. 1977 Sep-Oct;2(5):10, 14, 22.

Biofeedback: the clinical tool behind the catchword.

Basmajian JV.

PMID: 242923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1977 Aug;45(4):713-4.

Effect of contingent and noncontingent feedback and subject expectancies on electroencephalogram biofeedback training.

Pressner JA, Savitsky JC.

PMID: 886061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1977 Aug;45(4):698-9.

Reply to "a comment on alcoholism, alpha production, and biofeedback".

Holmes DS.

PMID: 886055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1977 Aug;45(4):698-9.

Comment on "alcoholism, alpha production, and biofeedback".

Glaros AG.

PMID: 886054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1977 Aug;85(3):616-7.

[Biofeedback of alpha rhythm (proceedings)]

[Article in French]

Moenaert A, Ketels R.

PMID: 72540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Jul-Sep;12(3):147-85.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback methodology and the management of epilepsy.

Lubar JF.

PMID: 917599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1977 Jul;33(3):861-6.

Reliability and validity enhancement: a treatment package for increasing fidelity of self-report.

Bornstein PH, Hamilton SB, Miller RK, Quevillon RP, Spitzform M.

This study investigated the effects of reliability and validity "enhancers" on fidelity of self-report data in an analogue therapy situation. Under the guise of a Concentration Skills Training Program, 57 Ss were assigned randomly to one of the following conditions: (a) Reliability Enhancement; (b) Truth Talk; (c) No Comment Control. Results indicated significant differences among groups (p less than .05). In addition, tests of multiple comparisons revealed that Reliability Enhancement was significantly different from Truth Talk in occurrences of unreliability (p less than .05). These findings are discussed in light of the increased reliance on self-report data in behavioral intervention, and recommendations are made for future research.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 893725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Jul-Sep;12(3):130-46.

Operant conditioning of epileptic neurons in monkeys and its theoretical application to EEG operant conditioning in humans.

Wyler AR.

This paper reviews a series of previous reports which summarize the physiology of chronic experimental epileptic foci in monkeys. It is shown that such monkeys can be trained to bidirectionally control the firing rates of normal and epileptic neurons which comprise the epileptic focus. As a result of this acquired operant  performance, the monkeys show both a decrease in clinical seizures as well as a decrease in single unit epileptic activity. The EEG correlate of this change in single unit epileptic activity is generalized EEG desynchronization. The conclusion from these data would indicate epileptic neurons can be operantly controlled from and this control is not correlated with any specific EEG pattern. This brings to question the specificity of the SMR in EEG biofeedback paradigms which treat human epilepsy. This author feels that the result from such biofeedback studies are the result of the patient learning to manipulate electrical events within the CNS pathways through which the seizures propagates and is not contingent upon specific EEG frequencies.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 411099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1977 Jun;2(2):195-9.

Self-regulation of hemispheric asymmetry.

Ray WJ, Frediani AW, Harman D.

This study was performed to determine if individuals could demonstrate self-regulation of average EEG power of one hemisphere in comparison to the other. Temporal EEG was recorded from 8 males and 6 females. After a practice session, the subjects were instructed to increase or decrease the practice session, the subjects were instructed to increase or decrease the ratio of left to right temporal EEG. The subjects were given on-line feedback in the form of a  graph presented via a computer display screen. The study demonstrated a significant ability of the subjects to change differentially the hemispheric power ratios upon instruction.

PMID: 901856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1977 Jun;2(2):183-94.

Expectancy influence on self-reported experience during alpha feedback training:  subject and situational factors.

DeGood DE, Elkin B, Lessin S, Valle RS.

PMID: 901855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1977 May;14(3):258-65.

Multiple response comparison of parietal EEG and frontalis EMG biofeedback.

DeGood DE, Chisholm RC.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 854555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Apr-Jun;12(2):93-111.

Operant conditioning of the EEG in two patients with epilepsy: methodologic and clinical considerations.

Finley WW.

Methodologic and clinical considerations are discussed in sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) biofeedback research on two dissimilar but severe epileptic males. The first case, an akinetic epileptic who prior to feedback training experienced 80-100 clinical seizures every 10 hours, showed considerable seizure reduction after 6 months of SMR and epileptiform training. A number of methodologic and instrumentation advances were pioneered with the akinetic patient: (1) development of and ultra-sharp band-pass filter; (2) use of epileptiform inhibit  and feedback circuitry; (3) use of monetary rewards as additional incentive; (4)  use of correlational analysis for evaluation of acquisition in the major dependent variables and; (5) use of noncontingent feedback and reinforcement as control techniques. The second case, a psychomotor epileptic, also showed therapeutic benefit from SMR training. Clinical information regarding the effect  of anticonvulsant medications on the course and therapeutic outcome of SMR training are described. In conjunction with operant conditioning of 12 Hz activity, corresponding changes for other EEG parameters are examined.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 904960 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Apr-Jun;12(2):112-22.

EEG feedback training in the treatment of epilepsy: some questions and some answers.

Kuhlman WN, Allison T.

A basic question in EEG feedback training of epileptic patients is whether the decrease in seizures is specifically due to the training or to other factors. Questions may also be raised as to what EEG changes are involved. Preliminary results in five patients suggest that seizure reductions can occur with training  which are not due to placebo or nonspecific effects or to changes in medication compliance. These changes occurred rapidly during EEG-contingent feedback training but not when feedback was random in relation to the EEG. Reliable changes in the EEG were also observed, but the question of which mechanism accounts for these results has yet to be answered.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 904959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Percept Mot Skills. 1977 Apr;44(2):491-6.

Voluntary alpha control, visually evoked potentials, and peripheral physiological indicants of activation.

Sadler RR, Eason RG.

To test the hypothesis that voluntary alpha control is mediated in part through self-induced changes in cortical activation level and bodily arousal, changes in  several physiological indicants of such activity were systematically examined as  a function of the voluntary enhancement and suppression of scalp-recorded alpha activity. Following per-training, 6 subjects attempted to either produce or suppress alpha with eyes closed while receiving continuous anditory feedback of their alpha levels. The results were interpreted as offering tentative support for the hypothesis.

PMID: 866056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychol Rep. 1977 Apr;40(2):591-8.

Sociocultural predictors of self-actualization in EEG-biofeedback-treated alcoholics.

Twemlow SW, Bowen WT.

PMID: 859981 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1977 Apr;45(2):334.

Efficacy of alpha biofeedback training in elevating mood.

Bear .

PMID: 850017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Apr-Jun;12(2):63-92.

Sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning: experimental and clinical effects.

Sterman MB.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 198727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1977 Mar;2(1):43-57.

Effect of feedback contingencies on the control of occipital alpha.

Mulholland T, Eberlin P.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 880316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1977 Mar;18(1):73-87.

Electrophysiological studies in two patients with cherry red spot--myoclonus syndrome.

Engel J Jr, Rapin I, Giblin DR.

Two unrelated patients with the cherry red spot--myoclonus syndrome, a rare chronic neuronal storage disorder that begins in childhood with progressive myoclonus, cherry red spots at the macula, and easily controlled seizures, but no dementia, have been investigated electrophysiologically in order to characterize  the myoclonic and electroencephalographic features of this syndrome. Phenomenologically, the disease most closely resembles the Ramsay Hunt syndrome,  although certain unique features are noted and the patients are not photosensitive. Pathologically and clinically, the disease is related to mucolipidosis type I and atypical cases of GM1 gangliosidosis, and the EEGs obtained from our patients are identical to those seen in mucolipidosis type I. Because of the unusual clinical picture presented in this disease, there should be no difficulty in differentiating it from other more malignant storage disorders and progressive myoclonus epilepsies of childhood. Electrophysiological findings suggest that the myoclonic jerks do not originate cortically, but the specific subcortical generators have not been identified.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 858294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1977 Mar;14(2):157-63.

Effects of alpha feedback training on occipital EEG, heart rate, and experiential reactivity to a laboratory stressor.

Chisholm RC, DeGood DE, Hartz MA.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 847067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Addict. 1977 Feb;12(1):195-204.

Alpha conditioning as an adjunct treatment for drug dependence: part II.

Goldberg RJ, Greenwood JC, Taintor Z.

PMID: 863563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Encephale. 1977;3(3):203-6.

[Physiological and psychological effects of biological feed-back training (alpha  and EMG) among drug using college students]

[Article in French]

Lamontagne Y, Hand I, Annable L, Gagnon MA.

Twenty-four volunteer college students, who were regular drug users, were randomly allocated to three training groups of equal size: alpha feedback, EMG feedback and a joked control group. Subjects, who were unaware of which feedback  condition they received, were asked to practice at home during a six month follow-up period to achieve a relaxed state similar to that experienced during training. No group was successful in retaining gains made in their alpha levels during each session. The EMG group, however, significantly reduced their muscular activity during training and retained the improvement during follow-up. The alpha and joked groups did not significantly improve their EMG during training but at follow-up achieved the same levels as the EMG group. There was evidence to suggest a reduction in drug use among light and medium users that was maintained  during follow-up. Significant and lasting improvements were made by each group in the duration and quality of their sleep. Anxiety levels were also reduced.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     English Abstract     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 923513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Exp Angew Psychol. 1977;24(4):681-91.

[Individual differences in the training of alpha brain waves with biofeedback]

[Article in German]

Zeier H, Graf M.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 919644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Z Exp Angew Psychol. 1977;24(3):443-54.

[Subjective correlates of EEG alpha rhythm : discrimination learning or superstition?]

[Article in German]

Legewie H.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 906580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Acta Psychiatr Belg. 1977 Jan-Feb;77(1):117-33.

[Biofeedback. I. Current status of its clinical application]

[Article in French]

Friedman H.

The aim of this article is to restate the question of the clinical application of biofeedback and its prospects after having defined it. After the huge success that biofeedback has known, some decantation is occurring. One is stricken by the absence of methodological closeness of too many studies, in this field, which very much limits the conclusions one can make presently. The best and most reliable results have been obtained by the biofeedback training of electromyogramme (elimination of subvocalization in reading, direct paralyzed muscles training, tension headaches treatment). The results are encouraging, but  not yet enough backed up, as to regards to the improvement of various forms of epilepsy by the biofeedback training of the EEG sensorimotor rhythm, the premature ventricular contractions, sinus tachycardia and migraine headaches. In  the other fields, the research status does not yet allow any valid conclusion.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 883503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychosom Med. 1977 Jan-Feb;39(1):44-7.

E.E.G. alpha feedback--a comparison of two control groups.

Williams P.

It is controversial whether or not veridical feedback is necessary to bring about increases in alpha activity in the feedback situation and has been suggested that the instructional variable may be a crucial determinant of outcome. In this experiment two groups of subjects were both given false feedback. One group was misled into believing that the feedback was contingent. Increases in alpha index  occurred only in those subjects who believed that they were receiving contingent  feedback, indicating that subjects knowledge and belief concerning the experiment were important in determining the outcome.

PMID: 847077 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychosom Med. 1977 Jan-Feb;39(1):11-8.

Operant control of alpha EEG and the effects of illumination and eye closure.

Cram JR, Kohlenberg RJ, Singer M.

The effects of eyelid position (open or closed) and three levels of room illumination on operant control of alpha EEG were investigated utilizing a factorial design. After base-line levels were determined, subjects were given alpha-contingent feedback and instructed to increase and decrease alpha production during six successive 4-min intervals. In addition, a comparison was made between percent time and average amplitude as dependent measures. The percent time data indicated that eyes-open training facilitated alpha enhancement and suppression. However, this was not supported by the average amplitude data. Ambient illumination, regardless of the measure utilized, facilitated alpha training, particularly when the eyes were open. These results are related to previous research and theoretical issues.

PMID: 847075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1977 Jan;14(1):40-4.

Authoritarianism, introspection, and alpha wave biofeedback training.

Ancoli S, Green KF.

PMID: 834801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1977 Jan;14(1):1-7.

Effects of state-trait anxiety on the ability to enhance and suppress EEG alpha.

Valle RS, DeGood DE.

PMID: 834796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Psychol (Frankf). 1977;129(3):212-25.

[Psychiatrically noticeable anxiety, EEG alpha index, alpha feedback and relaxation]

[Article in German]

Kirschbaum J, Weber E.

In a follow-up study (first investigation: KIRSCHBAUM u. GISTL, arch. Psychol. 1973, 125, 263-273) fifteen patients with psychiatric or neurological disorders were examined for correlations between anxiety (clinical rating), scores from MAS and MMQ, and EEG-Alpha-percentage alterations during an unspecific relaxation training with or without Alpha-Biofeedback. Clinically and psychometrically high  anxious patients (n = 10) showed under both conditions significant diminuation of Alpha-percentage in contrast to earlier examined students whose Alpha-rates had increased (significantly). Theoretical explanations of these results are discussed.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 603375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Prog Brain Res. 1977;47:317-28.

Biofeedback and cardiovascular self-regulation: neurophysiological mechanisms.

Schwartz GE.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 337353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Probl Kosm Biol. 1977;34:224-34.

[Electroencephalograhic operator diagnosis]

[Article in Russian]

Vasilevskiĭ NN.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 335388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am J Psychoanal. 1977 Spring;37(1):3-12.

Creativity and altered states of consciousness.

Simon J.

PMID: 326064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1977 Jan;28(1):21-5.

Clinical applications of biofeedback: implications for psychiatry.

Marcus N, Levin G.

The authors briefly describe biofeedback techniques such as EMG feedback, temperature feedback, and heart rate feedback, along with reports from the literature about their application to specific problems such as subvocalization while reading, Raynaud's disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and epilepsy. Many clinical applications of biofeedback are aimed at inducing relaxation, a state that has important psychotherapeutic potential. The authors suggest that biofeedback could be used to reduce a patient's general level of arousal or as an adjunct to behavior therapy or insight therapy. While there have been no reports  in the literature of any harmful effects secondary to feedback training, the authors caution that some patients may respond negatively to an objectively measured state of relaxation.

PMID: 318588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Clin Psychol. 1977 Jan;33(1):292-9.

Alpha wave biofeedback training therapy in alcoholics.

Passini FT, Watson CG, Dehnel L, Herder J, Watkins B.

This investigation evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-wave biofeedback treatment for alcoholics. Twenty-five Ss were compared to a matched control group before and after administration of a 3-week alpha-wave biofeedback regimen on a wide variety of criteria that included State-Trait Anxiety, the MMPI, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, Watson's Anhedonia Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and baseline alpha. The experimental Ss received 10 hour-long alpha training sessions. The experimentals  showed more improvement than did controls on alpha production and two anxiety measure. Contradictory results appeared on two suspicion/paranoia measures. Alpha training appeared useful in the treatment of anxiety, but not other problems. However, the absence of significant correlations between amount of change on alpha and the anxiety measures suggests that the improvement may be due to a placebo effect.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 13088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Physiol Behav. 1976 Dec;17(6):885-90.

Feedback training of 36 - 44 HZ EEG activity in the visual cortex and hippocampus of cats: evidence for sensory and motor involvement.

Bauer RH, Jones CN.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

Milk reinforcement was contingent on the occurrence of 36 -44 (40) Hz EEG activity in the left visual cortex (VC) of one group of cats and in the right hippocampus (H) of a second group. Both groups learned to increase 40 Hz activity, and acquisition of reinforcement was associated with immobility. A third group (behavioral controls - BC) was trained by the method of successive approximation to behave in a similar manner to VC and H cats. Training significantly increased 40 Hz activity in all of the following structures, except the hippocampi of VC cats and between the right and left visual cortex of H and BC cats: posterior primary visual cortex (bilateral), anterior primary visual cortex (left), primary motor cortex (bilateral), dorsal hippocampus (bilateral),  and midbrain reticular formation (bilateral). Since the behavioral and EEG changes of H and BC animals were similar, immobility appears to be important for  increased hippocampal 40 Hz activity produced by feedback training. Testing in darkness enhanced 40 Hz activity in the trained area of VC cats but had no effect on H or BC animals. These results, in conjunction with the observation that VC cats appeared to visually fixate, suggest that VC cats may have learned to increase 40 Hz activity in the visual cortex by altering visual processing.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 14677577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Dec;1(4):423-32.

Variations in electroencephalographic alpha activity under conditions of differential lighting and auditory feedback.

Orenstein HB, McWilliams B.

The electroencephalographic alpha activity of 13 college students was monitored under conditions of darkness or dim light for six sessions, and for a seventh under the opposite condition. Auditory feedback was given for the presence of alpha activity during a 5-min orientation period and when during ten 2-min trial  periods. The results indicate that: (1) alpha production in the presence of feedback did not exceed initial eyes-closed base line production; (2) introducing feedback immediately enhances alpha activity, rather than increasing production gradually; (3) under certain circumstances, dim light is sufficient to suppress alpha; and (4) after many sessions of alpha production in darkness, subjects maintain a given amount of alpha even when visual stimulation is present.

PMID: 1009189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Dec;1(4):411-22.

Feedback control and quantification of the response of EEG alpha to visual stimulation.

Mulholland T, McLaughlin T.

The response of the posterior EEG alpha thythms to visual stimulation is so variable that it is difficult to obtain reliable on-line measurement of it. Feedback between the EEG alpha and the visual stimulus (1) reduces random variation in the response and (2) facilitates on-line quantification. With feedback EEG, the response to visual stimulation is measured as a series of time  durations of alpha and of no-alpha intervals in the EEG. This time series occurs  in two stages: an initial disturbance followed by a recovery. The quantification  of the series of time durations is achieved by fitting curves to the series of alpha time intervals and of no-alpha time intervals. These functions, computed in each trial of 30 stimulations, are an objective, quantitative definition of EEG response. The utility of the method was demonstrated by testing it with reference to well-known effects. Habituation to a repeated stimulus, dishabituation, habituation to a class of stimuli, dishabituation by changing the class of stimuli, and differences among brain-lesioned, psychiatric patients and normals were shown with a detailed quantification. It was concluded that biofeedback is the method of choice for quantitative research on the EEG component of the human  orienting response.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study 

PMID: 1009188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Dec;1(4):395-410.

Simultaneous biofeedback of heart rate and frontal EMG as a pretraining for the control of EEG theta activity.

Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N, Steinmetz P.

Following one base-line session, 20 normal subjects received four half hour sessions consisting of simultaneous feedback of heart rate and frontalis muscle (pretraining). Ten subjects received contingent (CF), the other ten noncontingent feedback (NCF). Subjects were asked to lower heart rate and frontal muscle tension (EMG). Heart rate within sessions decreased up to 19 bpm, with a mean of  4 bpm for the CF group. There was only a week decrease over sessions, however, because of the strong habituation effect. The following events accompanied the heart rate decrease: (1) an increase of the variability of the heart rate, (2) a  decrease of the variance of the EMG, (3) an increased correlation between heart rate slowing and EMG decrease, and (4) an increasing subjective experience of control of heart rate and EMG. After pretraining, subjects received eight sessions of auditory feedback of their frontal EEG theta activity (four sessions  with CF and four sessions with NCF in balanced order). There was a weak increase  of theta for the CF condition over sessions, but a decrease within the sessions.  Pretraining on heart rate and frontal EMG control had no influence on the performance during theta training. It was hypothesized that control of heart rate slowing and theta control involve different mechanisms.

PMID: 1009187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Abnorm Psychol. 1976 Dec;85(6):611-21.

Attentional style and the self-regulation of mode-specific attention: an electroencephalographic study.

Davidson RJ, Schwartz GE, Rothman LP.

PMID: 993459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1976 Nov;13(6):541-5.

Alpha biofeedback: fact or artifact?

Leib W, Tryon WW, Stroebel CS.

PMID: 996221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1976 Nov;13(6):505-16.

The effects of deep physical relaxation and low-frequency-alpha brainwaves on alpha subjective reports.

Marshall MS, Bentler PM.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 996218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1976 Nov;13(6):498-504.

Voluntary control of patterns of EEG parietal asymmetry: cognitive concomitants.

Schwartz GE, Davidson RJ, Pugash E.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 996217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Sep;1(3):293-306.

EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): a preliminary report.

Lubar JF, Shouse MN.

Reduced seizure incidence coupled with voluntary motor inhibition accompanied conditioned increases in the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), a 12- 14 Hz rhythm appearing over rolandic cortex. Although SMR biofeedback training has been successfully applied to various forms of epilepsy in humans, its potential use in decreasing hyperactivity has been limited to a few cases in which a seizure history was also a significant feature. The present study represents a first attempt to explore the technique's applicability to the problem of hyperkinesis independent of the epilepsy issue. The results of several months of EEG biofeedback training in a hyperkinetic child tend to corroborate and extend previous findings. Feedback presentations for SMR were contingent on the production of 12- 14-Hz activity in the absence of 4- 7-Hz slow-wave activity. A  substantial increase in SMR motor inhibition, as gauged by laboratory measures of muscular tone (chin EMG) and by a global behavioral assessment in the classroom.  Opposite trends in motor inhibition occurred when the training procedure was reversed and feedback presentations were contingent on the production of 4- 7 Hz  in the absence of 12- 14-Hz activity. Although the preliminary nature of these results is stressed, the subject population has recently been increased to establish the validity and generality of the findings and will include the use of SMR biofeedback training after medication has been withdrawn.

PMID: 990355 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Sep;1(3):253-71.

Biofeedback and progressive relaxation treatment of sleep-onset insomnia: a controlled, all-night investigation.

Freedman R, Papsdorf JD.

Previous research suggests that self-defined insomniacs are distinguished from normals by high levels of anxiety and physiological arousal, which might be mitigated by muscle relaxation. This study assessed the relative effects of frontal EMG biofeedback, progressive relaxation, and a placebo set of "relaxation" exercises on the sleep of 18 onset insomniacs. Each subject was trained in one of these three methods for six half-hour sessions and slept in the laboratory for two consecutive nights before and after training. The experimental groups demonstrated significant decreases in physiological activity during training while changes in the control group were minimal. Reductions in sleep-onset time were: biofeedback group, 29.66 minutes; progressive relaxation group, 22.92 minutes; control group, 2.79 minutes. The experimental groups improved significantly (p less than 905) more than the control group, but did not differ from each other. No significant relationships between physiological levels and sleep-onset time were found, which suggests that muscle relaxation alone was  not responsible for subjects' improvements. Since 20 minutes of daily practice were required to achieve an approximate 30-minute decrease in sleep-onset time, the practical utility of the methods is questioned.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Comparative Study      Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 791382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Iyodenshi To Seitai Kogaku. 1976 Aug;14(4):314-8.

[Feedback control of the alpha waves]

[Article in Japanese]

Kobayashi H, Takagi A, Hirata T, Saito Y.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 1034815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Iyodenshi To Seitai Kogaku. 1976 Aug;14(4):279-88.

[Biofeedback]

[Article in Japanese]

Hirai H.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 1034811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Physiol Behav. 1976 Jul;17(1):137-42.

Affective behavior changes in cats following operant conditioning of amygdaloid EEG activity.

Knapp TM, Lubar JF.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 1087032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1976 Jun;4(2):119-38.

Sex differences in patterns of EEG asymmetry.

Davidson RJ, Schwartz GE, Pugash E, Bromfield E.

This paper reports three studies showing sex differences in EEG asymmetry during  self-generated cognitive and affective tasks. In the first experiment, bilateral  EEG, quantified for alpha on-line, was recorded from right-handed subjects while  they either whistled, sang or recited lyrics of familiar songs. The results revealed significant asymmetry between the whistle and talk conditions only for subjects with no familial left-handedness and, within this group, only for females and not for males. In the second experiment, bilateral EEG was recorded while right-handed subjects (with no familial left-handedness) self-induced covert affective and non-affective states. Results revealed significantly greater relative right-hemisphere activation during emotion versus non-emotion trials only in females; males showed no significant task-dependent shifts in asymmetry between conditions. The third experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that females show greater percent time asymmetry than males during biofeedback training for symmetrical and asymmetrical EEG patterns. Results confirmed this prediction as well as indicating that females show better control of such asymmetrical cortical patterning. These findings provide new neuropsychological support for the hypothesis of greater bilateral flexibility in females during self-generation tasks.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 1276303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Jun;1(2):227-35.

Effects of sham feedback following successful SMR training in an epileptic: follow-up study.

Finley WW.

After 1 year of SMR biofeedback training of a severe epileptic teenage male, incidence of atonic seizures decreased from 8/hr to less than 1/3 hr. SMR increased from 10% to 70%. Epileptiform discharges decreased from 45% to 15%. Unknown to the patient, his family, or certain members of our research staff, noncontingent feedback was introduced on 7/22/74, ending 9/11/74. A significant decrease occurred for SMR (down 8%), and a significant increase for epileptiform  discharges (up 4%). Rate of seizures increased, but was not statistically significant over preceding months of contingent feedback. Incidence of seizures associated with urine loss increased from approximately 6/month to 23/month during noncontingent feedback, a significant increase. Urine-loss results suggest that although seizures did not become more frequent, those the patient did experience were "harder," i.e., more severe. Contingent feedback was reinstituted following the 7-wk sham, and recovery of all variables to their former levels (prior to sham) occurred.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 990351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1976 May;13(3):236-41.

The effects of reward on occipital alpha facilitation by biofeedback.

Brolund JW, Schallow JR.

PMID: 1273228 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1976 May;39(5):504-7.

Effects of two desensitization techniques, biofeedback and relaxation, on intractable epilepsy: follow-up study.

Cabral RJ, Scott DF.

Two techniques of desedsitization, biofeedback and relaxation, were employed in a crossover design for the treatment of three young female patinets suffering from  drug resistant epilepsy associated with anxiety and phobic symptoms. The patients were followed up for 15 months after the six months of treatment. The results indicate that both relaxation and biofeedback improved the patients' control of their seizures and the effects were maintained during the follow-up period.

PMID: 6631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1976 Apr;44(2):224-8.

Alcoholism, alpha production, and biofeedback.

Jones FW, Holmes DS.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 1254755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):7-30.

Self-regulation of response patterning: implications for psychophysiological research and therapy.

Schwartz GE.

This paper develops the basic premise that learning to self-regulate a pattern of responses can have different consequences from those observed when controlling individual functions alone. It is suggested that the self-regulation of patterns  of responses can be a particularly sensitive and effective procedure for (a) uncovering biological linkages and constraints between responses in the intact human, (b) investigating how multiphysiological systems combine to produce unique subjective experiences and effects on performance, and (c) enhancing the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback procedures by training patients to integrate and coordinate voluntarily specific patterns of cognitive, autonomic, and motor responses. These hypotheses are illustrated by basic research involving biofeedback training for patterns of blood pressure, heart rate and EEG activity, related experiments on the cognitive self-regulation of patterns of physiological responses using affective imagery and meditation procedures, and case studies of  patients treated with biofeedback. The concept of electronic biofeedback as an "unnatural act" is presented with the goal of placing self-regulation within a more biobehavioral perspective emphasizing the natural patterning of physiological processes.

PMID: 990345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):63-75.

Conflicting results in EEG alpha feedback studies: why amplitude integration should replace percent time.

Hardt JV, Kamiya J.

Success or failure of EEG feedback training for alpha enhancement can depend on how alpha activity is quantified and fed back. Alpha-enhancement failures usually employ a percent time (%) technique; successes typically use amplitude integration (variation of). To dramatize the differences between percent and integration techniques, we derived both measures simultaneously from left occipital (O1) and left central (C3) sites for 16 male subjects who were given 5.6 hours of integrated alpha feedback from the midline occipital (Ozeta) site. At both the O1 and C3 sites the integrated and percent measures were not equivalent and not linearly related. Statistically significant differences in the (integrated, percent) correlation coefficients (z-transpormed) were observed under the different recording conditions: alpha enhancement, alpha suppression, and baselines. Theoretical discussion of integration and percent techniques is given and the adoption of amplitude integration measures and feedback stimuli is  strongly advocated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 990344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):47-61.

Detection of EEG abnormalities with feedback stimulation.

Mulholland T, Benson F.

A feedback method for testing the reactivity of the occipital-parietal EEG in selected brain-lesioned patients revealed abnormalities of (a) insufficient reactivity, (b) bilateral differences in reactivity, and (3) asynchrony. These abnormalities were more evident during feedback stimulation than in the baseline  conditions. The utility of feedback method for detecting EEG abnormalities rests  on the increased stability or decreased "noisy" variation in the EEG during feedback. The EEG becomes more predictable even to the "on-line" human observer.  This makes it easier to detect aberrations or deviations from normal effects. Some effects can only be seen with feedback such as the bilateral differences which occur when the left side controls the feedback compared to when the right side controls it. The results show that feedback EEG is a useful tool in clinical research and indicate that a clinical diagnostic test could be developed with more research. However, the feedback EEG method is not yet a proven diagnostic technique.

PMID: 990343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):31-46.

Differential shaping of EEG theta rhythms.

Sittenfeld P, Budzynski T, Stoyva J.

Heart rate, EEG, frontal EMG, and forearm EMG were recorded in 20 subjects for 3  baseline, 8 feedback, and 2 postbaseline sessions in order to compare two biofeedback methods of teaching subjects to increase theta EEG activity. Subjects were divided into high- and low-EMG groups. Five high-EMG subjects, and 5 low-EMG subjects then received 8 sessions of strictly theta feedback. The remaining 10 subjects, 5 from the high-EMG group, and 5 from the low-EMG group, received a "graduated" training which involved shaping the target response. This procedure consisted of 4 initial sessions of EMG feedback, followed by a second phase consisting of 4 sessions of theta feedback. Results showed a clear relationship between subjects' baseline frontal EMG levels and the effect of the training methods. Although subjects with high-EMG baseline increased their theta output only with the two-phase training, subjects with low-EMG baseline levels performed better when given theta feedback only. This result shows not only that amounts of theta can be reliably increased, but that training techniques should be adapted to the physiological characteristics of the individual--in this case, baseline levels of frontal EMG levels.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 990342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):77-104.

Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm.

Lubar JF, Bahler WW.

Eight severely epileptic patients, four males and four females, ranging in age from 10 to 29 years, were trained to increase 12-14 Hzeta EEG activity from the regions overlying the Rolandic area. This activity, the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), has been hypothesized to be related to motor inhibitory processes (Sterman, 1974). The patients represented a cross-section of several different types of epilepsy, including grand mal, myoclonic, akinetic, focal, and psychomotor types. Three of them had varying degrees of mental retardation. SMR was detected by a combination of an analog filtering system and digital processing. Feedback, both auditory and/or visual, was provided whenever one-half second of 12-14-Hz activity was detected in the EEG. Patients were provided with  additional feedback keyed by the output of a 4-7-Hz filter which indicated the presence of epileptiform spike activity, slow waves, or movement. Feedback for SMR was inhibited whenever slow-wave activity spikes or movement was also present. During the treatment period most of the patients showed varying degrees  of improvement. Two of the patients who had been severely epileptic, having multiple seizures per week, have been seizure free for periods of up to 1 month.  Other patients have developed the ability to block many of their seizures. Seizure intensity and duration have also decreased. Furthermore, the successful patients demonstrated an increase in the amount of SMR and an increase in amplitude of SMR during the training period. Spectral analyses for the EEGs were  performed periodically. The effectiveness of SMR conditioning for the control of  epileptic seizures is evaluated in terms of patient characteristics and type of seizures.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 825150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):1-6.

Self-regulation: a context for biofeedback.

Stoyva J.

PMID: 791379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1976 Jan;13(1):62-8.

Patterns of cerebral lateralization during cardiac biofeedback versus the self-regulation of emotion: sex differences.

Davidson RJ, Schwartz GE.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 1244632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Acta Univ Carol Med Monogr. 1976;(74):1-55.

Psychophysiologic and psychologic characteristics in twins in reaction to stress  situations.

Zvolský P, Drábková H, Jirák R.

PMID: 1036438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Int J Addict. 1976;11(6):1085-9.

Alpha conditioning as an adjunct treatment for drug dependence: part I.

Goldberg RJ, Greenwood JC, Taintor Z.

The effects of alpha conditioning on the habits of four methadone maintained patients were assessed. All four learned some control over alpha activity in the  5-week, 10-session training period. The most striking results, however, related to the subjects' substitution of self-initiated mental states associated with alpha for previously used drug-seeking or self-medicating methods of coping with  everday problem situations. All four subject reported a decrease in illicit drug  usage and an increased feeling of self-control. Verification of improvement in adjustment and drug abuse was shown by counseling reports and narcotic screens from the maintenance program.

PMID: 1025032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Psychophysiology. 1975 Nov;12(6):673-81.

Relationships among EEG alpha frequency, reaction time, and age: a biofeedback study.

Woodruff DS.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. 

PMID: 1187973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am J Nurs. 1975 Nov;75(11):2010-2.

Using biofeedback.

Breeden SA, Kondo C.

PMID: 1043631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1975 Nov;3(3):157-84.

Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training.

Seifert AR, Lubar JF.

Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) was carried out in three male and three female adolescent epileptics and in two normal controls. The patients represented a cross-section of epilepsies including grand mal, myoclonic, afocal and psychomotor types. Three of the cases were mentally retarded. 12-14 Hz (SMR) activity was detected by a combination of sharp analog filtering and digital processing. The patients were provided with feedback whenever they produced 0.5 sec of 12-14 Hz activity of a specified amplitude. Additional feedback was provided for epileptiform activity slow waves or movement. Furthermore, feedback for SMR production was inhibited by digital logic circuitry when movement, slow waves or spikes were present. Seizure reduction was obtained in five of the six epileptics. Several patients showed increased percentage of SMR when feedback was provided and varying degrees of normalization in their EEG as demonstrated by fast Fourier, crossed power spectral density and  coherence analyses.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 

PMID: 812560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Minerva Med. 1975 Oct 31;66(73):3835-43.

[Neurophysiology of hypnosis. The suggestive process and contributions of the learned control of brain waves]

[Article in Italian]

Pinelli P.

The contribution that neurophysiological examination, subordinate to psychodynamic analysis, can bring to the investigation of facts and results in the therapeutic application of hypnosis is discussed. Phenomena with a suggestive background are analysed, particularly those of ideomotor transformation with reference to prereflective though (Polanyi & Dyer). A special case is represented by phobic-obsessive disturbances. Here analysis of the process of ideative reinforcement must take account of the untranslatability of certain linguistico-syntactic connotations at this level. The part played by sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training in practical therapeutics is also examined.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 1187032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1975 Sep;16(3):488-9.

Reply to Professor Gastaut's comments on "Biofeedback in epileptics".

Kaplan BJ.

PMID: 1183425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1975 Sep;16(3):487-90.

Comments on "Biofeedback in epileptics: equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG  frequency to seizure reduction" by Bonnie J. Kaplan, Epilepsia 16:477-485, 1975.

Gastaut H.

PMID: 1183424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1975 Sep;16(3):477-85.

Biofeedback in epileptics: equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to  seizure reduction.

Kaplan BJ.

It has been reported that biofeedback training of 12- to 14-Hz activity recorded  over Rolandic cortex was accompanied by a reduction in seizure incidence in four  human epileptics (Sterman et al., 1974). Biofeedback training of 12- to 14-Hz activity was provided for two epileptics and had no effect on clinical EEGs, seizure incidence, or proportion of EEG spectral power in the frequency range being trained. Subsequently, biofeedback training of 6- to 12-Hz Rolandic activity was provided for three epileptics. Two patients experienced reductions in seizure not accompanied by medication changes. Since no learning of 6- to 12-Hz activity was detected, the changes in seizure incidence are not attributed  to EEG biofeedback. It is suggested that the experience in the feedback setting provided these two patients with new techniques of relaxation. In view of the lack of statistical evidence of EEG changes following EEG biofeedback and the small number of patients trained to date, it appears wise to maintain a cautious  attitude until the issue of causality is clear.

PMID: 1183423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Can J Neurol Sci. 1975 Aug;2(3):153-67.

The effects of feedback on focal epileptic discharges in man. A preliminary report.

Upton AR, Longmire D.

The history of the control of epileptic disturbances by conditioning techniques is reviewed. The preliminary results of a three year trial of feedback techniques in 13 epileptic patients are presented. Thirteen epileptic patients (age 2.5 leads to 39 mean, 15.1 years) with lateralized focal discharges in the EEG were given repeated trials of feedback, the focal discharges being used to trigger auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Dosages and serum levels of medication were unchanged throughout the experimental period. The number of epileptic spikes per  15 seconds was assessed by automatic trend analysis during 20 to 30 minute control, biofeedback and post-feedback epochs. On-going EEG activity was quantified by 8 channel frequency analysis over 10 second epochs. The patients made efforts to increase and decrease the number of spike discharges with and without feedback and the results of both triggered and random auditory, somatosensory, photic and combined stimulation were compared at various intervals over a period of up to three years. A marked reduction in the number of focal discharges was noted in eight (61.5%) patients during and immediately following the sessions. Intermittent biofeedback sessions were not associated with a serial reduction in the number of focal EEG discharges. There was a reduction in the number of clinical epileptic disturbances in six patients (46%) and possible reasons for this improvement are discussed. One patient suffered an increase in focal temporal lobe discharges during triggered and random auditory stimulation whereas there was a marked reduction in the number of discharges during minimal electrical stimulation of the contralateral arm. The need for careful assessment  of each patient to determine appropriate feedback stimulation is stressed. One aim of this research has been to assess the feasibility of using miniature units  for continuous feedback of focal discharges in epileptic patients.

PMID: 809125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Med Biol Eng. 1975 Jul;13(4):577-82.

A system for biofeedback conditioning of electroencephalographic activity.

Pryzbylik AT, Howe RC.

PMID: 1195859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Compr Psychiatry. 1975 Jul-Aug;16(4):303-21.

Biofeedback and meditation in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses.

Glueck BC, Stroebel CF.

PMID: 1157476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1975 Jul;23(3):172-83.

Hypnosis and biofeedback in the treatment of migraine headache.

Andreychuk T, Skriver C.

PMID: 1132914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am Sci. 1975 May-Jun;63(3):314-24.

Biofeedback, self-regulation, and the patterning of physiological processes.

Schwartz GE.

PMID: 1147369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Am Psychol. 1975 Mar;30(3):371-8.

Biofeedback instrumentation: soldering closed the loop.

Paskewitz DA.

PMID: 1137230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Br Med J. 1975 Jan 4;1(5948):38.

Letter: Biofeedback therapy for disturbed patients.

Loughnane T.

PMID: 1120232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Biol Psychol. 1975;2(3):189-203.

Reduction of seizures and normalization of the EEG in a severe epileptic following sensorimotor biofeedback training: preliminary study.

Finley WW, Smith HA, Etherton MD.

Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) biofeedback training was attempted in a 13-year-old male with frequent epileptic seizures. Prior to training the subject was averaging almost eight clinical seizures an hour. The SMR filter was tuned sharply to 12 plus or minus 1 Hz. Feedback was conducted over approximately six months and continues to the present. In that time the subject's percentage of SMR increased from about 10%, prior to training, to 65% after the 34th training session. Correspondingly, his rate of clinical seizures decreased by a factor of  10 and a significant reduction in percentage of epileptiform discharges was noted. Beginning with trial 35, the subject was provided feedback of epileptiform activity in combination with 12 Hz activity. The combined effect of these two treatment variables was to reduce the trial-to-trial variance in the dependent variables of interest.

PMID: 806309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

J Med Soc N J. 1974 Dec;71(12):927-31.

Autogenic training and EEG biofeedback training in coronary heart disease.

Weber ES.

PMID: 4530874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Epilepsia. 1974 Sep;15(3):395-416.

Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: effects on epilepsy.

Sterman MB, Macdonald LR, Stone RK.

PMID: 4527675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Br Med J. 1974 Aug 17;3(5928):427-8.

Editorial: Biofeedback.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 4412916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974 May;30(5):573-89.

Clinical applications of biofeedback training. A review of evidence.

Blanchard EB, Young LD.

PMID: 4824193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Hosp Prog. 1974 Mar;55(3):68 passim.

Treating chemical dependency through biofeedback.

Kurtz PS.

PMID: 4814288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Headache. 1974 Jan;13(4):164-72.

The treatment of headache by means of electroencephalographic biofeedback.

McKenzie RF, Ehrisman WJ, Montgomery PS, Barnes RH.

PMID: 4810471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Semin Psychiatry. 1973 Nov;5(4):507-25.

Neurophysiologic and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: some effects on epilepsy.

Sterman MB.

PMID: 4770578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Semin Psychiatry. 1973 Nov;5(4):379-93.

Biofeedback treatment in medicine and psychiatry: an ultimate placebo?

Stroebel CF, Glueck BC.

PMID: 4770569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Semin Psychiatry. 1973 Nov;5(4):551-62.

Biofeedback: some reflections on modern behavioral science.

Lynch JJ.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 4588996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

Semin Psychiatry. 1972 May;4(2):171-84.

Biofeedback and visceral learning: clinical applications.

Shapiro D, Schwartz GE.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.      Review

PMID: 4155534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

EEG Biofeedback (11-21-07  545 entries)