Music, Neurofeedback, Peak Performance & Creativity - A Matter of Mind

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J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Mar;48(1):102-6.

Evaluation on the effects of relaxing music on the recovery from aerobic exercise-induced fatigue.

Jing L, Xudong W.

Department of Human Sports Science, Nanjing Institute of Physicial Education, Nanjing, Republic of China

AIM: There are few researches on the effects of music therapy on the recovery from exercise-induced fatigue worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of relaxing music on aerobic exercise-induced fatigue. The authors' hypothesis is that relaxing music can effectively eliminate aerobic exercise-induced fatigue. METHODS: Thirty healthy male college students were randomly assigned to either no-music group or music group. All the subjects maintained the pedal cadence of 50 revmin-1 on a cycle ergometer until fatigue. Then subjects in music group listened to relaxing music for 15 minutes, while subjects in no-music group had a 15-minute rest without music. Heart rates, jump  height, blood glucose, blood lactic acid, urinary protein, simple reaction time and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined before and after the 15-minute treatment for each group. RESULTS: The results showed that heart rates, urinary protein and RPE decreased significantly after the application of relaxing music (P<0.01), and these decreases were greater than those without music. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that relaxing music has better effects on the rehabilitation of cardiovascular, central, musculoskeletal and psychological fatigue and the promotion of the regulatory capability of the kidneys.

PMID: 18212717 [PubMed - in process]


Cognition. 2008 Feb;106(2):975-83. Epub 2007 May 1.

Songs as an aid for language acquisition.

Schön D, Boyer M, Moreno S, Besson M, Peretz I, Kolinsky R.

INCM-CNRS & Université de la Méditerranée, 31 Ch Joseph Aiguier, 13420 Marseille, France.

In previous research, Saffran and colleagues [Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274, 1926-1928; Saffran, J. R., Newport, E. L., & Aslin, R. N. (1996). Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 606-621.] have shown that adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. They also showed that a similar learning mechanism operates with musical stimuli [Saffran, J. R., Johnson, R. E. K., Aslin, N., & Newport, E. L. (1999). Abstract  Statistical learning of tone sequences by human infants and adults. Cognition, 70, 27-52.]. In this work we combined linguistic and musical information and we compared language learning based on speech sequences to language learning based on sung sequences. We hypothesized that, compared to speech sequences, a consistent mapping of linguistic and musical information would enhance learning.  Results confirmed the hypothesis showing a strong learning facilitation of song compared to speech. Most importantly, the present results show that learning a new language, especially in the first learning phase wherein one needs to segment new words, may largely benefit of the motivational and structuring properties of  music in song.

PMID: 17475231 [PubMed - in process]


J Pers. 2008 Feb;76(1):135-70.

Motivation and engagement in music and sport: testing a multidimensional framework in diverse performance settings.

Martin AJ.

University of Sydney.

The present study assessed the application of a multidimensional model of motivation and engagement (the Motivation and Engagement Wheel) and its accompanying instrumentation (the Motivation and Engagement Scale) to the music and sport domains. Participants were 463 young classical musicians (N=224) and sportspeople (N=239). In both music and sport samples, the data confirmed the good fit of the four hypothesized higher-order dimensions and their 11 first-order dimensions: adaptive cognitions (self-efficacy, valuing, mastery orientation), adaptive behaviors (planning, task management, persistence), impeding/maladaptive cognitions (uncertain control, anxiety, failure avoidance),  and maladaptive behaviors (self-handicapping, disengagement). Multigroup tests of factor invariance showed that in terms of underlying motivational constructs and  the composition of and relationships among these constructs, key subsamples are not substantially different. Moreover-and of particular relevance to issues around the generalizability of the framework-the factor structure for music and sport samples was predominantly invariant.

PMID: 18186713 [PubMed - in process]


Nucl Med Commun. 2008 Feb;29(2):150-6.

Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism: a SPET study with SPM evaluation.

Burroni L, Orsi A, Monti L, Hayek Y, Rocchi R, Vattimo AG.

Departments of aNuclear Medicine bInfantile Neuropsychiatry cNeuroradiology dNeurology, University of Siena, Italy.

AIM: To establish a link between rCBF assessed with Tc-ECD SPET and the clinical  manifestation of the disease. METHODS: We performed the study on 11 patients (five girls and six boys; mean age 11.2 years) displaying autistic behaviour and  we compared their data with that of an age-matched reference group of eight normal children. A quantitative analysis of rCBF was performed calculating a perfusion index (PI) and an asymmetry index (AI) in each lobe. Images were analysed with statistical parametric mapping software, following the spatial normalization of SPET images for a standard brain. RESULTS: A statistically significant (P=0.003) global reduction of CBF was found in the group of autistic  children (PI=1.07+/-0.07) when compared with the reference group (PI=1.25+/-0.12). Moreover, a significant difference was also observed for the right-to-left asymmetry of hemispheric perfusion between the control group and autistic patients (P=0.0085) with a right prevalence greater in autistic (2.90+/-1.68) with respect to normal children (1.12+/-0.49). Our data show a significant decrease of global cerebral perfusion in autistic children in comparison with their normal counterparts and the existence of left-hemispheric dysfunction, especially in the temporo-parietal areas devoted to language and the comprehension of music and sounds. CONCLUSION: We suggest that these abnormal areas are related to the cognitive impairment observed in autistic children, such as language deficits, impairment of cognitive development and object representation, and abnormal perception and responses to sensory stimuli. Tc-ECD  SPET seems to be sensitive in revealing brain blood flow alterations and left-to-right asymmetries, when neuroradiological patterns are normal.

PMID: 18094637 [PubMed - in process] 


Brain Res. 2008 Jan 29;1191:96-106. Epub 2007 Nov 22.

Calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin expression in embryonic chick hippocampus is enhanced by prenatal auditory stimulation.

Chaudhury S, Nag TC, Wadhwa S.

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) buffer excess of cytosolic Ca(2+), which accompanies neuronal activity following external stimuli. Prenatal auditory stimulation by species-specific sound and music influences early maturation of the auditory pathway and the behavioral responses in chicks. In this study, we determined the volume, total number of neurons, proportion of calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin-positive neurons along with their levels of expression in the developing chick hippocampus following prenatal auditory stimulation. Fertilized  eggs of domestic chicks were exposed to sounds of either species-specific calls or sitar music at 65 dB for 15 min/h round the clock from embryonic day (E) 10 until hatching. Hippocampi of developmental stages (E12, E16 and E20) were examined. With an increase in embryonic age during normal development, the hippocampus showed an increase in its volume, total number of neurons as well as  in the neuron proportions and levels of expression of calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin. A significant increase of volume at E20 was noted only in the music-stimulated group compared to that of their age-matched control (p<0.05). On the other hand, both auditory-stimulated groups showed a significant increase in  the proportion of immunopositive neurons and the levels of expression of calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin as compared to the control at all developmental stages studied (p<0.003). The increase in proportions of CaBP neurons during development and in the sound-enriched groups suggests an activity-dependent increase in Ca(2+) influx. The enhanced expression of CaBPs may help in cell survival by preventing excitotoxic death of neurons during development and may also be involved in long-term potentiation.

PMID: 18096144 [PubMed - in process]


Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Electroencephalographic (EEG) Measurements of Mindfulness-based Triarchic Body-pathway Relaxation Technique: A Pilot Study.

Chan AS, Han YM, Cheung MC.

Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR,

OBJECTIVE: The "Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique" (TBRT) is a form of  ancient Chinese mindfulness-based meditation professed to give rise to positive emotions and a specific state of consciousness in which deep relaxation and internalized attention coexist. The purpose of this study was to examine the EEG  pattern generated during the practice of this mindfulness exercise, and compare it to music listening which has been shown to induce positive emotions. METHODS:  Nineteen college students (aged 19-22 years) participated in the study. Each participant listened to both the TBRT and music audiotapes while EEG was recorded. The order of presentation was counterbalanced to avoid order effect. Two EEG indicators were used: (1) alpha asymmetry index, an indicator for left-sided anterior activation, as measure of positive emotions, and (2) frontal  midline theta activity, as a measure for internalized attention. RESULTS: Increased left-sided activation, a pattern associated with positive emotions, was found during both TBRT exercise and music conditions. However, only TBRT exercise was shown to exhibit greater frontal midline theta power, a pattern associated with internalized attention. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided evidence to support that the TBRT gives rise to positive emotional experience, accompanied by focused internalized attention.

PMID: 18214668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jan 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Playing-related disabling musculoskeletal disorders in young and adult classical  piano students.

Bruno S, Lorusso A, L'abbate N.

Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of instrument-related musculoskeletal problems in classical piano students and investigate piano-specific risk factors. METHODS: A specially developed four parts questionnaire was administered to classical piano students of two Apulian conservatories, in southern Italy. A cross-sectional design was used. Prevalences of playing related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were calculated and cases were compared with non-cases. RESULTS: A total of 195 out of the 224 piano students responded (87%). Among 195 responders, 75 (38.4%) were considered affected according to the pre-established  criteria. Disabling MSDs showed similar prevalence rates for neck (29.3%), thoracic spine (21.3%) and upper limbs (from 20.0 to 30.4%) in the affected group. Univariate analyses showed statistical differences concerning mean age, number of hours per week spent playing, more than 60 min of continuative playing  without breaks, lack of sport practice and acceptability of "No pain, no gain" criterion in students with music-related pain compared with pianists not affected. Statistical correlation was found only between upper limbs diseases in  pianists and hand sizes. No correlation with the model of piano played was found  in the affected group. The multivariate analyses performed by logistic regression confirmed the independent correlation of the risk factors age, lack of sport practice and acceptability of "No pain, no gain" criterion. CONCLUSION: Our study showed MSDs to be a common problem among classical piano students. With variance  in several studies reported, older students appeared to be more frequently affected by disabling MSDs and no difference in the prevalence rate of the disorders was found in females.

PMID: 18210148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Conscious Cogn. 2008 Jan 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Towards a sensorimotor aesthetics of performing art.

Calvo-Merino B, Jola C, Glaser DE, Haggard P.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University College London, 17 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR, London, UK.

The field of neuroaesthetics attempts to identify the brain processes underlying  aesthetic experience, including but not limited to beauty. Previous neuroaesthetic studies have focussed largely on paintings and music, while performing arts such as dance have been less studied. Nevertheless, increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms that represent the bodies and actions of others, and which contribute to empathy, make a neuroaesthetics of dance timely.  Here, we present the first neuroscientific study of aesthetic perception in the context of the performing arts. We investigated brain areas whose activity during passive viewing of dance stimuli was related to later, independent aesthetic evaluation of the same stimuli. Brain activity of six naďve male subjects was measured using fMRI, while they watched 24 dance movements, and performed an irrelevant task. In a later session, participants rated each movement along a set of established aesthetic dimensions. The ratings were used to identify brain regions that were more active when viewing moves that received high average ratings than moves that received low average ratings. This contrast revealed bilateral activity in the occipital cortices and in right premotor cortex. Our results suggest a possible role of visual and sensorimotor brain areas in an automatic aesthetic response to dance. This sensorimotor response may explain why dance is widely appreciated in so many human cultures.

PMID: 18207423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Public Health. 2008 Jan 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media.

Primack BA, Land SR, Fine MJ.

Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,  230 McKee Place Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. METHODS: A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school  assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n=216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n=342) of the non-smokers (n=922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1)h of media daily, including 2.6h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (P(trend)=0.036 and P(trend)<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (P(trend)<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10-3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.94). CONCLUSION: Exposure to films and music are  associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking.

PMID: 18206196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2008 Jan 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Lullament: Lullaby and Lament Therapeutic Qualities Actualized Through Music Therapy.

O'Callaghan C.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Caritas Christi Hospice, St Vincent’s Health, Victoria, Australia.

Lullabies and laments promote new awareness, enculturation, adaptation, and grief expression. These concepts' relevance to palliative care, however, has not been examined. In this study, a music therapist used a grounded theory-informed design to reflexively analyze lullaby and lament qualities, evident in more than 20 years of personal palliative care practice. Thus, the construct "lullament" emerged, which signified helpful moments when patients' and families' personal and sociohistorical relationship with lullabies and laments were actualized. Specific music could be both a lullaby and a lament. A music therapist can enable the lullament through providing opportunities for music-contextualized "restorative resounding," expressed psychobiologically, verbally, musically, and  metaphorically.

PMID: 18198359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Sex Med. 2008 Jan 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Changes of Cerebral Current Source by Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Premature Ejaculation Patients.

Hyun JS, Kam SC, Kwon OY.

Department of Urology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju,  South Korea.

Introduction. Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common forms of male  sexual dysfunction. The mechanisms of PE remain poorly understood, despite its high prevalence. Aim. To investigate the pathophysiology and casuses of PE in the central nervous system, we tried to observe the changes in brain current source distribution by audiovisual induction of sexual arousal. Methods. Electroencephalograpies were recorded in patients with PE (45.0 +/- 10.3 years old, N = 18) and in controls (45.6 +/- 9.8 years old, N = 18) during four 10-minute segments of resting, watching a music video excerpt, resting, and watching an erotic video excerpt. Five artifact-free 5-second segments were used  to obtain cross-spectral low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) images. Main Outcome Measures. Statistical nonparametric maps (SnPM) were obtained to detect the current density changes of six frequency bands between the erotic video session and the music video session in each group. Comparisons were  also made between the two groups in the erotic video session. Results. In the SnPM of each spectrum in patients with PE, the current source density of the alpha band was significantly reduced in the right precentral gyrus, the right insula, and both superior parietal lobules (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups in the erotic video session, the current densities of the beta-2 and -3 bands in  the PE group were significantly decreased in the right parahippocampal gyrus and  left middle temporal gyrus (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Neuronal activity in the right precental gyrus, the right insula, both the superior parietal lobule, the right parahippocampal gyrus, and the left middle temporal gyrus may be decreased  in PE patients upon sexual arousal. Further studies are needed to evaluate the meaning of decreased neuronal activities in PE patients.

PMID: 18194183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Nature. 2008 Jan 10;451(7175):197-201.

Ultra-fine frequency tuning revealed in single neurons of human auditory cortex.

Bitterman Y, Mukamel R, Malach R, Fried I, Nelken I.

Department of Neurobiology, Life Science Institute, Hebrew University, Jerusalem  91904, Israel.

Just-noticeable differences of physical parameters are often limited by the resolution of the peripheral sensory apparatus. Thus, two-point discrimination in vision is limited by the size of individual photoreceptors. Frequency selectivity is a basic property of neurons in the mammalian auditory pathway. However, just-noticeable differences of frequency are substantially smaller than the bandwidth of the peripheral sensors. Here we report that frequency tuning in single neurons recorded from human auditory cortex in response to random-chord stimuli is far narrower than that typically described in any other mammalian species (besides bats), and substantially exceeds that attributed to the human auditory periphery. Interestingly, simple spectral filter models failed to predict the neuronal responses to natural stimuli, including speech and music. Thus, natural sounds engage additional processing mechanisms beyond the exquisite frequency tuning probed by the random-chord stimuli.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 18185589 [PubMed - in process]


Trends Cogn Sci. 2008 Jan 3 [Epub ahead of print]

Music, language and cognition: unresolved issues.

Schellenberg EG, Peretz I.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga  Road North, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6, Canada.

Publication Types:      LETTER

PMID: 18178126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Hum Brain Mapp. 2008 Jan 2 [Epub ahead of print]

Language and music: Differential hemispheric dominance in detecting unexpected errors in the lyrics and melody of memorized songs.

Yasui T, Kaga K, Sakai KL.

Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro‐ku, Tokyo 153‐8902, Japan.

Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report here the hemispheric dominance of the auditory cortex that is selectively modulated by unexpected errors in the lyrics and melody of songs (lyrics and melody deviants), thereby elucidating under which conditions the lateralization of auditory processing changes. In experiment 1 using familiar songs, we found that the dipole strength of responses to the lyrics deviants was left-dominant at 140 ms (M140), whereas that of responses to the melody deviants was right-dominant at 130 ms (M130). In experiment 2 using familiar songs with a constant syllable or pitch, the dipole strength of frequency mismatch negativity elicited by oddballs was left-dominant. There were significant main effects of experiment (1 and 2) for the peak latencies and for the coordinates of the dipoles, indicating that the M140 and M130 were not the frequency mismatch negativity. In experiment 3 using newly memorized songs, the right-dominant M130 was observed only when the presented note was unexpected one, independent of perceiving unnatural pitch transitions (i.e., perceptual saliency) and of selective attention to the melody of songs. The consistent right-dominance of the M130 between experiments 1 and 3 suggests that the M130 in experiment 1 is due to unexpected notes deviating from well-memorized songs. On the other hand, the left-dominant M140 was elicited by lyrics deviants, suggesting the influence of top-down linguistic information and  the memory of the familiar songs. We thus conclude that the left- lateralized M140 and right-lateralized M130 reflect the expectation based on top-down information of language and music, respectively. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 18172848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Jan;40(1):349-56. Epub 2007 Jul 25.

News, music videos and action movie exposure and adolescents' intentions to take  risks in traffic.

Beullens K, Van den Bulck J.

Leuven School for Mass Communication Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Parkstraat 45 (Box 3603), 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

This study explored the relationship between adolescents' viewing of specific television genres (action movies, news and music videos) and the intention to take risks in traffic. Participants were 2194 adolescent boys and girls who completed a questionnaire on television viewing, risk perception and the intention to speed and drive after consuming alcohol. As hypothesized, more news  viewing was associated with a higher perceived risk of drunk driving and speeding. More music video viewing, on the other hand, was negatively associated  with the assessment of the dangers of speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol. Girls regarded speeding and drunk driving as more dangerous than boys did. Contrary to our hypotheses, action movie viewing did not make a significant  contribution to our models. Both news and music video viewing were indirectly, via risk perception, related to the intention to drive risky. The more dangerous  a particular behavior was perceived to be, the less likely respondents intended to exhibit this behavior in the future.

PMID: 18215568 [PubMed - in process]


Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;605:213-7.

Phase relations between rhythmical movements and breathing in wind instrument players.

Ebert D, Kaerger W.

Dept. of Neurology, University of Duesseldorf, Germany.

PMID: 18085274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Hum Biol. 2008 Jan-Feb;20(1):110-5.

A subordinate status position increases the present value of financial resources  for low 2D:4D men.

Millet K, Dewitte S.

Department of Marketing and Organization Studies, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

It has been suggested that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (digit ratio or 2D:4D) is related to prenatal testosterone with lower ratios thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. Accordingly, low 2D:4D has been associated to a number of fitness-related factors, such as high status in competitive sports and in music. Recent evidence suggests that 2D:4D is also related to economic decision making. We combine both streams of research in  the present paper. In two studies we manipulated status in two different ways. We found that a subordinate position raises discount rates, consistent with the reasoning that the present utility of money is higher for men in this position. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced for men with a low 2D:4D. There was a significant negative relationship between 2D:4D and level of discounting in a subordinate status position, but no significant relationship emerged in the dominant status position. Our studies add evidence to the recent line of research associating digit ratio and economic decision making. Moreover, our studies show  that future 2D:4D research should focus on plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 17972318 [PubMed - in process]


Brain. 2008 Jan;131(Pt 1):39-49. Epub 2007 Dec 5.

Unravelling Boléro: progressive aphasia, transmodal creativity and the right posterior neocortex.

Seeley WW, Matthews BR, Crawford RK, Gorno-Tempini ML, Foti D, Mackenzie IR, Miller BL.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, UCSF, USA.

Most neurological lesion studies emphasize performance deficits that result from  focal brain injury. Here, we describe striking gains of function in a patient with primary progressive aphasia, a degenerative disease of the human language network. During the decade before her language deficits arose, Anne Adams (AA), a lifelong scientist, developed an intense drive to produce visual art. Paintings from AA's artistic peak revealed her capacity to create expressive transmodal art, such as renderings of music in paint, which may have reflected an increased  subjective relatedness among internal perceptual and conceptual images. AA became fascinated with Maurice Ravel, the French composer who also suffered from a progressive aphasia, and painted his best-known work, 'Boléro', by translating its musical elements into visual form. Later paintings, achieved when AA was nearly mute, moved towards increasing photographic realism, perhaps because visual representations came to dominate AA's mental landscape during this phase of her illness. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that, despite severe degeneration  of left inferior frontal-insular, temporal and striatal regions, AA showed increased grey matter volume and hyperperfusion in right posterior neocortical areas implicated in heteromodal and polysensory integration. The findings suggest that structural and functional enhancements in non-dominant posterior neocortex may give rise to specific forms of visual creativity that can be liberated by dominant inferior frontal cortex injury.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 18057074 [PubMed - in process]


Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Jan;12(1):165-9. Epub 2007 Nov 5.

The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

Baxendale S.

Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability  in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century.

PMID: 17980673 [PubMed - in process]


Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Jan;12(1):208-9. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

The role of Mozart's music in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: A new open window of a dark room.

Scorza FA, Arida RM, de Albuquerque M, Cavalheiro EA.

Laboratório de Neurologia Experimental, Universidade Federal de Săo Paulo/Escola  Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP/EPM), Săo Paulo, Brazil.

Publication Types:      Letter

PMID: 17977798 [PubMed - in process]


Explore (NY). 2008 Jan-Feb;4(1):70-3.

Building the Ship of Death: Part II.

Murfin S, Haberman M.

This is the second in a series of two articles by clinicians in Spokane, Washington, both articles presenting the results of original research from a team of music-thanatologists. The first article (EXPLORE, Volume 3, No 6) presented an overview, through clinical narratives, of the interconnected physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of 11 dying persons and their families in a hospital setting. This second article continues with narrative, yet focuses on the clinical practice of music-thanatology and includes the documentation of the palliation it offers to meet these physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. These two articles demonstrate a way of implementing effective, supportive care of the dying that models a greatly poised balance between the active and contemplative dimensions of life, no small miracle inside the teeming corridors of biomedicine. -Therese Schroeder-Sheker The Chalice of Repose Project

PMID: 18194797 [PubMed - in process]


Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Jan;62(1):166. Epub 2007 Oct 3.

Effects of music on gastric myoelectrical activity.

Kullmann T, Rácz I.

Department of Pathophysiology, National Korányi Institute for TB and Pulmonology, Budapest, Hungary.

PMID: 17916177 [PubMed - in process]


J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Jan;23(1):141-9.

Effects of audio stimulation on gastric myoelectrical activity and sympathovagal  balance in healthy adolescents and adults.

Chen DD, Xu X, Zhao Q, Yin J, Sallam H, Chen JD.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Aim: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different audio stimulations on gastric myoelectrical activity and sympathovagal balance in adolescents compared with adults. Methods: The study was performed in 11 adults and 12 adolescents. Each subject underwent two sessions, one for classical music, and the other for noise. Each session consisted of 30 min of baseline, 30 min of  fasting audio stimulation, a test meal, 30 min of fed audio stimulation, and 30 min of recovery. Electrocardiogram and electrogastrogram were both recorded throughout each session. Results: (i) In the fasting state, both classical music  and noise impaired gastric slow wave activity in adolescents. In adults, noise had no effects while classical music moderately improved slow wave rhythmicity. (ii) In the fed state, neither noise nor music had any effects on gastric slow waves. (iii) In the fasting state, both noise and music increased the sympathovagal balance in adolescents; in adults only noise had such an effect. (iv) The test meal increased the sympathovagal balance in all groups. Conclusions: Gastric slow waves and the sympathovagal balance are more strongly affected by audio stimulation in adolescents than in adults. The test meal normalizes the audio stimulation-induced differences between the groups.

PMID: 18171353 [PubMed - in process]


J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008 Jan;35(1):83-94. Epub 2007 Oct 23.

Oncology nurses' use of nondrug pain interventions in practice.

Kwekkeboom KL, Bumpus M, Wanta B, Serlin RC.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Cancer pain management guidelines recommend nondrug interventions as adjuvants to analgesic medications. Although physicians typically are responsible for pharmacologic pain treatments, oncology staff nurses, who spend considerable time with patients, are largely responsible for identifying and implementing nondrug pain treatments. Oncology nurses' use of nondrug interventions, however, has not  been well studied. The purpose of this study was to describe oncology nurses' use of four nondrug interventions (music, guided imagery, relaxation, distraction) and to identify factors that influence their use in practice. A national sample of 724 oncology staff nurses completed a mailed survey regarding use of the nondrug interventions in practice, beliefs about the interventions, and demographic characteristics. The percentages of nurses who reported administering the strategies in practice at least sometimes were 54% for music, 40% for guided  imagery, 82% for relaxation, and 80% for distraction. Use of each nondrug intervention was predicted by a composite score on beliefs about effectiveness of the intervention (e.g., perceived benefit; P<0.025) and a composite score on beliefs about support for carrying out the intervention (e.g., time; P<0.025). In addition, use of guided imagery was predicted by a composite score on beliefs about characteristics of patients who may benefit from the intervention (e.g., cognitive ability; P<0.05). Some nurse demographic, professional preparation, and practice environment characteristics also predicted use of individual nondrug interventions. Efforts to improve application of nondrug interventions should focus on innovative educational strategies, problem solving to secure support, and development and testing of new delivery methods that require less time from busy staff nurses.

PMID: 17959348 [PubMed - in process]


Med Sci Monit. 2008 Jan;14(1):BR28-33.

Influence of classical and rock music on red blood cell rheological properties in rats.

Erken G, Bor Kucukatay M, Erken HA, Kursunluoglu R, Genc O.

Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Kinikli, 20070, Denizli, Turkey.

Background: A number of studies have reported physiological effects of music. Different types of music have been found to induce different alterations. Although some physiological and psychological parameters have been demonstrated to be influenced by music, the effect of music on hemorheological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation are unknown. This study aimed at investigating the effects of classical and rock music on hemorheological parameters in rats.<br /> Material/Methods: Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: the control, noise-applied, and the classical music- and rock music-applied groups. Taped classical or rock music were played repeatedly for 1  hour a day for 2 weeks and 95-dB machine sound was applied to the noise-applied rats during the same period. RBC deformability and aggregation were measured using an ektacytometer.<br /> Results: RBC deformability was found to be increased in the classical music group. Exposure to both classical and rock music resulted in a decrement in erythrocyte aggregation, but the decline in RBC aggregation was of a higher degree of significance in the classical music group.  Exposure to noise did not have any effect on the parameters studied.<br /> Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the alterations in hemorheological parameters were more pronounced in the classical music group compared with the rock music group.<br /> <br />

Publication Types:      Editorial

PMID: 18160935 [PubMed - in process]


Neuroimage. 2008 Jan 1;39(1):483-91. Epub 2007 Aug 25.

Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

Watanabe T, Yagishita S, Kikyo H.

Department of Physiology, The University of Tokyo School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and  left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore,  performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music  retrieval outcome.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17905600 [PubMed - in process]


Nurs Sci Q. 2008 Jan;21(1):49-58.

The relation of meditation to power and well-being.

Tae Sook Kim , Jeong Sook Park , Myung Ae Kim .

St. Joseph's College, New York.

The purpose of this research is to examine the relation of meditation to power and well-being in Korean adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, meditation was provided through a chakra meditation music program over a 4 week period. The  Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool and the Well-Being Picture Scale were used, after being translated into Korean. Statistically significant interaction effects of power and group (p < .001), and well-being and group (p <  .05) were found. Meditation has a potential to facilitate power and well-being in the human and environmental field patterning process.

PMID: 18096986 [PubMed - in process]


Pain. 2008 Jan;134(1-2):140-7. Epub 2007 May 25.

Emotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesia.

Roy M, Peretz I, Rainville P.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville,  Montreal, Que, Canada H3C 3J7.

The capacity of music to soothe pain has been used in many traditional forms of medicine. Yet, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been demonstrated. Here, we examine the possibility that the modulatory effect of music on pain is mediated by the valence (pleasant-unpleasant dimension) of the emotions induced. We report the effects of listening to pleasant and unpleasant music on thermal pain in healthy human volunteers. Eighteen participants evaluated the warmth or pain induced by 40.0, 45.5, 47.0 and 48.5 degrees C thermal stimulations applied to the skin of their forearm while listening to pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts matched for their high level of arousal  (relaxing-stimulating dimension). Compared to a silent control condition, only the pleasant excerpts produced highly significant reductions in both pain intensity and unpleasantness, demonstrating the effect of positive emotions induced by music on pain (Pairwise contrasts with silence: p's<0.001). Correlation analyses in the pleasant music condition further indicated that pain  decreased significantly (p's<0.05) with increases in self-reports of music pleasantness. In contrast, the unpleasant excerpts did not modulate pain significantly, and warmth perception was not affected by the presence of pleasant or unpleasant music. Those results support the hypothesis that positive emotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesia. These findings call for the integration of music to current methods of pain control.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17532141 [PubMed - in process]


J Adolesc. 2007 Dec 28 [Epub ahead of print]


The role of music preferences in early adolescents' friendship formation and stability.

Selfhout MH, Branje SJ, Ter Bogt TF, Meeus WH.

Research Centre Adolescent Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80140, 3508  TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The present study examines the role of similarity in music preferences in the formation and discontinuation of friendships over a 1-year period. Questionnaire  data were gathered from 283 Dutch same-sex mutual best friends (mean age=12.97) in two waves with a 1-year interval. Results show consistent evidence for high similarity in specific music dimensions among friends at both waves. Moderate similarity was found in the overall patterning of preferences for music genres at both waves, even after controlling for similarity in social background. Specific  music similarity in more non-mainstream music dimensions and overall music similarity at Wave 1 were related to selecting a new friend at Wave 2. However, similarity in music preferences was not related to the discontinuation of an existing friendship at Wave 2. Thus, results suggest that similarity in music preferences is related to friendship formation, and not to friendship discontinuation.

PMID: 18164756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Dec 18;429(2-3):152-5. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

Music exposure differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in the mouse hypothalamus.

Angelucci F, Ricci E, Padua L, Sabino A, Tonali PA.

Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi, Rome, Italy.

It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons in the central  nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music exposure in mice on hypothalamic levels of BDNF and NGF. We exposed young adult mice to slow rhythm music (6h per day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 dB) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment mice were sacrificed  and BDNF and NGF levels in the hypothalamus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that music exposure significantly enhanced  BDNF levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we observed that music-exposed mice had decreased NGF hypothalamic levels. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music in mice can influence neurotrophin production in the hypothalamus. Our findings also suggest that physiological effects of music might be in part mediated by modulation of neurotrophins.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17980967 [PubMed - in process]



Circulation. 2007 Dec 11;116(24):f139-40.

Music and the heart. Interview by Emma Baines.

Bernardi L.

Publication Types:      Interview

PMID: 18071081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


36: Cognition. 2007 Dec 10 [Epub ahead of print]

The tonal function of a task-irrelevant chord modulates speed of visual processing.

Escoffier N, Tillmann B.

Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Neurosciences Sensorielles, Comportement, Cognition, CNRS-UMR 5020, IFR 19, 50 Avenue Tony Garnier, F-69366 Lyon Cedex 07,  France; University of Georgia, Department of Psychology, Athens, GA 30602, USA; National University of Singapore, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, 9 Arts Link, Singapore 117570, Singapore.

Harmonic priming studies have provided evidence that musical expectations influence sung phoneme monitoring, with facilitated processing for phonemes sung  on tonally related (expected) chords in comparison to less-related (less-expected) chords [Bigand, Tillmann, Poulin, D'Adamo, and Madurell (2001). The effect of harmonic context on phoneme monitoring in vocal music. Cognition, 81, B11-B20]. This tonal relatedness effect has suggested two interpretations: (a) processing of music and language interact at some level of processing; and (b) tonal functions of chords influence task performance via listeners' attention. Our study investigated these hypotheses by exploring whether the effect of tonal relatedness extends to the processing of visually presented syllables (Experiments 1 and 2) and geometric forms (Experiments 3 and 4). For Experiments 1-4, visual target identification was faster when the musical background fulfilled listeners' expectations (i.e., a related chord was played simultaneously). In Experiment 4, the addition of a baseline condition (i.e., without an established tonal center) further showed that the observed difference  was due to a facilitation linked to the related chord and not to an inhibition or disruption caused by the less-related chord. This outcome suggests the influence  of musical structures on attentional mechanisms and that these mechanisms are shared between auditory and visual modalities. The implications for research investigating neural correlates shared by music and language processing are discussed.

PMID: 18076873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 Dec 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Selective neurophysiologic responses to music in instrumentalists with different  listening biographies.

Margulis EH, Mlsna LM, Uppunda AK, Parrish TB, Wong PC.

Department of Music, University of Arkansas, MB201, Fayetteville, Arkansas.

To appropriately adapt to constant sensory stimulation, neurons in the auditory system are tuned to various acoustic characteristics, such as center frequencies, frequency modulations, and their combinations, particularly those combinations that carry species-specific communicative functions. The present study asks whether such tunings extend beyond acoustic and communicative functions to auditory self-relevance and expertise. More specifically, we examined the role of the listening biography-an individual's long term experience with a particular type of auditory input-on perceptual-neural plasticity. Two groups of expert instrumentalists (violinists and flutists) listened to matched musical excerpts played on the two instruments (J.S. Bach Partitas for solo violin and flute) while their cerebral hemodynamic responses were measured using fMRI. Our experimental design allowed for a comprehensive investigation of the neurophysiology (cerebral hemodynamic responses as measured by fMRI) of auditory  expertise (i.e., when violinists listened to violin music and when flutists listened to flute music) and nonexpertise (i.e., when subjects listened to music  played on the other instrument). We found an extensive cerebral network of expertise, which implicates increased sensitivity to musical syntax (BA 44), timbre (auditory association cortex), and sound-motor interactions (precentral gyrus) when listening to music played on the instrument of expertise (the instrument for which subjects had a unique listening biography). These findings highlight auditory self-relevance and expertise as a mechanism of perceptual-neural plasticity, and implicate neural tuning that includes and extends beyond acoustic and communication-relevant structures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 18072277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007 Dec 8 [Epub ahead of print]

Discrimination of Schroeder-Phase Harmonic Complexes by Normal-Hearing and Cochlear-Implant Listeners.

Drennan WR, Longnion JK, Ruffin C, Rubinstein JT.

Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Washington, Box 357923, Seattle, WA, 98195,  USA,

The temporal fine structure (TFS) of sound contributes significantly to the perception of music and speech in noise. The evaluation of new strategies to improve TFS delivery in cochlear implants (CIs) relies upon the assessment of fine structure encoding. Most modern CI sound processing schemes do not encode within-channel TFS per se, but some TFS information is delivered through temporal envelope cues across multiple channels. Positive and negative Schroeder-phase harmonic complexes differ primarily in acoustic TFS and provide a potential test  of TFS discrimination ability in CI users for current and future processing strategies. The ability to discriminate Schroeder-phase stimuli was evaluated in  24 CI users and 7 normal-hearing listeners at four fundamental frequencies: 50, 100, 200, and 400 Hz. The dependent variables were percent correct at each fundamental frequency, average score across all fundamental frequencies, and a maximum-likelihood-predicted threshold fundamental frequency for 75% correct. CI  listeners scored better than chance for all fundamental frequencies tested. The 50-Hz, average, and predicted threshold scores correlated significantly with consonant-nucleus-consonant word scores. The 200-Hz score correlated with a measure of speech perception in speech-shaped noise. Pitch-direction sensitivity  is predicted jointly by the 400-Hz Schroeder score and a spectral ripple discrimination task. The results demonstrate that the Schroeder test is a potentially useful measure of clinically relevant temporal processing abilities in CI users.

PMID: 18066624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Brain Res. 2007 Dec 4 [Epub ahead of print]

Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: Neural and behavioral evidence.

Milovanov R, Huotilainen M, Välimäki V, Esquef PA, Tervaniemi M.

Department of English, University of Turku, Finland; Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.

The main focus of this study was to examine the relationship between musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills. We investigated whether children with superior performance in foreign language production represent musical sound features more readily in the preattentive level of neural processing compared with children with less-advanced production skills. Sound processing accuracy was examined in elementary school children by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings and behavioral measures. Children with good linguistic skills had better musical skills as measured by the Seashore musicality test than children with less accurate linguistic skills. The ERP data  accompany the results of the behavioral tests: children with good linguistic skills showed more pronounced sound-change evoked activation with the music stimuli than children with less accurate linguistic skills. Taken together, the results imply that musical and linguistic skills could partly be based on shared  neural mechanisms.

PMID: 18182165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


CMAJ. 2007 Dec 4;177(12):1547-8.

Sound medicine: an introduction to cacophonology.

Gosset B.

PMID: 18056621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroscience. 2007 Dec 4 [Epub ahead of print]

Neural interactions within and beyond the critical band elicited by two simultaneously presented narrow band noises: A magnetoencephalographic study.

Okamoto H, Stracke H, Pantev C.

Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Muenster, Malmedyweg 15, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

Neural activities elicited in the auditory system are systematically organized according to the frequency characteristics of corresponding sound inputs. This systematic frequency alignment, called 'tonotopy,' plays an important role in auditory perception. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we investigated here interactions between neural groups activated by two simultaneously presented narrow-band noises (NBNs) within the human cortical tonotopic map. Auditory evoked fields indicated that the neural interactions activated by these NBNs depended on the frequency difference between them: the amplitude of the N1m-response systematically increased with increasing frequency difference between the NBNs until the critical bandwidth was reached. In contrast, the N1m decreased with frequency difference exceeding the critical bandwidth. The different N1m-response patterns within and beyond the critical band seem to result from the combination of inhibitory and excitatory neural processes in the  auditory pathway and may contribute to the perception of complex sound patterns like speech and music.

PMID: 18191899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Dec;32(3-4):163-8. Epub 2007 Oct 27.

Coping with stress: the effectiveness of different types of music.

Labbé E, Schmidt N, Babin J, Pharr M.

Department of Psychology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.

Listening to classical and self-selected relaxing music after exposure to a stressor should result in significant reductions in anxiety, anger, and sympathetic nervous system arousal, and increased relaxation compared to those who sit in silence or listen to heavy metal music. Fifty-six college students, 15 males and 41 females, were exposed to different types of music genres after experiencing a stressful test. Several 4 x 2 mixed design analyses of variance were conducted to determine the effects of music and silence conditions (heavy metal, classical, or self-selected music and silence) and time (pre-post music) on emotional state and physiological arousal. Results indicate listening to self-select or classical music, after exposure to a stressor, significantly reduces negative emotional states and physiological arousal compared to listening to heavy metal music or sitting in silence.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17965934 [PubMed - in process]


Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Dec;125(12):1717-8.

The eyes, brain, bones, and skull of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Breitenfeld T.

Publication Types:      Biography     Historical Article     Letter

Personal Name as Subject:      Bach JS

PMID: 18071133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cereb Cortex. 2007 Dec;17(12):2828-40. Epub 2007 Mar 29.

Feeling the real world: limbic response to music depends on related content.

Eldar E, Ganor O, Admon R, Bleich A, Hendler T.

Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel.

Emotions are often object related--they are about someone or something in the world. It is yet an open question whether emotions and the associated perceptual  contents that they refer to are processed by different parts of the brain or whether the brain regions that mediate emotions are also involved in the processing of the associated content they refer to. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we showed that simply combining music (rich in emotion but poor in information about the concrete world) with neutral films (poor in emotionality but rich in real-world details) yields increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, and lateral prefrontal regions. In contrast, emotional music on its own did not elicit a differential response in these regions. The finding that the amygdala, the heart of the emotional brain, responds increasingly to an emotional stimulus when it is associated with realistic scenes supports a fundamental role for concrete real-world content in emotional processing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17395609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cognition. 2007 Dec;105(3):533-46. Epub 2006 Dec 29.

Hearing what the body feels: auditory encoding of rhythmic movement.

Phillips-Silver J, Trainor LJ.

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1.

Phillips-Silver and Trainor (Phillips-Silver, J., Trainor, L.J., (2005). Feeling  the beat: movement influences infants' rhythm perception. Science, 308, 1430) demonstrated an early cross-modal interaction between body movement and auditory  encoding of musical rhythm in infants. Here we show that the way adults move their bodies to music influences their auditory perception of the rhythm structure. We trained adults, while listening to an ambiguous rhythm with no accented beats, to bounce by bending their knees to interpret the rhythm either as a march or as a waltz. At test, adults identified as similar an auditory version of the rhythm pattern with accented strong beats that matched their previous bouncing experience in comparison with a version whose accents did not match. In subsequent experiments we showed that this effect does not depend on visual information, but that movement of the body is critical. Parallel results from adults and infants suggest that the movement-sound interaction develops early and is fundamental to music processing throughout life.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17196580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Conscious Cogn. 2007 Dec;16(4):992-6. Epub 2006 Aug 23.

The effects of music exposure and own genre preference on conscious and unconscious cognitive processes: A pilot ERP study.

Caldwell GN, Riby LM.

Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK.

Did Beethoven and Mozart have more in common with each other than Clapton and Hendrix? The current research demonstrated the widely reported Mozart Effect as only partly significant. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 16 professional classical and rock musicians during a standard 2 stimulus visual  oddball task, while listening to classical and rock music. During the oddball task participants were required to discriminate between an infrequent target stimulus randomly embedded in a train of repetitive background or standard stimuli. Consistent with previous research, the P3 and N2 ERPs were elicited in response to the infrequent target stimuli. Own genre preference resulted in a reduction in amplitude of the P3 for classical musicians exposed to classical music and rock musicians exposed to rock music. Notably, at the pre-attentive stage of processing (N2) beneficial effects of exposure to classical music were observed for both groups of musicians. These data are discussed in terms of short and long-term music benefits on both conscious and unconscious cognitive processes.

PMID: 16931056 [PubMed - in process]


Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2709-13.

Comment in:     Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2858-9.

Overture for growth hormone: requiem for interleukin-6?

Conrad C, Niess H, Jauch KW, Bruns CJ, Hartl W, Welker L.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

BACKGROUND: Music has been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of cultural history. However, despite numerous descriptions of beneficial effects, the precise mechanisms by which music may improve human well-being remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized study in ten critically ill patients  to identify mechanisms of music-induced relaxation using a special selection of slow movements of Mozart's piano sonatas. These sonatas were analyzed for compositional elements of relaxation. We measured circulatory variables, brain electrical activity, serum levels of stress hormones and cytokines, requirements  for sedative drugs, and level of sedation before and at the end of a 1-hr therapeutic session. RESULTS: Compared with controls, we found that music application significantly reduced the amount of sedative drugs needed to achieve  a comparable degree of sedation. Simultaneously, among those receiving the music  intervention, plasma concentrations of growth hormone increased, whereas those of interleukin-6 and epinephrine decreased. The reduction in systemic stress hormone levels was associated with a significantly lower blood pressure and heart rate. CONCLUSION: Based on the effects of slow movements of Mozart's piano sonatas, we  propose a neurohumoral pathway by which music might exert its sedative action. This model includes an interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with the adrenal medulla via mediators of the unspecific immune system

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 18074473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2858-9.

Comment on:     Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2709-13.

Sedative effects of Mozart's music in the critically ill: enjoy the hormonal symphony.

Paugam-Burtz C, Mantz J.

Publication Types:      Comment     Editorial

PMID: 18043205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Epilepsy Res. 2007 Dec;77(2-3):169-73.

Neural correlates of musicogenic epilepsy: SISCOM and FDG-PET.

Cho JW, Seo DW, Joo EY, Tae WS, Lee J, Hong SB.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea.

To localize the neural correlates of musicogenic epilepsy, subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered with MRI (SISCOM) and (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed in a woman who had suffered from frequent musicogenic seizures. She had complex partial seizures consisting of palpitation and an unpleasant feeling, which were followed by staring and oroalimentary automatisms. Ictal EEG showed rhythmic theta waves originated from  the right temporal lobe, and SISCOM showed ictal hyperperfusion on right insula,  amygdala, hippocampal head, and anterior temporal lobe, whereas interictal FDG-PET showed interictal hypometabolism in the same brain regions, suggesting dysfunction and abnormal activation of right temporo-limbic structures related to an emotional response to music.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18035523 [PubMed - in process]


Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007 Dec;34(12):2073-81. Epub 2007 Aug 17.

Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

Ruytjens L, Georgiadis JR, Holstege G, Wit HP, Albers FW, Willemsen AT.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB,  Groningen, The Netherlands.

BACKGROUND: We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation  and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found a sex difference in activation of  the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated  by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the  baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory  and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

PMID: 17703299 [PubMed - in process]


Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007 Dec;75(12):699-707. Epub 2006 Nov 17.

[Creative therapy options for patients with dementia - a systematic review.]

Schmitt B, Frölich L.

Abteilung für Gerontopsychiatrie, Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim.

The specifics of creative therapies aim at activating the creative potential of the patients in the sense of acceptance, orientation and coping with their illness "dementia" and at improving their quality of life. Creative therapies in  the treatment of dementia offer the advantage of working with these patients, whose cognition and often also verbal communication skills are affected in a nonverbal way. This article presents a systematic review of studies and case studies, which could be found on the subject of the implementation of active creative therapies "music-, art-, drama- and dance-therapy" within the following  databases (05/05): Medline, Psyndex Plus, PsychInfo and Cochrane. The search terms used were: "Creativ* and therapy and dementia and (stud*)", "Dance therapy  and dementia", "Music therapy and dementia", "Drama therapy and dementia" and "Art therapy and dementia". As a result of this search we found seven quantitative evaluated controlled studies, three prae-post comparisions and three qualitative evaluated studies which have been finished since 1998. All of these studies included groups of at least three participants. Further reviews are mentioned in this article. This survey of studies on creative therapies for patients with dementia shows positive effects like the improvement of interaction skills. The data supplied thus supports the approach of using creative therapies  in order to help patients accept dementia as their illness and finally to cope with it. The methodical approach to the registration of the therapies' effects and process-orientated contents of the therapy create a field of tension, leading to the request for a further development and validation of instruments, which allow the quantitative evaluation of parameters like liveliness, agility and interaction skills.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17443437 [PubMed - in process]


J Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Dec;22(6):448-56.

Practice guidelines for music interventions with hospitalized pediatric patients.

Stouffer JW, Shirk BJ, Polomano RC.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 19104, USA.

Music therapy is an effective complementary approach that can achieve specific therapeutic outcomes in the clinical management of pediatric patients. Growing research on music interventions has generated scientific knowledge about how this modality benefits patients and has formed the basis for effective protocols that  can be used in practice. Although it can be challenging to translate research-based protocols into routine clinical care at the bedside, it is essential that music therapy interventions be aligned with evidence-based information and that accepted standards be established by the music therapy discipline to achieve the greatest benefit. The importance of partnerships between nurses and music therapists is emphasized to enhance the success of music-based treatments. This discussion synthesizes research findings that can be used to design pediatric practice guidelines in the application of music therapy.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18036465 [PubMed - in process]


Psychol Aging. 2007 Dec;22(4):728-37.

Aging and variety seeking.

Novak DL, Mather M.

Department of Psychology, University of California.

The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking  emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to  consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 18179293 [PubMed - in process]


Psychol Psychother. 2007 Dec;80(Pt 4):577-89.

Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: the role of  therapeutic techniques.

Gold C, Wigram T, Voracek M.

University of Bergen, Unifob Health, Bergen, Norway.

Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However,  there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N=75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed.

PMID: 17535546 [PubMed - in process]


Int J Sports Med. 2007 Nov 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Psychological Effects of Music Tempi during Exercise.

Karageorghis C, Jones L, Stuart DP.

School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music tempi on music  preference, intrinsic motivation, and flow during long-duration exercise ( approximately 26 min). Subjects (n = 29) selected the music of a single artist then walked at 70 % of maximum heart rate reserve (maxHRR) on a treadmill under three experimental conditions (medium tempi, fast tempi, and mixed tempi) and a no-music control. A music preference item, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Flow State Scale-2 were completed after each trial. Data were analyzed using  a mixed-model (Gender x Condition) ANOVA and MANOVA. The Gender x Condition interaction was nonsignificant in both analyses (p > 0.05). Contrary to expectations, higher preference scores were recorded for medium tempi than for mixed tempi (means: 7.8 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.1 +/- 1.1). The medium tempi music also yielded the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that interest-enjoyment was higher for medium tempi when compared to mixed tempi, 95 % CI = 1.80 - 8.48, p = 0.001, and that each of the music preference experimental conditions yielded higher scores than the no-music  control. Also, pressure-tension was lower for medium tempi compared to fast tempi, 95 % CI = - 3.44 - 0.19, p = 0.022, and for both medium and mixed tempi compared to control (95 % CI = - 5.33 - 2.89, p = 0.000; 95 % CI = - 4.24 - 0.64, p = 0.004). A main effect was found for global flow (p = 0.000) with the highest  mean score evident in the medium tempi condition (14.6 +/- 1.5). Follow-up comparisons indicated that the medium tempi condition yielded higher flow scores  than the control, 95 % CI = 1.25 - 3.60, p = 0.000, as did fast tempi, 95 % CI =  0.89 - 3.14, p = 0.000, and mixed tempi, 95 % CI = 1.36 - 3.76, p = 0.000. It was concluded that a medium tempi music program was the most appropriate for an exercise intensity of 70 % maxHRR.

PMID: 18050063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Hear Res. 2007 Nov 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Combined acoustic and electric hearing: Preserving residual acoustic hearing.

Turner CW, Reiss LA, Gantz BJ.

Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, 121B SHC Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States.

The topic of this review is the strategy of preserving residual acoustic hearing  in the implanted ear to provide combined electrical stimulation and acoustic hearing as a rehabilitative strategy for sensorineural hearing loss. This chapter will concentrate on research done with the Iowa/Nucleus 10mm Hybrid device, but we will also attempt to summarize strategies and results from other groups around the world who use slightly different approaches. A number of studies have shown that preserving residual acoustic hearing in the implanted ear is a realistic goal for many patients with severe high-frequency hearing loss. The addition of the electric stimulation to their existing acoustic hearing can provide increased speech recognition for these patients. In addition, the preserved acoustic hearing can offer considerable advantages, as compared to a traditional cochlear  implant, for tasks such as speech recognition in backgrounds or appreciation of music and other situations where the poor frequency resolution of electric stimulation has been a disadvantage.

PMID: 18164883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Nov 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Is the audiologic status of professional musicians a reflection of the noise exposure in classical orchestral music?

Emmerich E, Rudel L, Richter F.

Institute of Physiology I/Neurophysiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Teichgraben 8, 07740, Jena, Germany,

The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major  German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz  than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.

PMID: 18034257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 21;27(47):13028-32.

Cortical thickness in congenital amusia: when less is better than more.

Hyde KL, Lerch JP, Zatorre RJ, Griffiths TD, Evans AC, Peretz I.

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A  2B4.

Congenital amusia (or tone deafness) is a lifelong disorder characterized by impairments in the perception and production of music. A previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study revealed that amusic individuals had reduced white matter in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) relative to musically intact controls (Hyde et al., 2006). However, this VBM study also revealed associated increases in gray matter in the same right IFG region of amusics. The objective of the present study was to better understand this morphological brain anomaly by way of cortical thickness measures that provide a more specific measure of cortical morphology relative to VBM. We found that amusic subjects (n = 21) have thicker cortex in the right IFG and the right auditory cortex relative to musically intact controls (n = 26). These cortical thickness differences suggest the presence of cortical malformations in the amusic brain, such as abnormal neuronal migration, that may have compromised the normal development of a right frontotemporal pathway.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Multicenter Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18032676 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Voice. 2007 Nov 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Performer's Attitudes Toward Seeking Health Care for Voice Issues: Understanding  the Barriers.

Gilman M, Merati AL, Klein AM, Hapner ER, Johns MM.

The Emory Voice Center, Emory University, Department of Otolaryngology, Atlanta,  Georgia.

Contemporary commercial music (CCM) performers rely heavily on their voice, yet may not be aware of the importance of proactive voice care. This investigation intends to identify perceptions and barriers to seeking voice care among CCM artists. This cross-sectional observational study used a 10-item Likert-based response questionnaire to assess current perceptions regarding voice care in a population of randomly selected participants of professional CCM conference. Subjects (n=78) were queried regarding their likelihood to seek medical care for  minor medical problems and specifically problems with their voice. Additional questions investigated anxiety about seeking voice care from a physician specialist, speech language pathologist, or voice coach; apprehension regarding findings of laryngeal examination, laryngeal imaging procedures; and the effect of medical insurance on the likelihood of seeking medical care. Eighty-two percent of subjects reported that their voice was a critical part of their profession; 41% stated that they were not likely to seek medical care for problems with their voice; and only 19% were reluctant to seek care for general medical problems (P<0.001). Anxiety about seeking a clinician regarding their voice was not a deterrent. Most importantly, 39% of subjects do not seek medical  attention for their voice problems due to medical insurance coverage. The CCM artists are less likely to seek medical care for voice problems compared with general medical problems. Availability of medical insurance may be a factor. Availability of affordable voice care and education about the importance of voice care is needed in this population of vocal performers.

PMID: 18037270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Psychooncology. 2007 Nov 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Randomized controlled trial of the active music engagement (AME) intervention on  children with cancer.

Robb SL, Clair AA, Watanabe M, Monahan PO, Azzouz F, Stouffer JW, Ebberts A, Darsie E, Whitmer C, Walker J, Nelson K, Hanson-Abromeit D, Lane D, Hannan A.

Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Coping theorists argue that environmental factors affect how children perceive and respond to stressful events such as cancer. However, few studies have investigated how particular interventions can change coping behaviors. The active music engagement (AME) intervention was designed to counter stressful qualities of the in-patient hospital environment by introducing three forms of environmental support.Method: The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the AME intervention on three coping-related behaviors (i.e. positive facial affect, active engagement, and initiation). Eighty-three participants, ages 4-7, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: AME (n = 27), music listening (ML; n = 28), or audio storybooks (ASB; n = 28). Conditions were videotaped to facilitate behavioral data collection using time-sampling procedures.Results: After adjusting for baseline differences, repeated measure analyses indicated that AME participants had a significantly higher frequency of coping-related behaviors compared with ML or ASB. Positive facial affect and active engagement were significantly higher during AME compared with ML and ASB (p<0.0001). Initiation was significantly higher during AME than ASB (p<0.05).Conclusion: This study supports the use of the AME intervention to encourage coping-related behaviors in hospitalized children aged 4-7 receiving cancer treatment. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 18033724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Voice. 2007 Nov 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Empirical Criteria for Establishing a Classification of Singing Activity in Children and Adolescents.

Fuchs M, Meuret S, Geister D, Pfohl W, Thiel S, Dietz A, Gelbrich G.

University of Leipzig, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Section of Phoniatrics  and Audiology, Leipzig, Germany.

SUMMARY: This study evaluated a proposed classification system to assess the nature and extent of voice use in young singers to support diagnostic routines, the treatment of voice disorders, and future research in children and adolescents. A classification system was developed and studied in 186 children and adolescents (age range 6-19 years, M=13.5 years). The system was based on three parameters previously shown to contribute to the development of voice disorders in young singers: amount of voice strain, amount of voice training, and the amount of wind instrument use. The subjects were selected on the basis of information from schools and choirs. After this selection, they were interviewed  in detail by seven phoniatricians, logopaedists, and voice teachers. The standardized interviews were recorded and used for classification. Afterward, 124 physicians/logopaedists, choirmasters, music teachers, and lay people classified  the singing activity by means of six randomized interviews, resulting in a total  of 744 second appraisals. The agreement concerning the classification on the part of the interviewers was evaluated for each preselection and each second appraisal result for all three dimensions of the classification for each subject. All of the second appraiser groups showed moderately strong agreement with the interviewers (kappa=0.65-0.83). In the selection in which the test subjects were  not interviewed, there was significantly less agreement (kappa=0.29-0.47). However, the additional strain caused by the instrument was already appraised with a very high degree of agreement in the preliminary selection (kappa=0.88-0.93). This classification system is a practical instrument for evaluating singing activity in young singers. It is accessible to lay persons, simplifying and standardizing communication among physicians, logopaedists, and singing teachers. It can be used at the level of a group comparison in scientific investigations.

PMID: 18031988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


BMC Nurs. 2007 Nov 13;6:11.

Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students.

Seyedfatemi N, Tafreshi M, Hagani H.

Mental Health Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery affiliated to Iran Medical Sciences University, Yasemi, St, Valiasr Aven, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may  result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%), "working with people they did not know" (63.4%) as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%), "started college" (65.8%) as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9%) and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2%) and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%). Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04) and environmental (P=0.04) sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to  reason with parents and compromise" (73%) and "going along with family rules" (68%) were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal with problems" (66.4%) and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%). The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%); the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%), "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%), and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%); the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%); the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%), the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%), and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5%) were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7%) and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%), the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%), the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6%) and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2%) and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9%) were used "seldom or never". CONCLUSION: First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers.

PMID: 17999772 [PubMed - in process]


AAOHN J. 2007 Nov;55(11):476.

Sources of noise-induced hearing loss.

Loftis M.

WRH Health System, Wadsworth, OH, USA.

Occupational health nurses should educate employees about the risk of noise-induced hearing loss from portable music players and cellular phones during preplacement and annual hearing evaluations.

PMID: 18019772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007 Nov;58(9):401-7.

[Acoustic trauma in classical music players]

[Article in Spanish]

Morais D, Benito JI, Almaraz A.

Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Espańa.

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the existence of acoustic trauma in classical musicians. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixty-five volunteers from the Castilla and León Symphony Orchestra were studied. The hearing thresholds of each musician were age-corrected using the ELI and ISO 7029:2000 scales. Furthermore the sound levels of the instruments in this symphony orchestra were studied. RESULTS: We observed that the sound level of the symphony orchestra instruments is higher than the level permitted by law, ie it constitutes a risk for hearing loss. We also found that 4 kHz hearing loss in the 5th percentile among musicians was double the rate that would be expected for age, and that violinists and viola players showed poorer hearing in the left ear. CONCLUSIONS: Classical music causes acoustic trauma in musicians and should be recognized as a professional illness. Musicians are obliged to protect their hearing and to undergo regular check-ups.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17999904 [PubMed - in process]


Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Nov;116(5):362-70.

The additional therapeutic effect of group music therapy for schizophrenic patients: a randomized study.

Ulrich G, Houtmans T, Gold C.

Rhenish Clinic Bedburg-Hau, Bedburg-Hau, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is one of the most serious mental disorders. Music therapy has only recently been introduced as a form of treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy for schizophrenic in-patients needing acute care. METHOD: Thirty-seven patients with psychotic disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups received medication and treatment indicated for their disorder. Additionally, the experimental group (n = 21) underwent group music therapy. RESULTS: Significant effects of music therapy are found in patients' self-evaluation of their psychosocial orientation and for negative symptoms. No differences were found in  the quality of life. CONCLUSION: Musical activity diminishes negative symptoms and improves interpersonal contact. These positive effects of music therapy could increase the patient's abilities to adapt to the social environment in the community after discharge from the hospital.

PMID: 17919155 [PubMed - in process]


Ann Neurol. 2007 Nov;62(5):525-8.

Compulsive singing: another aspect of punding in Parkinson's disease.

Bonvin C, Horvath J, Christe B, Landis T, Burkhard PR.

Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

We report on two patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who were exhibiting a peculiar and stereotyped behavior characterized by an irrepressible need to sing  compulsively when under high-dose dopamine replacement therapy. Sharing many features with punding, this singing behavior is proposed as a distinct manifestation of the dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17696122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


74: Cereb Cortex. 2007 Nov;17(11):2650-8. Epub 2007 Feb 8.

The feeling of familiarity of music and odors: the same neural signature?

Plailly J, Tillmann B, Royet JP.

Neurosciences & Systčmes Sensoriels, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5020, IFR 19, Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon, 69366, Lyon Cedex 07, France.

The feeling of familiarity can be triggered by stimuli from all sensory modalities, suggesting a multimodal nature of its neural bases. In the present experiment, we investigated this hypothesis by studying the neural bases of familiarity processing of odors and music. In particular, we focused on familiarity referring to the participants' life experience. Items were classified as familiar or unfamiliar based on participants' individual responses, and activation patterns evoked by familiar items were compared with those evoked by unfamiliar items. For the feeling of familiarity, a bimodal activation pattern was observed in the left hemisphere, specifically the superior and inferior frontal gyri, the precuneus, the angular gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the hippocampus. Together with previously reported data on verbal items, visual items, and auditory items other than music, this outcome suggests a multimodal neural system of the feeling of familiarity. The feeling of unfamiliarity was related to a smaller bimodal activation pattern mainly located in the right insula and likely related to the detection of novelty.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17289777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cereb Cortex. 2007 Nov;17(11):2725-32. Epub 2007 Feb 8.

Persistent responsiveness of long-latency auditory cortical activities in response to repeated stimuli of musical timbre and vowel sounds.

Kuriki S, Ohta K, Koyama S.

Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Long-latency auditory-evoked magnetic field and potential show strong attenuation of N1m/N1 responses when an identical stimulus is presented repeatedly due to adaptation of auditory cortical neurons. This adaptation is weak in subsequently  occurring P2m/P2 responses, being weaker for piano chords than single piano notes. The adaptation of P2m is more suppressed in musicians having long-term musical training than in nonmusicians, whereas the amplitude of P2 is enhanced preferentially in musicians as the spectral complexity of musical tones increases. To address the key issues of whether such high responsiveness of P2m/P2 responses to complex sounds is intrinsic and common to nonmusical sounds,  we conducted a magnetoencephalographic study on participants who had no experience of musical training, using consecutive trains of piano and vowel sounds. The dipole moment of the P2m sources located in the auditory cortex indicated significantly suppressed adaptation in the right hemisphere both to piano and vowel sounds. Thus, the persistent responsiveness of the P2m activity may be inherent, not induced by intensive training, and common to spectrally complex sounds. The right hemisphere dominance of the responsiveness to musical and speech sounds suggests analysis of acoustic features of object sounds to be a significant function of P2m activity.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17289776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Chest. 2007 Nov;132(5):1506-12. Epub 2007 Sep 21.

Distractive auditory stimuli reduce the unpleasantness of dyspnea during exercise in patients with COPD.

von Leupoldt A, Taube K, Schubert-Heukeshoven S, Magnussen H, Dahme B.

Department of Psychology, University of Hamburg, Von-Melle-Park 5, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is the primary symptom limiting exercise in patients with COPD. Recent research has demonstrated that psychological factors can substantially influence the perception of dyspnea, but little is known about the  modulation of perceived intensity or unpleasantness of dyspnea by attentional distraction. Therefore, we examined the impact of distractive auditory stimuli on the perception of exercise-induced dyspnea and the affective state in patients with COPD during 6-min walking tests (6MWTs). METHODS: Twenty patients with mild-to-severe COPD (mean FEV1, 55.9% predicted) underwent two 6MWTs. Under one exercise condition, distractive auditory stimuli were presented with headphones,  while the other condition was performed without auditory distraction. Lung function (FEV1), heart rate (HR), pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2), perceived intensity of dyspnea (ie, visual analog scale for perceived intensity of dyspnea  [VAS-I]), and perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea (visual analog scale for perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea [VAS-U]) were measured before and after exercise. In addition, the global level of dyspnea (Borg score), positive affectivity (PA), and negative affectivity were assessed after both conditions. RESULTS: A similar exercise level during both conditions was confirmed by comparable results in FEV1, HR, SpO2, and distances walked. During auditory distraction, Borg scores and increases in VAS-U were smaller, while PA was higher compared to the nondistraction condition (p<0.05). VAS-I did not show differences across conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Distractive auditory stimuli decrease the global  level of exercise-induced dyspnea in patients with COPD by reducing the perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea and lead to an additional increase in PA. Auditory distraction might therefore serve as an intervention for the reduction of dyspnea during exercise in this patient group.

PMID: 17890458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;13(4):217-23. Epub 2007 Apr 10.

Creation of a healing enhancement program at an academic medical center.

Cutshall SM, Fenske LL, Kelly RF, Phillips BR, Sundt TM, Bauer BA.

Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

There has been a growing emphasis on evaluating and improving the experience of the hospitalized patient. In 2004, the Cardiovascular Surgery team at Mayo Clinic Rochester, though achieving a high level of technical expertise and clinical outcomes, recognized that patients were not rating their overall hospital experience as highly as was expected. After a systematic evaluation of the hospital experience, tension, stress, pain, and anxiety were identified as key challenges for patients. A multidisciplinary team was created to evaluate pain management practices and explore methods for reducing pain, anxiety, and tension. An extensive review of the literature and site visits to other institutions provided the foundation for the program. The term "Healing Enhancement" was coined to identify the goals of this emerging paradigm that focused on all aspects of the patient's experience-mind, body, and spirit. Integrated therapies  such as music, massage, guided imagery, and relaxation training were explored to  measure their role in patient care.

PMID: 17950176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007 Nov;7(6):498-507.

Update on epilepsy and cerebral localization.

Hartman AL, Lesser RP.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 2-147, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

The field of epilepsy has contributed significantly to localization of neurologic function, particularly in the neocortex. Methodologies such as cortical stimulation, positron emission tomography, functional MRI, trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, surgical resection, and magnetoencephalography have been used successfully in patients with epilepsy to locate specific functions, primarily for the purpose of defining eloquent cortex before surgical resections. The left  hemisphere serves language-related functions and verbal memory in most people, whereas the right hemisphere serves some language function in addition to perceiving most components of music and other forms of nonverbal material. Both hemispheres cooperate in understanding spatial relationships. Studies in patients with developmental abnormalities have enriched our understanding of localization  of function within the cortex. Future studies may help us understand the sequence in which specific regions are activated during specific tasks and determine which regions are necessary for tasks and which are supplementary. The ability to predict preoperatively the effect of removal of specific tissues would benefit surgical planning for all patients who undergo cortical resections, including those with epilepsy.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17999896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Dev Sci. 2007 Nov;10(6):786-93.

Evidence for reduced domain-specificity in auditory processing in autism.

Järvinen-Pasley A, Heaton P.

Goldsmiths College, University of London, UK.

Neurological and behavioral findings indicate that atypical auditory processing characterizes autism. The present study tested the hypothesis that auditory processing is less domain-specific in autism than in typical development. Participants with autism and controls completed a pitch sequence discrimination task in which same/different judgments of music and/or speech stimulus pairs were made. A signal detection analysis showed no difference in pitch sensitivity across conditions in the autism group, while controls exhibited significantly poorer performance in conditions incorporating speech. The results are largely consistent with perceptual theories of autism, which propose that a processing bias towards featural/low-level information characterizes the disorder, as well as supporting the notion that such individuals exhibit selective attention to a limited number of simultaneously presented cues.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17973796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Emotion. 2007 Nov;7(4):774-88.

Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

Grewe O, Nagel F, Kopiez R, Altenmüller E.

Institute of Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine, Hannover University of Music and Drama, Germany.

Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop  music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and  physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18039047 [PubMed - in process]


Eur J Neurol. 2007 Nov;14(11):e7-8.

Abdominal pain associated with musical hallucinations: a case report.

Gentile S, Ferrero M, Giudice RL, Rainero I, Pinessi L.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Letter

PMID: 17956440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Nov;26(9):2613-26. Epub 2007 Oct 23.

Neural representation of spectral and temporal features of song in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches as revealed by functional MRI.

Boumans T, Theunissen FE, Poirier C, Van Der Linden A.

Bio-Imaging Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Song perception in songbirds, just as music and speech perception in humans, requires processing the spectral and temporal structure found in the succession of song-syllables. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and synthetic songs that preserved exclusively either the temporal or the spectral structure of natural song, we investigated how vocalizations are processed in the avian forebrain. We found bilateral and equal activation of the primary auditory region, field L. The more ventral regions of field L showed depressed responses to the synthetic songs that lacked spectral structure. These ventral regions included subarea L3, medial-ventral subarea L and potentially the secondary auditory region caudal medial nidopallium. In addition, field L as a whole showed unexpected increased responses to the temporally filtered songs and this increase was the largest in the dorsal regions. These dorsal regions included L1 and the dorsal subareas L and L2b. Therefore, the ventral region of field L appears to be more sensitive to the preservation of both spectral and temporal information in the context of song processing. We did not find any differences in responses to playback of the bird's own song vs other familiar conspecific songs. We also investigated the effect of three commonly used anaesthetics on the blood oxygen level-dependent response: medetomidine, urethane and isoflurane. The extent of the area activated and the stimulus selectivity depended on the type of anaesthetic. We discuss these results in the context of what is known about the locus of action of the anaesthetics, and reports of neural activity measured in electrophysiological experiments.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17970728 [PubMed - in process]


Explore (NY). 2007 Nov-Dec;3(6):619-22.

Building the ship of death: part I.

Murfin S, Haberman M.

School of Music-Thanatology, Mt Angel, Oregon, USA.

This is the first in a series of two consecutive articles, both of which present  the results of original research from a team of music-thanatology musician-clinicians working in Spokane, Washington. This article presents not only an overview of the music-thanatology narration style (through direct excerpts from clinical narratives), it also describes the interconnected physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of 11 dying persons and their families as they occur in a hospital setting. Core to narrative medicine practice, in the  first article, we welcome these excerpts from patient, provider, and caregiver experiences to stand on their own, in their own voice, without interpretation. The second article will be published in the following issue and will focus on the clinical practice of music-thanatology, as well as the documentation of the palliation it offers to meet the complex physical, emotional, and spiritual needs described below.

PMID: 18005916 [PubMed - in process]


Hawaii Med J. 2007 Nov;66(11):292-5.

Music and cancer pain management.

Igawa-Silva W, Wu S, Harrigan R.

Stanford University, USA.

PROBLEM: When coupled with the often debilitating side-effects of pharmacological interventions, chronic cancer pain may elicit feelings of anxiety and depression  and therefore adversely affect patient well-being and quality of life. PURPOSE: This review article is a systematic assessment of the published literature related to music and cancer pain management. METHOD: A comprehensive systematic evaluation of the data based literature was undertaken and analyzed using matrix  analysis. RESULTS: As an adjunctive form of pain management, music therapy has been shown to address some of these hardships by providing patients with an alternative effective means by which to reduce their subjective experiences of pain. Studies investigating the efficacy of music therapy during invasive cancer  procedures and chemotherapy demonstrated the role that attention states play in distracting patients from, and therefore minimizing their experience of, the pain associated with such treatments. Other studies examining diverse outpatient populations revealed similar findings, illustrating well the cognitive-affective  dimensions of pain perception. Although these findings fail to adequately address the ambiguity surrounding music therapy's role in cancer pain management, music therapy has nonetheless been shown to significantly reduce anxiety and, in so doing, indirectly lessen the intensity of pain while improving patient quality of life.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 18065118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Hear Res. 2007 Nov;233(1-2):108-16. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

Temporal integration in absolute identification of musical pitch.

Hsieh IH, Saberi K.

Department of Cognitive Sciences, The Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5100, United States.

The effect of stimulus duration on absolute identification of musical pitch was measured in a single-interval 12-alternative forced-choice task. Stimuli consisted of pure tones selected randomly on each trial from a set of 60 logarithmically spaced musical note frequencies from 65.4 to 1975.5Hz (C2-B6). Stimulus durations were 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 1000ms. Six absolute-pitch musicians identified the pitch of pure tones without feedback, reference sounds,  or practice trials. Results showed that a 5ms stimulus is sufficient for producing statistically significant above chance performance. Performance monotonically increased up to the longest duration tested (1000ms). Higher octave stimuli produced better performance, though the rate of improvement declined with increasing octave number. Normalization by the number of waveform cycles showed that 4cycles are sufficient for absolute-pitch identification. Restricting stimuli to a fixed-cycle waveform instead of a fixed-duration still produced monotonic improvements in performance as a function of stimulus octave, demonstrating that better performance at higher frequencies does not exclusively  result from a larger number of waveform cycles. Several trends in the data were well predicted by an autocorrelation model of pitch extraction, though the model  outperformed observed performance at short durations suggesting an inability to make optimal use of available periodicity information in very brief tones.

Publication Types:      Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17919863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Heart Lung. 2007 Nov-Dec;36(6):431-9.

Effects of music on patients undergoing a C-clamp procedure after percutaneous coronary interventions: a randomized controlled trial.

Chan MF.

Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to assess the effect of music on the physiologic and psychologic parameters in patients undergoing application of a C-clamp after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). DESIGN: A repeated-measures randomized controlled trial was used. SETTING: The study took place in three intensive care units in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: Sixty-six patients undergoing application of a C-clamp after PCI were recruited. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physiologic parameters were blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Psychologic parameters were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles universal pain score. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive 45 minutes of music therapy or 45 minutes of an uninterrupted rest period. Three types of music were used, including Chinese classical music, religious music, and Western classical music that had slow beats and was relaxing. The data were collected from September 2004 to December 2005. RESULTS: In the experimental group there were statistically significant reductions in heart rate (P < .001), respiratory rate (P < .001), and oxygen saturation (P < .001), and a lower pain score (P < .001) than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Music is a simple, safe, and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiologic and psychologic responses arising from pain in patients post-PCI undergoing a C-clamp procedure.

PMID: 18005804 [PubMed - in process]


Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 Nov;28(11):1150-62.

A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music.

Mitterschiffthaler MT, Fu CH, Dalton JA, Andrew CM, Williams SC.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, London, United Kingdom.

The present study investigated the functional neuroanatomy of transient mood changes in response to Western classical music. In a pilot experiment, 53 healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.0; SD = 9.6) evaluated their emotional responses to 60 classical musical pieces using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (sad) through 50 (neutral) to 100 (happy). Twenty pieces were found to accurately induce the intended emotional states with good reliability, consisting of 5 happy, 5 sad, and 10 emotionally unevocative, neutral musical pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast was measured in response to the mood state induced by each musical stimulus in a separate group of 16 healthy participants (mean age: 29.5; SD = 5.5). Mood state ratings during scanning were  made by a VAS, which confirmed the emotional valence of the selected stimuli. Increased BOLD signal contrast during presentation of happy music was found in the ventral and dorsal striatum, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and auditory association areas. With sad music, increased BOLD signal responses were  noted in the hippocampus/amygdala and auditory association areas. Presentation of neutral music was associated with increased BOLD signal responses in the insula and auditory association areas. Our findings suggest that an emotion processing network in response to music integrates the ventral and dorsal striatum, areas involved in reward experience and movement; the anterior cingulate, which is important for targeting attention; and medial temporal areas, traditionally found in the appraisal and processing of emotions. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 17290372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


IEEE Comput Graph Appl. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):4-5.

Visual symphonies: setting intricate images to music.

Titsworth F.

PMID: 18027791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Law Psychiatry. 2007 Nov-Dec;30(6):530-8. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

Jazz and substance abuse: road to creative genius or pathway to premature death.

Tolson GH, Cuyjet MJ.

Jamey Aebersold Jazz Studies Program, School of Music, University of Louisville,  Louisville, KY 40292, United States.

Jazz music and jazz musicians have often been linked for better or worse to the world of addictive substances. Many talented jazz musicians either had their careers sidetracked or prematurely ended due to their addiction to drugs and/or alcohol. The rigors of nightly performances, travel, and for many musicians a disapproving society exacted a toll that impacted the creativity of many artists  of the genre. The fact that drug and alcohol use had a significant impact on the  performance levels of numerous jazz musicians in the 1940's and 1950's has been much discussed, but more study of that impact is warranted. While recent research has provided new information regarding this challenging topic, there is still much to learn. Indeed, a number of questions for inquiry may be posed. Among those questions are the following: Was the work of these jazz artists truly inspired? Would their creative output have been enhanced had they not been addicted to substances? What was the impact of the addictive substances on their  ability to function as creative artists and is there evidence to refute or verify that impact? Are there identifiable traits in certain artists that allowed them to be creative in spite of their addictions? This examination presents an evaluation of the evidence of the link between creativity and substance abuse especially as it relates to selected jazz artists during this time period and how they remained creative and actually prospered in their careers in spite of addictions to controlled substances.

PMID: 17964650 [PubMed - in process]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Nov;122(5):2872-80.

Perception of music performance on historical and modern commercial recordings.

Timmers R.

Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music, Department of Music, King's College London, Strand, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom.

Performing styles as well as recording styles have changed considerably within the 20th century. To what extent do the age of a recording, the unfamiliarity with performing style, and the quality of a reproduction of a recording systematically influence how we perceive performances on record? Four exploratory experiments were run to formulate an answer to this question. Each experiment examined a different aspect of the perception of performance, including judgments of quality, perceived emotion, and dynamics. Fragments from Die junge Nonne sung  by famous singers from the start, middle, and second half of the 20th century were presented in a noisy and clean version to musically trained participants. The results show independence of perception of emotional activity from recording  date, strong dependence of perceived quality and emotional impact on recording date, and only limited effects of reproduction quality. Standards have clearly changed, which influence judgments of quality and age. Additionally, changes restrict the communication between early recorded performers and modern listeners to some extent as shown by systematically smaller variations in communicated dynamics and emotional valence for older recordings.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18189577 [PubMed - in process]


J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;78(11):1171-5.

Mozart's movements and behaviour: a case of Tourette's syndrome?

Ashoori A, Jankovic J.

Parkinson Disease Center, and Movement Disorders Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 6550 Fannin, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

In this review, we intend to explore the often asked question: "Did Mozart have Tourette's syndrome?" Although there are numerous reports attributing Mozart's peculiar personality and behaviour to a spectrum of neurobehavioural disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection, the evidence for any of these disorders is lacking. Whether Mozart's behaviour was nothing more than a reflection of his unique personality or a more complex neurological disorder, aggravated later in life by enormous demands by his father and society, his behaviour has been the subject of many biographies. It will also remain unknown to what extent his accomplishments and failures were shaped by his childhood experiences, pressured lifestyle, and his innate genius and extraordinary talent. Lessons from his life may have important implications for other gifted individuals and savants whose special attributes may lead them to succeed or, on the other hand, suppress their emotional growth and make them more vulnerable to stress and failure.

Publication Types:      Biography     Historical Article

Personal Name as Subject:      Mozart WA

PMID: 17940168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 Nov-Dec;11(6):484-8.

Silent and invisible; nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

Simard J.

The Namaste Care Program is designed to provide meaningful activities through therapeutic touch, music and life review to nursing home residents with advanced  dementia. This program has improved resident care, staff and family satisfaction  while increasing census. Namaste Care is easy to initiate and does not require additional staff or expensive supplies. The experience of one long-term care company EPOCH Senior Living of Waltham Massachusetts USA which offers Namaste Care in their skilled nursing facilities is explained. Management has concluded that program has been an important addition to the services they provide for residents and their families from both a business prospective and a quality of care standpoint.

PMID: 17985064 [PubMed - in process]


J Voice. 2007 Nov 1 [Epub ahead of print]

Bio-Inspired Evolutionary Oral Tract Shape Modeling for Physical Modeling Vocal Synthesis.

Howard DM, Tyrrell AM, Murphy DT, Cooper C, Mullen J.

Intelligent Systems Research Group, Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.

SUMMARY: Physical modeling using digital waveguide mesh (DWM) models is an audio  synthesis method that has been shown to produce an acoustic output in music synthesis applications that is often described as being "organic," "warm," or "intimate." This paper describes work that takes its inspiration from physical modeling music synthesis and applies it to speech synthesis through a physical modeling mesh model of the human oral tract. Oral tract shapes are found using a  computational technique based on the principles of biological evolution. Essential to successful speech synthesis using this method is accurate measurements of the cross-sectional area of the human oral tract, and these are usually derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, such images are nonideal, because of the lengthy exposure time (relative to the time of articulation of speech sounds) required, the local ambient acoustic noise associated with the MRI machine itself and the required supine position for the subject. An alternative method is described where a bio-inspired computing technique that simulates the process of evolution is used to evolve oral tract shapes. This technique is able to produce appropriate oral tract shapes for open  vowels using acoustic and excitation data from two adult males and two adult females, but shapes for close vowels that are less appropriate. This technique has none of the drawbacks associated with MRI, because all it requires from the subject is an acoustic and electrolaryngograph (or electroglottograph) recording. Appropriate oral tract shapes do enable the model to produce excellent quality synthetic speech for vowel sounds, and sounds that involve dynamic oral tract shape changes, such as diphthongs, can also be synthesized using an impedance mapped technique. Efforts to improve performance by reducing mesh quantization for close vowels had little effect, and further work is required.

PMID: 17981014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Voice. 2007 Nov;21(6):689-98. Epub 2006 Jul 25.

Pedagogical efficiency of melodic contour mapping technology as it relates to vocal timbre in singers of classical music repertoire.

Barnes-Burroughs K, Anderson EE, Hughes T, Lan WY, Dent K, Arnold S, Dolter G, McNeil K.

Texas Tech University School of Music, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the pedagogical viability of computer-generated melodic contour mapping systems in the classical singing studio, as perceived by their resulting effect (if any) on vocal timbre when a singer's head and neck remained in a normal singing posture. The evaluation of data gathered during the course of the study indicates that the development of consistent vocal timbre produced by the classical singing student may be enhanced through visual/kinesthetic response to melodic contour inversion mapping, as it balances the singer's perception of melodic intervals in standard musical notation. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that the system, in its natural melodic contour mode, may also be useful for teaching a student to sing a consistent legato line. The results of the study also suggest that the continued development of this new technology for the general teaching studio, designed to address standard musical notation and a singer's visual/kinesthetic response to it, may indeed be useful.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16872804 [PubMed - in process]


Memory. 2007 Nov;15(8):845-60.

Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

Janata P, Tomic ST, Rakowski SK.

Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis 95618, USA.

Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach  for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and  specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17965981 [PubMed - in process]


Neuroimage. 2007 Nov 1;38(2):331-45. Epub 2007 Aug 8.

Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

Miranda RA, Ullman MT.

Brain and Language Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between  the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music  were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations  of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17855126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nurse Educ Pract. 2007 Nov;7(6):416-24. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Teaching spirituality to student midwives: a creative approach.

Mitchell M, Hall J.

School of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of the West of England, Glenside Campus, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD, United Kingdom.

The nature of midwifery both as an art and a science requires methods of teaching students that will enhance this understanding. A philosophy of holistic care of women should underpin education of student midwives and these concepts should be  put across to the students in meaningful ways. In the formal midwifery curriculum this has been a neglected aspect (Hall, 2001) [Hall, J., 2001. Midwifery Mind and spirit: emerging issues of care. Books for Midwives, Oxford]. We have developed a teaching session on 'Spirituality and the meaning of birth'. A creative approach, using mediums of video, music, aroma and storytelling, combined with an opportunity for the students to express their selves through art have been utilised (Cameron, 1993) [Cameron, J., 1993. The Artists Way--A course in discovering and recovering your creative self. Pan Macmillan, London]. Although creative approaches in teaching arts based disciplines is well established, these approaches have not been evaluated for their effectiveness within midwifery education. We conducted a study which aimed to develop an understanding of student's views on the meaning of birth by examining creative work produced by the student midwives. This aspect is reported elsewhere. Further exploration through open-ended questionnaires was made of the effectiveness and value of the  activity as a teaching method. This paper will describe the innovative teaching methods used. In addition student's views of birth established through their art  and their views of the teaching session elicited through our research will be explored.

PMID: 17936548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Psychophys. 2007 Nov;69(8):1450-9.

Influence of a tone's tonal function on temporal change detection.

Lebrun-Guillaud G, Tillmann B.

CNRS-UMR 5020, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France.

Music cognition research has provided evidence that the tonal function of a musical event influences perception and memory. Our study investigated whether tonal function influences a basic temporal judgment, notably the detection of a temporal change disrupting a sequence's regularity. The sequences consisted of six musical events presented in isochrony (or with the fifth event occurring earlier or later): Three chords (instilling a tonal context) were followed by a tone (repeated three times). The tones fulfilled one of two tonal functions in the tonal context. Participants had to detect whether the sequence contained a temporal change and were not informed about tonal manipulations. Discrimination performance (as measured by d') showed an influence of tonal function on temporal change detection: Performance was better for the tonic tone (having the most important tonal function in the key) than for the unstable leading tone, the less stable mediant tone, and even than the stable dominant tone. The outcome shows the influence of listeners' tonal knowledge on a perceptual time judgment and suggests that processing of tonal and temporal structures interact at some stage  of processing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18078234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychol Res. 2007 Nov;71(6):618-25. Epub 2006 Apr 26.

History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

Allik J.

Department of Psychology, The Estonian Centre of Behavioural and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Tiigi 78, Tartu, 50410, Estonia.

A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University  of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

PMID: 16639614 [PubMed - in process]


Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2007 Nov;47(11):868-70.

[Music therapy and neuropsychology: a proposal to music therapy based on the cognitive processing of music]

[Article in Japanese]

Satoh M, Takeda K, Kuzuhara S.

Mie St. Cross Hospital.

In the last decade, a considerable number of studies have been made on the cognitive processing of music. A patient with pure amusia due to the infarction of anterior portion of bilateral temporal lobes revealed the disturbance of the discrimination of chords. Using positron emission tomography, these regions were  activated when musically naive normal subjects listened to the harmony compared to the rhythm of identical music. So, we concluded that anterior temporal portion might participate in the recognition of chords. Several articles reported that the musician's brain was different from nonmusicians' functionally and anatomically. This difference was considered to be caused by the musical training for a long time. Recent studies clarified that the reorganization might occur by  musical training for a few months. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method aimed to improve speech output of aphasic patients, using short melodic phrase with a word. The literatures of mental processing of music suggested that right hemisphere might participate in the expression of music, namely singing and playing instrumentals. So, it was supposed that MIT utilized the compensational function of right hemisphere for damaged left hemisphere. We also reported that mental singing improved the gait disturbance of patients with Parkinson's disease. Music therapy is changing from a social science model based on the individual experiences to a neuroscience-guided model based on brain function and cognitive processing of the perception and expression of music.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 18210821 [PubMed - in process]


Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Nov;11(11):466-72. Epub 2007 Nov 5.

Music acquisition: effects of enculturation and formal training on development.

Hannon EE, Trainor LJ.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway,  Las Vegas, NV 89154-5030, USA.

Musical structure is complex, consisting of a small set of elements that combine  to form hierarchical levels of pitch and temporal structure according to grammatical rules. As with language, different systems use different elements and rules for combination. Drawing on recent findings, we propose that music acquisition begins with basic features, such as peripheral frequency-coding mechanisms and multisensory timing connections, and proceeds through enculturation, whereby everyday exposure to a particular music system creates, in a systematic order of acquisition, culture-specific brain structures and representations. Finally, we propose that formal musical training invokes domain-specific processes that affect salience of musical input and the amount of cortical tissue devoted to its processing, as well as domain-general processes of attention and executive functioning.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17981074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


PLoS ONE. 2007 Oct 31;2(10):e1094.

A Blueprint for Real-Time Functional Mapping via Human Intracranial Recordings.

Lachaux JP, Jerbi K, Bertrand O, Minotti L, Hoffmann D, Schoendorff B, Kahane P.

INSERM, U821, Lyon, F-69500, France.

BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of patients with intractable epilepsy is preceded by a pre-surgical evaluation period during which intracranial EEG recordings are performed to identify the epileptogenic network and provide a functional map of eloquent cerebral areas that need to be spared to minimize the  risk of post-operative deficits. A growing body of research based on such invasive recordings indicates that cortical oscillations at various frequencies,  especially in the gamma range (40 to 150 Hz), can provide efficient markers of task-related neural network activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel real-time investigation framework for mapping human brain functions based on online visualization of the spectral power of the ongoing intracranial activity. The results obtained with the first two implanted epilepsy patients who used the proposed online system illustrate its feasibility and utility both for clinical applications, as a complementary tool to electrical stimulation for presurgical mapping purposes, and for basic research, as an exploratory tool used to detect correlations between behavior and oscillatory power modulations. Furthermore, our findings suggest a putative role for high gamma oscillations in  higher-order auditory processing involved in speech and music perception. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed real-time setup is a promising tool for presurgical mapping, the investigation of functional brain dynamics, and possibly for neurofeedback training and brain computer interfaces.

PMID: 17971857 [PubMed - in process]


Neuroreport. 2007 Oct 29;18(16):1651-5.

Neural correlates underlying perception of tonality-related emotional contents.

Mizuno T, Sugishita M.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, International  University of Health and Welfare Mita Hospital, Mita, Tokyo, Japan.

Using an event-related functional MRI technique, we examined the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of normal participants to auditory stimuli that consisted of four triads to explore the neural correlates for judging mode-related emotional contents in tonal music. Three categories of stimuli, MAJOR, MINOR and NEUTRAL were prepared. MAJOR and MINOR stimuli suggest C major and c minor, respectively. NEUTRAL stimuli were controls. The task was to judge the categories. Contrasts MAJOR-NEUTRAL and MINOR-NEUTRAL showed significant activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, medial thalamus, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. It is suggested that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and medial thalamus are involved in judging the mode, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was related to conflicts in the participant's mind.

PMID: 17921862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Crit Care Med. 2007 Oct 23 [Epub ahead of print]

Overture for growth hormone: Requiem for interleukin-6?

Conrad C, Niess H, Jauch KW, Bruns CJ, Hartl WH, Welker L.

From the Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (CC);  Department of Surgery, University of Munich-Grosshadern, Munich, Germany (HN, KWJ, CJB, WHH); and the Department of Fine Arts, Institute of Music Science, University of Munich, Munich, Germany (LW).

BACKGROUND:: Music has been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of  cultural history. However, despite numerous descriptions of beneficial effects, the precise mechanisms by which music may improve human well-being remain unclear. METHODS:: We conducted a randomized study in ten critically ill patients to identify mechanisms of music-induced relaxation using a special selection of slow movements of Mozart's piano sonatas. These sonatas were analyzed for compositional elements of relaxation. We measured circulatory variables, brain electrical activity, serum levels of stress hormones and cytokines, requirements  for sedative drugs, and level of sedation before and at the end of a 1-hr therapeutic session. RESULTS:: Compared with controls, we found that music application significantly reduced the amount of sedative drugs needed to achieve  a comparable degree of sedation. Simultaneously, among those receiving the music  intervention, plasma concentrations of growth hormone increased, whereas those of interleukin-6 and epinephrine decreased. The reduction in systemic stress hormone levels was associated with a significantly lower blood pressure and heart rate. CONCLUSION:: Based on the effects of slow movements of Mozart's piano sonatas, we propose a neurohumoral pathway by which music might exert its sedative action. This model includes an interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with the adrenal medulla via mediators of the unspecific immune system.

PMID: 18090379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Curr Biol. 2007 Oct 23;17(20):R892-3.

Comment on:     Nat Neurosci. 2007 Jul;10(7):915-21.

Music perception: sounds lost in space.

Stewart L, Walsh V.

Department of Psychology, Whitehead Building, Goldsmiths, University of London, New Cross, London, UK.

A recent study of spatial processing in amusia makes a controversial claim that such musical deficits may be understood in terms of a problem in the representation of space. If such a link is demonstrated to be causal, it would challenge the prevailing view that deficits in amusia are specific to the musical or even the auditory domain.

Publication Types:      Comment     Review

PMID: 17956751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct 23;5(11):e288.

An information theoretic characterisation of auditory encoding.

Overath T, Cusack R, Kumar S, von Kriegstein K, Warren JD, Grube M, Carlyon RP, Griffiths TD.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal:  we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the  planum temporale (PT). In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated  this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17958472 [PubMed - in process]



Lakartidningen. 2007 Oct 10-16;104(41):2978-9.

[High sound volumes at concerts can cause life-long hearing injuries. The music industry does not take its responsibility]

[Article in Swedish]

Arlinger S, Uhlén I, Hagerman B, Kähäri K, Rosenhall U, Spens KE, Holgers KM.

Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.

PMID: 17977310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroreport. 2007 Oct 8;18(15):1521-5.

Neural correlates of the Pythagorean ratio rules.

Foss AH, Altschuler EL, James KH.

Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA.

Millennia ago Pythagoras noted a simple but remarkably powerful rule for the aesthetics of tone combinations: pairs of tones--intervals--with simple ratios such as an octave (ratio 2 : 1) or a fifth (ratio 3 : 2) were pleasant sounding (consonant), whereas intervals with complex ratios such as the major seventh (ratio 243 : 128) were harsh (dissonant). These Pythagorean ratio rules are the building blocks of Western classical music; however, their neurophysiologic basis is not known. Using functional MRI we have found the neurophysiologic correlates  of the ratio rules. In musicians, the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and anterior cingulate respond with progressively more activation to perfect consonances, imperfect consonances and dissonances. In nonmusicians only the right inferior frontal gyrus follows this pattern.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17885594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 2007 Oct 7;:1 [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.

Halpern AR, Müllensiefen D.

Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA.

We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard  tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

PMID: 17922363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 2;104(40):15894-8. Epub 2007 Sep 26.

Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music.

Musacchia G, Sams M, Skoe E, Kraus N.

Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Communication Sciences, Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL  60208, USA.

Musical training is known to modify cortical organization. Here, we show that such modifications extend to subcortical sensory structures and generalize to processing of speech. Musicians had earlier and larger brainstem responses than nonmusician controls to both speech and music stimuli presented in auditory and audiovisual conditions, evident as early as 10 ms after acoustic onset. Phase-locking to stimulus periodicity, which likely underlies perception of pitch, was enhanced in musicians and strongly correlated with length of musical practice. In addition, viewing videos of speech (lip-reading) and music (instrument being played) enhanced temporal and frequency encoding in the auditory brainstem, particularly in musicians. These findings demonstrate practice-related changes in the early sensory encoding of auditory and audiovisual information.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17898180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007 Oct;19(5):394-399.

Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults? The Vivaldi effect.

Mammarella N, Fairfield B, Cornoldi C.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti “G.D’Annunzio” and Universitŕ Telematica, “L. Da Vinci”, Chieti, Italy.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controversial evidence suggests that music can enhance cognitive performance. In the present study, we examined whether listening to an  excerpt of Vivaldi's "Four Seasons" had a positive effect on older adults' cognitive performance in two working memory tasks. METHODS: With a repeated-measures design, older adults were presented with the forward version of the digit span and phonemic fluency in classical music, white-noise and no-music  conditions. RESULTS: Classical music significantly increased working memory performance compared with the no-music condition. In addition, this effect did not occur with white noise. CONCLUSION: The authors discuss this finding in terms of the arousal-andmood hypothesis and the role of working memory resources in aging.

PMID: 18007118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Am J Psychol. 2007 Fall;120(3):361-81.

Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics.

Batcho KI.

Department of Psychology, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY 13214, USA.

Emotion and topic were manipulated in original song lyrics. Participants completed Batcho's and Holbrook's nostalgia surveys and rated 6 sets of lyrics for happiness, sadness, anger, nostalgia, meaning, liking, and relevance. Nostalgic lyrics were characterized by bittersweet reverie, loss of the past, identity, and meaning. Contrary to theories linking nostalgia to pathology, participants who scored high on Batcho's measure of personal nostalgia preferred  happy lyrics, found them more meaningful, and related more closely to them. Consistent with theories relating nostalgia to social connectedness, high-nostalgia respondents preferred other-directed to solitary themes. Historical nostalgia was associated with relating more closely to sad lyrics.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17892084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007 Oct;116(10):739-46.

Comparison of fundamental frequency nasalance between trained singers and nonsingers for sung vowels.

Fowler LP, Morris RJ.

Department of Communication Disorders, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vocal training on fundamental frequency nasalance measures under selected vowel and frequency conditions. METHODS: Fundamental frequency nasalance measures were reported for 2 groups of women: 36 trained singers and 36 nonsingers. Each group  sang and sustained the vowels (/i/, /ae/, /u/, /a/) for 6 seconds' duration at 3  frequency levels. A 3-second segment from the middle of each vowel was measured to generate fundamental frequency nasalance scores. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the mean fundamental frequency nasalance scores between the trained singers and the nonsingers. The fundamental frequency nasalance scores were significantly higher for front vowels for both groups. Additionally,  both groups displayed a pattern of producing significantly higher fundamental frequency nasalance scores at lower fundamental frequencies than at higher fundamental frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the practice of training singers to elevate the velum when singing at high frequencies but not when singing at low ones.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17987779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Clin Otolaryngol. 2007 Oct;32(5):419-20.

Songs from childhood in the head.

Gilhuis HJ, Dara Hama-Amin A, Renier W.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Letter

PMID: 17883589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Hum Mov Sci. 2007 Oct;26(5):769-85. Epub 2007 Oct 1.

Walking on music.

Styns F, van Noorden L, Moelants D, Leman M.

IPEM - Department of Musicology, Ghent University, Blandijnberg 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The present study focuses on the intricate relationship between human body movement and music, in particular on how music may influence the way humans walk. In an experiment, participants were asked to synchronize their walking tempo with the tempo of musical and metronome stimuli. The walking tempo and walking speed were measured. The tempi of the stimuli varied between 50 and 190 beats per minute. The data revealed that people walk faster on music than on metronome stimuli and that walking on music can be modeled as a resonance phenomenon that is related to the perceptual resonance phenomenon as described by Van Noorden and Moelants (Van Noorden, L., & Moelants, D. (1999). Resonance in the perception of  musical pulse. Journal of New Music Research, 28, 43-66).

PMID: 17910985 [PubMed - in process]


Hum Mov Sci. 2007 Oct;26(5):717-27. Epub 2007 Sep 12.

The category of 1:1 ratio caused by assimilation of two neighboring empty time intervals.

Miyauchi R, Nakajima Y.

Faculty of Acoustic Design, Kyushu University, 4-9-1 Shiobaru, Fukuoka 815-8540,  Japan.

We investigated the perception of temporal patterns of two neighboring empty time intervals, t1 and t2, in this order. In a previous study, we reported that bilateral assimilation took place during t1 and t2, as well as unilateral assimilation. [Miyauchi, R. & Nakajima, Y. (2005). Bilateral assimilation of two  neighboring empty time intervals. Music Perception, 22, 411-424]. The points of subjective equality (PSEs) of t1 and t2 approached each other. We speculated that these temporal patterns would yield nearly 1:1 ratios perceptually despite the change in the physical temporal ratio between t1 and t2. However, we were uncertain whether these temporal patterns were really perceived as having 1:1 ratios. In the present study, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured subjective similarities of two temporal patterns and analyzed the results by hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The temporal patterns, where the physical ratio between t1 and t2 was varied systematically, were divided into three clusters, and one cluster consisted of the temporal patterns within a range of -80 ms <or=t1 - t2 <or=60 ms. This cluster was asymmetric in time around 0 ms. In Experiments 2 and 3, we presented  each of the temporal patterns in isolation. We asked the participants whether the subjective durations of t1 and t2 were the same or not. When the total duration was equal to or less than 540 ms, the range in which the participants perceived the neighboring durations as equal corresponded to the asymmetric range established in our previous experiments. When the total duration was 720 ms, a different tendency appeared. The results indicated that bilateral assimilation and unilateral assimilation indeed contributed to the formation of the asymmetric 1:1 category when the total duration was equal to or shorter than 540 ms.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17845822 [PubMed - in process]


Hum Mov Sci. 2007 Oct;26(5):699-701. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Music, movement, sound and time; papers from the 10th rhythm perception and production workshop.

van Noorden L, Moelants D.

Ghent University, Belgium, Tel.: +32 9 264 3929; fax: +32 9 264 4143 (L. van Noorden).

Publication Types:      Editorial

PMID: 17804101 [PubMed - in process]


Hum Mov Sci. 2007 Oct;26(5):757-68. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

A new methodology providing evidence of two distinct processes in the production  of hand/foot simultaneous responses.

LaRue J.

Université d'Orléans, UFR STAPS, 2 Allée du Château, Boite Postale 6237, 45062 ORLEANS CEDEX 2, France.

To get simultaneous responses of the hand and the foot, it is mandatory to compensate for the longer peripheral motor conduction delay of the foot. According to the reactive-projective model [Paillard, J. (1948). Quelques données psychophysiologiques relatives au déclenchement de la commande motrice (Some psychophysiological data in relation to the releasing of the motor commands). Année Psychologique, 28-47; Paillard, J. (1990). Réactif et prédictif: deux modes de gestion du geste de la motricité. In V. Nougier, & J. Blanchi (Eds.), Pratiques sportives et modélisation du geste (Sport activity and gesture modeling) (pp. 13-56). Grenoble: Université Joseph-Fourier.] no compensation occurs in a reaction time situation; the hand responds before the foot, which indicates a single motor command released for both effectors. However, in a self-initiated condition, the foot tends to precede the hand suggesting that two  distinct motor commands are issued, with the foot command first. Fully self-initiated movements are not usual. It is more usual to prepare a response in anticipation of the time occurrence of a stimulus (e.g., a musician following a conductor, synchronized swimmers emerging together with the music). Therefore, we developed a methodology to test whether the model holds in an anticipation coincidence task. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to initiate a synchronized hand/foot response when the continuous visual stimulus (constant speed) reaches a target. The results fitted the model. In Experiment 2, anticipation coincidence tasks were performed in three conditions: using the foot (1) or the hand (2) alone, and using the hand and the foot simultaneously (3). Following a constant stimulus protocol, short tones were randomly produced, prior the stimulus, to indicate the participants to inhibit their response. As expected, the frequencies of correct inhibition in each preset period followed a  sigmoid curve. The command release is assumed to occur at the biserial point (50% of inhibition). The results confirmed that the motor command of the foot is released sooner than the command of the hand. The hand/foot delay is lower in the simultaneous condition, because the command of the hand is released 40 ms earlier; while the foot command is 10 ms earlier. These data confirm and extend the projective-reactive model to a new category of coordination behavior.

PMID: 17765987 [PubMed - in process]


J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Oct;13(8):807-15.

The combined effect of relaxation response and acupuncture on quality of life in  patients with HIV: a pilot study.

Chang BH, Boehmer U, Zhao Y, Sommers E.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Treatment advances have transformed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) into a chronic manageable disease; quality of life (QoL) has become an important health outcome. Some studies have shown the individual effects of acupuncture and the relaxation response (RR) in improving QoL of patients with HIV/AIDS. In light of the presumed shared features of acupuncture and the RR, we conducted a pilot study to examine the effects of adding the RR to usual acupuncture treatment on improving  the QoL of HIV/AIDS patients. DESIGN: Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled  trial. SETTINGS/LOCATION AND SUBJECTS: We enrolled 119 patients with HIV/AIDS (mean age 46 years, 85% male) who had at least 1 of the highly prevalent HIV-related symptoms and who were receiving acupuncture treatment in an acupuncture clinic in Boston, MA. INTERVENTION: We randomized patients into intervention (N = 58) and control (N = 61) groups. All participants received individualized acupuncture treatments prescribed by their acupuncturists. While receiving acupuncture treatment, the intervention group wore earphones to listen  to tapes with instructions to elicit the RR followed by soft music that was routinely played in the clinic; the control group listened only to soft music. OUTCOME MEASURES: Three (3) QoL scales: the Medical Outcomes Study HIV health survey, the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being, measured at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 12-week follow-ups. RESULTS: At the 12-week follow-up, the intervention group showed significant improvements in emotional (p = 0.0002), spiritual/peace (p = 0.02), physical (p = 0.003) and mental health (p = 0.0003) QoL from baseline. Results of mixed effects regression models indicated linear trends of improvement over time in these dimensions of QoL for the intervention group (p < 0.02). In the control group, the only significant improvement was observed in the emotional QoL (p < 0.01). The intervention group showed trends of greater improvements than the control group (p = 0.07 for 12-week physical health QoL). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this pilot trial suggested that adding the RR to acupuncture may enhance improvement in QoL of patients with HIV/AIDS. Further investigation on this putative synergistic effect is warranted.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17983336 [PubMed - in process]


J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Oct;28(5):399-403.

Interactive music as a treatment for pain and stress in children during venipuncture: a randomized prospective study.

Caprilli S, Anastasi F, Grotto RP, Abeti MS, Messeri A.

Pain Service and Palliative Care, Department of Oncoemathology, A. Meyer Children's Hospital, and Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: The experience of venipuncture is seen by children as one of the most  fearful experiences during hospitalization. Children experience anxiety both before and during the procedure. Therefore, any intervention aiming to prevent or reduce distress should focus on the entire experience of the procedure, including waiting, actual preparation, and conclusion. This study was designed to determine whether the presence of musicians, who had attended specific training to work in  medical settings, could reduce distress and pain in children undergoing blood tests. METHODS: Our sample population was composed of 108 unpremedicated children (4-13 years of age) undergoing blood tests. They were randomly assigned to a music group (n=54), in which the child underwent the procedure while interacting  with the musicians in the presence of a parent or to a control group (n=54), in which only the parent provided support to the child during the procedure. The distress experienced by the child before, during and after the blood test was assessed with the Amended Form of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress, and pain experience with FACES scale (Wong Baker Scale) only after the venipuncture. RESULTS: Our results show that distress and pain intensity was significantly lower (p<.001; p<.05) in the music group compared with the control  group before, during, and after blood sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This controlled study demonstrates that songs and music, performed by "professional" musicians, have a beneficial effect in reducing distress before, during, and after blood tests. This study shows, moreover, that the presence of musicians has a minor, but yet significant, effect on pain due to needle insertion.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 18049324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Oct;61(10):896-901.

Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

Bellis MA, Hennell T, Lushey C, Hughes K, Tocque K, Ashton JR.

Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Castle House, North Street, Liverpool, UK..

BACKGROUND: Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations.  OBJECTIVE: This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. DESIGN: We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any  album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. RESULTS: From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. CONCLUSION: Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

PMID: 17873227 [PubMed - in process]


J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2007 Oct;33(5):1189-207.

Spatial associations for musical stimuli: a piano in the head?

Lidji P, Kolinsky R, Lochy A, Morais J.

Research Unit in Cognitive Neurosciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

This study was aimed at examining whether pitch height and pitch change are mentally represented along spatial axes. A series of experiments explored, for isolated tones and 2-note intervals, the occurrence of effects analogous to the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Response device orientation (horizontal vs. vertical), task, and musical expertise of the participants were manipulated. The pitch of isolated tones triggered the automatic activation of a vertical axis independently of musical expertise, but the contour of melodic intervals did not. By contrast, automatic associations with the horizontal axis seemed linked to music training for pitch and, to a lower extent, for intervals. These results, discussed in the light of studies on  number representation, provide a new example of the effects of musical expertise  on music cognition. (c) 2007 APA

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17924817 [PubMed - in process]


J Music Ther. 2007 Fall;44(3):282-305.

Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands  during World War II.

Sullivan JM.

Arizona State University, Arizona, USA.

This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in  the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed  a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in  hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians  have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

PMID: 17645389 [PubMed - in process]


J Music Ther. 2007 Fall;44(3):242-55.

The effect of live music on decreasing anxiety in patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment.

Ferrer AJ.

The Florida State University, Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare, USA.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of familiar live music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Randomly selected patients were assigned to experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25) conditions. Pre and posttests consisted of questionnaires and the recording of the patient's heart rate and blood pressures. Subjects in the experimental group  received 20 minutes of familiar live music during their chemotherapy treatment. Subjects in the control group received standard chemotherapy. It was assumed that those patients receiving music intervention would: (a) lower their anxiety levels; (b) experience a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure; (c) improve their levels of negative reactions including fatigue, worry, and fear; and (d) improve their levels of positive reactions including comfort and relaxation. Results of the study showed statistically significant improvement for the experimental group on the measures of anxiety, fear, fatigue, relaxation, and diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences between groups were found for heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Descriptive values indicated that, on average, the experimental group was influenced positively by the music intervention, and participants improved their quality of life while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17645387 [PubMed - in process]


J Music Ther. 2007 Fall;44(3):217-41.

Exploring the effects of music therapy on pediatric pain: phase 1.

Whitehead-Pleaux AM, Zebrowski N, Baryza MJ, Sheridan RL.

Shrines Burns Hospital-Boston, USA.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of music therapy on pain and  anxiety in pediatric burn patients during nursing procedures. Nine subjects were  randomly selected to participate in this study. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected on the patients' pain, anxiety, heart rate, blood oxygenation, and  engagement level through measurement tools and interviews. The results from the qualitative and quantitative data indicated that music therapy reduced pain, anxiety, and behavioral distress. The quantitative data were analyzed and an inverse relationship between engagement in music therapy and lower behavioral distress scores was noted. Additionally, a linear relationship between engagement and behavioral distress was noted; significance was found but was moderated by the age of the child. However, no significant relationship was found between heart rate and behavioral distress. The results from the qualitative data from the interviews with the patients, parents, nurses and music therapist indicated that music therapy reduced pain and anxiety, and that engagement in music therapy enhanced relaxation. In addition, music therapy positively affected patients' mood, compliance, and the relaxation level. Finally, parents/guardians and nurses involved in the study reported that music therapy helped them to feel more relaxed as well.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17645386 [PubMed - in process]


J Music Ther. 2007 Fall;44(3):176-97.

Effects of music therapy on health-related outcomes in cardiac rehabilitation: a  randomized controlled trial.

Mandel SE, Hanser SB, Secic M, Davis BA.

Lake Hospital System, Inc., USA.

This study tested effectiveness of music therapy in improving health-related outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation patients. Using a randomized, controlled trial with follow-up, the study was conducted in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program in Ohio. Sixty-eight of 103 recruited patients, 30 to 80 years of age, completed the protocol through posttreatment. Physiological and psychological outcomes were measured. Cardiac rehabilitation patients were randomly assigned to cardiac rehabilitation only or to music therapy plus cardiac rehabilitation. Music therapy included musical experiences, counseling, and Music-Assisted Relaxation and Imagery. The null hypothesis of no differences in health-related outcomes between cardiac rehabilitation patients who experienced cardiac rehabilitation with and without music therapy was rejected due to changes in systolic blood pressure pre to post-treatment. Interpretation of changes at 4 months posttreatment in anxiety, general health, and social functioning are limited, due to small sample sizes at follow-up. Pre to post-music therapy session improvements were also reported. Findings suggest that some health-related outcomes may be affected positively by participation in music therapy in addition to cardiac rehabilitation. Attrition contributed to limitations in statistical power.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17645384 [PubMed - in process]


J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Oct;195(10):837-45.

Creativity and psychopathology: higher rates of psychosis proneness and nonright-handedness among creative artists compared to same age and gender peers.

Preti A, Vellante M.

Department of Psychology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Creative people have been found to score higher on psychopathologic scales in standardized tests, particularly on the scales that measure traits of psychoticism, and to be more likely to report an excess of nonright handedness compared with controls. However, results are inconsistent across surveys and methodologies, and the contribution of substance abuse has rarely been measured.  In this study, 80 creative artists were compared with 80 matched noncreative controls on the Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (HPQ), the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire. Creative artists were  statistically more likely to admit the use of the left hand on the HPQ, with more widespread left hand use reported by artists involved in the creative activities  traditionally associated with the right hemisphere (music and painting). They also scored higher on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory independently from the level of psychopathology (measured with the General Health Questionnaire), from their laterality score (measured with the HPQ), and from their higher use of both licit and illicit drugs.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 18043524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Neurol. 2007 Oct;254(10):1339-46. Epub 2007 Jan 27.

Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke.

Schneider S, Schönle PW, Altenmüller E, Münte TF.

Dept. of Neuropsychology, Otto von Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, Gebäude 24, 39106, Magdeburg, Germany.

In previous studies, it was shown that there is a need for efficient motor rehabilitation approaches. For this purpose, we evaluated a music-supported training program designed to induce an auditory-sensorimotor co-representation of movements in 20 stroke patients (10 affected in the left and 10 in the right upper extremity). Patients without any previous musical experience participated in an intensive step by step training, first of the paretic extremity, followed by training of both extremities. Training was applied 15 times over 3 weeks in addition to conventional treatment. Fine as well as gross motor skills were addressed by using either a MIDI-piano or electronic drum pads. As a control, 20  stroke patients (10 affected left and 10 right) undergoing exclusively conventional therapies were recruited. Assignment to the training and control groups was done pseudo-randomly to achieve an equal number of left- and right-affected patients in each group. Pre- and post-treatment motor functions were monitored using a computerized movement analysis system (Zebris) and an established array of motor tests (e. g., Action Research Arm Test, Box & Block Test). Patients showed significant improvement after treatment with respect to speed, precision and smoothness of movements as shown by 3D movement analysis and clinical motor tests. Furthermore, compared to the control subjects, motor control in everyday activities improved significantly. In conclusion, this innovative therapeutic strategy is an effective approach for the motor skill neurorehabilitation of stroke patients.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17260171 [PubMed - in process]


J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Oct-Nov;27(7):831-3.

A randomized prospective study of music therapy for reducing anxiety during cast  room procedures.

Liu RW, Mehta P, Fortuna S, Armstrong DG, Cooperman DR, Thompson GH, Gilmore A.

Department of Orthopaedics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

BACKGROUND: Cast room procedures, such as cast application and removal, pin removal, and suture removal can cause significant anxiety in young children. The  use of music therapy in the cast room to decrease anxiety has not been previously reported. METHODS: We performed a randomized, prospective study of soft lullaby music compared with no music in 69 children 10 years or younger undergoing cast room procedures. Heart rates (beats per minute) were recorded in the waiting room and cast room using a pulse oximeter. RESULTS: A total of 28 children were randomized to music and 41 children to no music. The mean rise in heart rate between the waiting room and entering the cast room was -2.7 beats/min in the music group and 4.7 beats/min in the no music group (P = 0.001). The mean difference in heart rate between the waiting room and during the procedure was 15.3 beats/min in the music group and 22.5 beats/min in the no music group (P = 0.05). There were 7 patients in the no music group with heart rate increases of greater than 40 beats/min. No patient in the music group had an increase of this  magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Playing soft music in the cast room is a simple and inexpensive option for decreasing anxiety in young children during cast room procedures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized Clinical Trial, Level II.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17878794 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007 Oct;29(5):584-607.

A grounded theory of young tennis players use of music to manipulate emotional state.

Bishop DT, Karageorghis CI, Loizou G.

School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge, England, UK.

The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players' use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

PMID: 18089894 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Oct;16(8):1157-64.

Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents.

Peterson SH, Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Harrington K, Davies S.

Department of Psychology, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether perceiving portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos was associated with adverse health outcomes among African American adolescent females. METHODS: African American female adolescents (n = 522) were recruited from community venues. Adolescents completed a survey consisting of questions on sociodemographic characteristics, rap music video viewing habits, and a scale that assessed the primary predictor variable, portrayal of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos. Adolescents also completed an interview that assessed the health outcomes and provided urine for a marijuana screen. RESULTS: In logistic regression analyses, adolescents who perceived more  portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos were more likely to engage in binge drinking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.32-11.04, p = 0.01), test positive for marijuana (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.19-9.85, p = 0.02), have multiple sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.01-3.71, p = 0.04), and have a negative body image (OR 1.5, 95% CI  1.02-2.26, p = 0.04). This is one of the first studies quantitatively examining the relationship between cultural images of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos and a spectrum of adverse health outcomes in African American female adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention to this social issue may improve the  health of all adolescent females.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17937568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2007 Oct;19(3):573-86.

The impact of music on postoperative pain and anxiety following cesarean section.

Reza N, Ali SM, Saeed K, Abul-Qasim A, Reza TH.

Department of Anesthesia, Fasa Medical College, Fasa, Fars Province, Iran.

BACKGROUND: The relief of post-cesarean delivery pain is important. Good pain relief improves mobility and reduces the risk of thromboembolic disease, which may have been increased during pregnancy. Pain may impair the mother's ability to optimally care for her infant in the immediate postpartum period and may adversely affect early interactions between mother and infant. It is necessary, therefore that pain relief be safe and effective and results in no adverse neonatal effects during breast-feeding. Music may be considered as a potential method of post cesarean pain therapy due to its noninvasiveness and lack of side  effects. In this study we evaluated the effect of intraoperative music under general anesthesia for reducing the postoperative morphine requirements after cesarean section. METHODS: In a double blind placebo-controlled trial, 100 women  (ASA I) scheduled for elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of fifty. After standardization of anesthesia, patients in the music group were exposed to a compact disk of Spanish guitar after induction of anesthesia up to the time of wound dressing. In the control group patients were exposed to white music. Post operative pain and anxiety were  evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) up to six hours after discharge from PACU. Morphine was given intravenously for reducing pain to VAS < or = 3 postoperatively. RESULTS: There was not statistically significant difference in VAS for pain between two groups up to six hours postoperatively (P>0.05). In addition, morphine requirements were not different between two groups at different time intervals up to six hours postoperatively (P>0.05). There were not statistically significant difference between two groups regarding postoperative anxiety score and vomiting frequency (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: As per conditions of this study, intraoperative Spanish music was not effective in reducing postoperative pain after cesarean section. In addition postoperative morphine requirement, anxiety, and vomiting were not affected by the music during general  anesthesia.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18044285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroimage. 2007 Oct 1;37(4):1371-83. Epub 2007 Jul 17.

Prefrontal involvement in imitation learning of hand actions: effects of practice and expertise.

Vogt S, Buccino G, Wohlschläger AM, Canessa N, Shah NJ, Zilles K, Eickhoff SB, Freund HJ, Rizzolatti G, Fink GR.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, UK.

In this event-related fMRI study, we demonstrate the effects of a single session  of practising configural hand actions (guitar chords) on cortical activations during observation, motor preparation and imitative execution. During the observation of non-practised actions, the mirror neuron system (MNS), consisting  of inferior parietal and ventral premotor areas, was more strongly activated than for the practised actions. This finding indicates a strong role of the MNS in the early stages of imitation learning. In addition, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was selectively involved during observation and motor preparation  of the non-practised chords. This finding confirms Buccino et al.'s [Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.-J., Rizzolatti, G., 2004a. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323-334] model of imitation learning: for actions that are not yet part of the observer's motor repertoire, DLPFC engages in operations of selection and combination of existing, elementary representations in the MNS. The pattern of prefrontal activations further supports Shallice's [Shallice, T., 2004. The fractionation of supervisory control. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 943-956] proposal of a dominant role of the left DLPFC in modulating lower level systems and of a dominant role of the right DLPFC in monitoring operations.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17698372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuropsychologia. 2007 Oct 1;45(13):2981-8. Epub 2007 Jun 8.

The glissando illusion and handedness.

Deutsch D, Hamaoui K, Henthorn T.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

This article reports the first study of the glissando illusion, which was created and published as a sound demonstration by Deutsch [Deutsch, D. (1995). Musical illusions and paradoxes. La Jolla: Philomel Records (compact disc)]. To experience the illusion, each subject was seated in front of two stereophonically separated loudspeakers, with one to his left and the other to his right. A sound  pattern was presented that consisted of a synthesized oboe tone of constant pitch, together with a sine wave whose pitch repeatedly glided up and down (the glissando). These two components alternated continuously between the loudspeakers such that when the oboe tone emanated from the loudspeaker on the left, the glissando emanated from the loudspeaker on the right; and vice versa. The oboe tone was perceived correctly as switching between loudspeakers; however, the segments of the glissando appeared to be joined together seamlessly, such that a  single, continuous tone was heard, which appeared to be moving slowly around in space in accordance with its pitch motion. Right-handers (n=22) tended strongly to hear the glissando move between left and right, and also between low and high  in space, as its pitch moved between low and high. More specifically, it was frequently heard as tracing an elliptical path aligned diagonally between a position low and to the left when its pitch was lowest, and high and to the right when its pitch was highest. Non-right-handers (n=42) perceived the illusion in statistically different ways. The handedness correlates and other implications of the glissando illusion are discussed.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17624379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Psychophys. 2007 Oct;69(7):1084-92.

Harmonic expectation and affect in Western music: effects of attention and training.

Loui P, Wessel D.

Center for New Music and Audio Technologies, University of California, Berkeley 94709, USA.

We investigated the effects of selective attention and musical training on the processing ofharmonic expectations. In Experiment 1, participants with and without musical training were required to respond to the contour of melodies as they were presented with chord progressions that were highly expected, slightly unexpected, or extremely unexpected. Reaction time and accuracy results showed that when attention was focused on the melody, musically trained participants were still sensitive to different harmonic expectations, whereas participants with no musical training were undifferentiated across expectation conditions. In  Experiment 2, participants were required to listen holistically to the entire chord progression and to rate their preference for each chord progression. Results from preference ratings showed that all the participants, with or without musical training, were sensitive to manipulations of harmonic expectations. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that changing the speed of presentation of chord progressions did not affect the pattern of results. The four experiments together highlight the importance of attentional focus in musical training, especially as  it relates to the processing of harmonic expectations.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18038947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Semin Perinatol. 2007 Oct;31(5):318-22.

Non-pharmacological techniques for pain management in neonates.

Golianu B, Krane E, Seybold J, Almgren C, Anand KJ.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Significant progress in understanding the physiology, clinical correlates, and consequences of neonatal pain have resulted in greater attention to pain management during neonatal intensive care. A number of nonpharmacological therapies have been investigated, including nonnutritive sucking, with and without sucrose use, swaddling or facilitated tucking, kangaroo care, music therapy, and multi-sensorial stimulation. Although the efficacy of these approaches is clearly evident, they cannot provide analgesia for moderate or severe pain in the neonate. Further, some of these therapies cannot be effectively applied to all populations of critically ill neonates. Acupuncture, an ancient practice in Chinese medicine, has gained increasing popularity for symptom control among adults and older children. Acupuncture may provide an effective nonpharmacological approach for the treatment of pain in neonates, even moderate or severe pain, and should be considered for inclusion in a graduated multidisciplinary algorithm for neonatal pain management.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17905187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007 Sep 27 [Epub ahead of print]

Knowledge and Use of Music Therapy Among Pediatric Practitioners in Michigan.

Mathur A, Duda L, Kamat DM.

Objective Increasingly, music therapy is being used, in combination with conventional treatment modalities, as part of the health care treatment plan. The objective of our study was to determine the awareness, knowledge and use of music therapy by members of the Michigan chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics  (Michigan AAP) in their health care practice. Methods Members of the Michigan AAP were asked to participate in a survey designed to assess their knowledge and use  of music therapy in their health care practice. Results Although the majority of  respondents were aware of the use of music therapy in health care settings, very  few had referred their own patients for music therapy services. Conclusion Music  therapy is an inexpensive and noninvasive treatment modality being used increasingly, especially to alleviate pain, stress, and anxiety among patients in a variety of conditions. Pediatric practitioners in Michigan, who responded to our survey, expressed a strong interest in learning more about music therapy and  learning about ways to incorporate music therapy into their health care practice.

PMID: 17901214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Support Care Cancer. 2007 Sep 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Music imagery for adults with acute leukemia in protective environments: a feasibility study.

Burns DS, Azzouz F, Sledge R, Rutledge C, Hincher K, Monahan PO, Cripe LD.

Indiana University School of Music, IUPUI, 535 W. Michigan Street, Indianapolis,  IN, 46202, USA,

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving intensive chemotherapy can experience increased distressed related to both the cancer diagnosis and treatment isolation. If not addressed, distress can lead to anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and possible benefits of a music imagery intervention for patients hospitalized in a protective environment for the treatment of acute leukemia or high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults receiving intensive myelosuppressive chemotherapy in a protective environment were randomized to standard care or standard care plus music imagery. The music imagery sessions occurred twice weekly for up to eight sessions. Patients were encouraged to use the music imagery daily. RESULTS: The principal criteria of feasibility were rate of consent, rate of completion of scheduled sessions, and rate of questionnaire completion. Forty-nine out of 78 patients consented, a 63% consent rate. Seventy-two percent of all scheduled music imagery sessions were completed. The rate of questionnaire completion was 60% with missing data because of illness severity and early discharge. The principal outcomes of benefit (e.g., efficacy)  were positive and negative affects, fatigue, and anxiety. Both groups improved over time on all outcomes (all p < 0.001). However, a subgroup of individuals with low baseline negative affect who received the intervention reported significantly less anxiety at discharge than individuals with low baseline negative affect who did not receive the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Music imagery  is feasible for adults with acute leukemia in protected environments. Patients with lower initial distress may benefit from a music imagery program in terms of  reduced anxiety at discharge.

PMID: 17891547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Brain Cogn. 2007 Sep 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Cerebellar patients demonstrate preserved implicit knowledge of association strengths in musical sequences.

Tillmann B, Justus T, Bigand E.

CNRS-UMR 5020, Université Claude Bernard—Lyon 1, IFR 19, Neurosciences et Systčmes Sensoriels, 50 Av. Tony Garnier, F-69366 Lyon Cedex 07, France.

Recent findings suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual and cognitive tasks. Our study investigated whether cerebellar patients show musical  priming based on implicit knowledge of tonal-harmonic music. Participants performed speeded phoneme identification on sung target chords, which were either related or less-related to prime contexts in terms of the tonal-harmonic system.  As groups, both cerebellar patients and age-matched controls showed facilitated processing for related targets, as previously observed for healthy young adults.  The outcome suggests that an intact cerebellum is not mandatory for accessing implicit knowledge stored in long-term memory and for its influence on perception. One patient showed facilitated processing for less-related targets (suggesting sensory priming). The findings suggest directions for future research on auditory perception in cerebellar patients to further our understanding of cerebellar functions.

PMID: 17881108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Mov Disord. 2007 Sep 15;22(12):1803-8.

Etiological musculo-skeletal factor in focal dystonia in a musician's hand: A case study of the right hand of a guitarist.

Leijnse JN, Hallett M.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Speed School for Engineering & Price Institute for Surgical Research, University of Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA.

A case study is presented in which a focal hand dystonia seems to have developed  in the right hand of a classical guitarist as a result of a neuromuscular peripheral defect caused by trauma. The trauma was a near total perforation of the first web space by a splinter. Healing was uneventful without apparent functional complications. Two years later the patient noticed difficulties in extending the index in playing, for which he received various unsuccessful treatments during seven years. However, we found more severe dystonic symptoms (cocontractions) in the thumb than in the index during playing, which correlated  with an undiagnosed insufficiency in the flexor pollicis brevis (FPB). This defect allowed proposing a biomechanical analysis of compensations for diminished thumb control in playing, which would explain the dysfunction in the index in playing as overcompensation for the thumb problem. If this analysis is correct, the etiology of the case can be traced back to underlying multiarticular control  problems in the thumb caused by an insufficient FPB. This defect was considered irrepairable. It was concluded that even with knowledge of the underlying cause,  a potentially successful treatment of the dystonia might not exist in this case.  The case would demonstrate that task-specific hand dystonias can arise as overcompensations for (peripheral) neuro-musculoskeletal defects. The case is illustrated by videos of playing and functional thumb tests. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17659635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 11;104(37):14795-800. Epub 2007 Aug 27.

Comment in:     Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 11;104(37):14549-50.

Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

Athos EA, Levinson B, Kistler A, Zemansky J, Bostrom A, Freimer N, Gitschier J.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0794, USA.

Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can  provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%)  of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual  decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17724340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Sep 7;13(33):4533.

Comment on:     World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Dec 14;12(46):7532-6.

Frequently overlooked and rarely listened to: music therapy in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

Rudin D.

King's Daughters' Hospital and Health Services, Madison, IN 47250, USA.

To elucidate the role of music therapy in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures  following the conflicting outcomes reported in two recent studies. The findings of our recent meta-analysis that examined this matter were discussed in the context of later studies. Our meta-analysis illustrated the beneficial effects of music therapy on patient anxiety levels when used as a single measure of relaxation and analgesia. Beneficial effects were also shown on analgesia and sedation requirements and procedure duration times when used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. These findings are in agreement with those of both studies excluded from analysis and those that followed it. Music therapy is an effective  tool for stress relief and analgesia in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

Publication Types:      Comment

PMID: 17724817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cereb Cortex. 2007 Sep 5 [Epub ahead of print]

Shared Neural Resources between Music and Language Indicate Semantic Processing of Musical Tension-Resolution Patterns.

Steinbeis N, Koelsch S.

Junior Research Group “Neurocognition of Music” Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Harmonic tension-resolution patterns have long been hypothesized to be meaningful to listeners familiar with Western music. Even though it has been shown that specifically chosen musical pieces can prime meaningful concepts, the empirical evidence in favor of such a highly specific semantic pathway has been lacking. Here we show that 2 event-related potentials in response to harmonic expectancy violations, the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and the N500, could be systematically modulated by simultaneously presented language material containing either a syntactic or a semantic violation. Whereas the ERAN was reduced only when presented concurrently with a syntactic language violation and not with a semantic language violation, this pattern was reversed for the N500. This is the  first piece of evidence showing that tension- resolution patterns represent a route to meaning in music.

PMID: 17720685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Sep;81(3):582-8. Epub 2007 Jul 20.

The genetics of congenital amusia (tone deafness): a family-aggregation study.

Peretz I, Cummings S, Dubé MP.

International Laboratory for Brain, Music and Sound Research, Montreal, Canada.

Congenital amusia (commonly known as "tone deafness") is a lifelong impairment of music perception that affects 4% of the population. To estimate whether congenital amusia can be genetically transmitted, its prevalence was quantified by direct auditory testing of 71 members of 9 large families of amusic probands,  as well as of 75 members of 10 control families. The results confirm that congenital amusia is expressed by a deficit in processing musical pitch but not musical time and also show that the pitch disorder has a hereditary component. In amusic families, 39% of first-degree relatives have the same cognitive disorder,  whereas only 3% have it in the control families. The identification of multiplex  families with a high relative risk of experiencing a musical pitch deficit ( lambda(s)=10.8; 95% confidence interval 8-13.5) enables the mapping of genetic loci for hereditary amusia.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17701903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;18(5-6):491-6.

Investigating the neurobiology of music: brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in the hippocampus of young adult mice.

Angelucci F, Fiore M, Ricci E, Padua L, Sabino A, Tonali PA.

Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi, Catholic University, Largo Gemelli, Rome, Italy.

It has been shown that music might be able to improve mood state in people affected by psychiatric disorders, ameliorate cognitive deficits in people with dementia and increase motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Robust experimental evidence explaining the central effects of music, however, is missing. This study was designed to investigate the effect of music on brain neurotrophin production and behavior in the mouse. We exposed young adult mice to music with a slow rhythm (6 h/day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60  db) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, mice were tested for passive avoidance learning and then killed for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in selected brain regions. We found that music-exposed mice showed increased BDNF, but not nerve growth factor in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that music exposure significantly enhanced  learning performance, as measured by the passive avoidance test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music can modulate the activity of the hippocampus by influencing BDNF production. Our findings also suggest that music exposure might be of help in several central nervous system pathologies.

PMID: 17762517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Br J Educ Psychol. 2007 Sep;77(Pt 3):665-82.

Developing identities and attitudes in musicians and classroom music teachers.

Hargreaves DJ, Purves RM, Welch GF, Marshall NA.

School of Education, Roehampton University, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5SL, UK.

BACKGROUND: The Western classical training of many secondary music specialist teachers may be inappropriate for the demands of the contemporary secondary school classroom, leading to a conflict between their self-concepts as 'musicians' and as 'teachers'. AIMS: To undertake a short-term longitudinal comparison of the developing identities and the attitudes of a group of intending specialist secondary music teachers, during the transition into their first teaching post, with a group of music students from university and conservatory backgrounds. SAMPLE: Twenty-nine trainee music teachers completed Phases 1 and 2  of the study during their final weeks of training and during the second term of their teaching career, and a comparison group of 29 final-year undergraduate music students did so in the first and last terms of their final year. METHOD: A  specially devised composite Musical Careers Questionnaire gathered information in both phases about self-efficacy in music and in teaching, identification with professional groups in these two domains, and attitudes towards important skills  for musicians and teachers. RESULTS: A series of ANOVAs comparing the student groups' scores in each of the two phases revealed no significant main effects or  interactions for either of the self-efficacy measures, a significant group effect for professional group identification, and some changes in the attitude measures. CONCLUSION: Although participants' views of their own general effectiveness as teachers and as musicians changed very little over the period of the study, their attitudes towards music teaching and perceptions of the skills required showed some changes.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17908381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Clin Nucl Med. 2007 Sep;32(9):737-8.

Drummer's fracture of the third metatarsal bone.

Cusi M, Tsung J, Nouh F, Wong L, Mansberg R, Van der Wall H.

Orthosports, Sydney, Australia.

A 14-year-old girl presented with a painful right foot. She was an elite water-polo player and could recall no history of specific trauma to the foot. On  close and persistent questioning, she admitted to having taken up playing the drums recently, with practice sessions of up to 4 h/d. She used the foot drum with her right foot and had noticed that this was becoming increasingly painful and prevented her playing the instrument for the last 2 days. Plain films of the  foot were originally reported as normal, but revised to abnormal after the scintigraphic study. Bone scintigraphy confirmed a stress fracture of the right 3rd metatarsal bone. Stress fractures of the 3rd metatarsal bone are rare with only 2 previous reports in the literature.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17710033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007 Sep;46(7):575-9. Epub 2007 May 14.

Music therapy in pediatrics.

Avers L, Mathur A, Kamat D.

Department of Child Life, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

The soothing effects of music have been well described over the centuries and across cultures. In more recent times, studies have shown the beneficial effects  of music in alleviating symptoms in a wide variety of clinical and psychologic conditions. Music therapy has been primarily used as an intervention to control emotional states, in pain management, cognitive processing, and stress management. Stress is associated with increased production of the stress hormone  cortisol, which is known to suppress immune responses. Several studies in the past few decades have demonstrated a positive effect of music therapy on reducing stress or increasing immune responses, or both. Music therapy should therefore be considered as a valuable addition to standard pharmacologic therapeutic modalities in enhancing the immune response and lowering stress levels in such conditions. This article reviews the role of music as a therapeutic modality and  the future for music therapy, particularly in pediatrics.

PMID: 17502452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cogn Process. 2007 Sep;8(3):201-6. Epub 2007 Jul 12.

The Institute for Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine.

Altenmüller E, Kopiez R, Grewe O, Schneider S, Eschrich S, Nagel F, Jabusch HC.

Hanover University of Music and Drama, Hohenzollernstr. 47, 30161 Hannover, Germany.

The Institute of Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine of the University of Music and Drama in Hannover, Germany, is a unique Institution in Europe whose scope includes teaching the basics of music physiology and musicians' medicine and research into the physiological and neurobiological principles of professional music performance and music perception. Furthermore, the institute conducts research into the causes of occupational injuries in musicians and provides means for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of such injuries.

PMID: 17624562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cognition. 2007 Sep;104(3):654-68. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

McDermott J, Hauser MD.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT, Perceptual Science Group, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. jhm@MIT.EDU

Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we  found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect  is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically,  when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans,  when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there  appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

PMID: 16935277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Sep;28(5):643-8.

An assessment of threshold shifts in nonprofessional pop/rock musicians using conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry.

Schmuziger N, Patscheke J, Probst R.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

The clinical value of extended high-frequency audiometry for the detection of noise-induced hearing loss has not been established conclusively. The purpose of  this study was to assess the relative temporary threshold shift (TTS) in two frequency regions (conventional versus extended high frequency). In this exploratory study, pure-tone thresholds from 0.5 to 14 kHz were measured in both  ears of 16 nonprofessional pop/rock musicians (mean age, 35 yr; range, 27 to 49 yr), before and after a 90-minute rehearsal session. All had experienced repeated exposures to intense sound levels during at least 5 yr of their musical careers.  After the rehearsal, median threshold levels were found to be significantly poorer for frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p <or= 0.004) but were unchanged in the extended high-frequency range from 9 to 14 kHz.  Decreases in the median threshold values measured before the rehearsal were present across the conventional frequency range, most notably at 6 kHz, but were  not observed in the extended high-frequency range. On the basis of these results, extended high-frequency audiometry does not seem advantageous as a means of the early detection of noise-induced hearing loss.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17804978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;22(6):387-94. Epub 2007 Apr 9.

Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of recent literature.

Nagai M, Kishi K, Kato S.

Department of Internal Medicine, Shobara Red Cross Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections  exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17416488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Sep 1 [Epub ahead of print] 

The pleasure in context.

Duff C.

Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, 320 - 1290 Hornby Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1W2, Canada.

BACKGROUND: The pleasures associated with the use of illicit drugs are rarely acknowledged in contemporary drug policy debates. Where they are, these pleasures are almost always attributed to the specific physiological and/or sensory effects of individual substances. METHODS: Drawing on qualitative research recently completed in Melbourne, Australia, this paper argues that the pleasures associated with illicit drug use extend well beyond the purely physiological to include a host of properly contextual elements as well. RESULTS: These "contextual" pleasures include the corporeal experience of space, such as the "feeling" of electronic music in a large night-club space, or the engagement with natural and wilderness environments. Also important are a range of corporeal and  performative practices, such as dancing and interacting with strangers, which were reportedly facilitated with the use of different drugs. CONCLUSIONS: This emphasis on the dynamics of space, embodiment and practice as they impact the contextual experience of pleasure, has the potential to open up new ways of thinking about pleasure and its place in the mediation of all drug related behaviours. Greater understanding of these relationships should also facilitate the emergence of new, context specific, drug prevention and harm reduction initiatives.

PMID: 17768037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Sep;122(3):1611.

Effects of frequency characteristics of reverberation time on listener envelopment.

Morimoto M, Jinya M, Nakagawa K.

Environmental Acoustics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokko, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

Spatial impression perceived in a listening space comprises at least two components: one is auditory (apparent) source width (ASW) and the other is listener envelopment (LEV). Both ASW and LEV are affected not only by temporal but also by spatial structures of reflections. It has been clarified that ASW for symphony music is significantly affected by low-frequency components of source signals and reflections, but not by their high-frequency components. The objective of this work is to investigate whether LEV is affected by the frequency characteristics of source signals and reverberation sounds, which are known to contribute to the creation of LEV. In this study, three experiments were performed to clarify the effects of reverberation time (RT) and its frequency characteristics on LEV. In contrast to the case of ASW, the experimental results  show that RTs both at high and low frequencies affect LEV.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17927420 [PubMed - in process]


J Adv Nurs. 2007 Sep;59(5):551-6. Epub 2007 Jul 2.

Harmony: a concept analysis.

Easley R.

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

AIM: This paper is a report of a concept analysis of harmony. BACKGROUND: Historically, harmony has been poorly defined in nursing research. Harmony has been typically associated with music, but this concept also has a place in nursing. The term is used in current literature in various contexts, including the environment, and relating to mind, body, and spirit. Use of the term harmony  is also evident in describing physical characteristics and connections between subjects or ideas, and as an adjective. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and OVID data bases from 1998 to 2003 with the keyword 'harmony'. The reference lists of the identified papers were then searched for further sources and 29 papers were identified for inclusion into the paper. Wilson's process was used to conduct the concept analysis. FINDINGS: Harmony is a major aspect of personal relationships, working  relationships, and nurse-patient relationships. Both patient-clinician and clinician-clinician relationships are affected by the three attributes of harmony: balance, peace and rhythm. This balance is also an important factor in the incidence of disease and for optimal health. Five consequences of the concept are identified as pleasant environment, sense of satisfaction, positive self-concept, beautiful sound, or effective programme. CONCLUSION: Harmony is potentially relevant to many aspects of nursing. In order for a nurse to have a positive relationship with a patient, harmony must be present in terms of a pleasant environment, feelings of satisfaction, positive self-concepts, and effective nursing intervention programmes.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17608685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Sep;13(7):709-12.

Effect of long-term interactive music therapy on behavior profile and musical skills in young adults with severe autism.

Boso M, Emanuele E, Minazzi V, Abbamonte M, Politi P.

Department of Health Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Data on the potential behavioral effects of music therapy in autism are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a musical training program based on interactive music therapy sessions could enhance the behavioral profile and the musical skills of young adults affected by severe autism. METHODOLOGY: Young adults (N = 8) with severe (Childhood Autism Rating Scale >30) autism took part in a total of 52 weekly active music therapy sessions lasting 60 minutes. Each session consisted of a wide range of different musical activities including singing, piano playing, and drumming. Clinical rating scales included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Musical skills-including singing a short or long melody, playing the C scale on a keyboard, music absorption, rhythm reproduction, and execution of complex rhythmic patterns-were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale  ranging from "completely/entirely absent" to "completely/entirely present." RESULTS: At the end of the 52-week training period, significant improvements were found on both the CGI and BPRS scales. Similarly, the patients' musical skills significantly ameliorated as compared to baseline ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot data seem to suggest that active music therapy sessions could be of aid in improving autistic symptoms, as well as personal musical skills in young adults with severe autism.

PMID: 17931062 [PubMed - in process]


J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 Sep;19(9):1453-63.

Musicians detect pitch violation in a foreign language better than nonmusicians:  behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

Marques C, Moreno S, Castro SL, Besson M.

Universidade do Porto (FPCE-UP), Portugal.

The aim of this study was to determine whether musical expertise influences the detection of pitch variations in a foreign language that participants did not understand. To this end, French adults, musicians and nonmusicians, were presented with sentences spoken in Portuguese. The final words of the sentences were prosodically congruous (spoken at normal pitch height) or incongruous (pitch was increased by 35% or 120%). Results showed that when the pitch deviations were small and difficult to detect (35%: weak prosodic incongruities), the level of performance was higher for musicians than for nonmusicians. Moreover, analysis of the time course of pitch processing, as revealed by the event-related brain potentials to the prosodically congruous and incongruous sentence-final words, showed that musicians were, on average, 300 msec faster than nonmusicians to categorize prosodically congruous and incongruous endings. These results are in line with previous ones showing that musical expertise, by increasing discrimination of pitch--a basic acoustic parameter equally important for music and speech prosody--does facilitate the processing of pitch variations not only in music but also in language. Finally, comparison with previous results [Schön,  D., Magne, C., & Besson, M. The music of speech: Music training facilitates pitch processing in both music and language. Psychophysiology, 41, 341-349, 2004] points to the influence of semantics on the perception of acoustic prosodic cues.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17714007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Commun Disord. 2007 Sep-Oct;40(5):418-31. Epub 2006 Nov 17.

Voice onset time for female trained and untrained singers during speech and singing.

McCrea CR, Morris RJ.

Department of Communication Disorders, L.L. Schendel Speech and Hearing Clinic, Florida State University, 107 Regional Rehabilitation Center, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1200, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the voice onset times of female trained  and untrained singers during spoken and sung tasks. Thirty females were digitally recorded speaking and singing short phrases containing the English stop consonants /p/ and /b/ in the word-initial position. Voice onset time was measured for each phoneme and statistically analyzed. Mixed-ANOVAs revealed significantly longer voice onset time durations during speech for /p/ as compared to sung productions. No significant differences between the trained singers and untrained singers were observed. In addition, no task differences occurred for the /b/ productions. The results indicated that the type of phonatory task influences VOT for voiceless stops in females. LEARNING OUTCOMES: As a result of  this activity, the reader will be able to (1) understand articulatory and phonatory differences between spoken and sung productions; (2) understand the articulatory and phonatory timing differences between trained singers and untrained singers during spoken and sung productions.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17113096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Exp Psychol Appl. 2007 Sep;13(3):135-45.

A deliberate practice account of typing proficiency in everyday typists.

Keith N, Ericsson KA.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

The concept of deliberate practice was introduced to explain exceptional performance in domains such as music and chess. We apply deliberate practice theory to intermediate-level performance in typing, an activity that many people  pursue on a regular basis. Sixty university students with several years typing experience participated in laboratory sessions that involved the assessment of abilities, a semistructured interview on typing experience as well as various typing tasks. In line with traditional theories of skill acquisition, experience  (amount of typing since introduction to the keyboard) was related to typing performance. A perceptual speed test (digit-symbol substitution) and a measure of motor abilities (tapping) were not significantly related to performance. In line  with deliberate practice theory, the highest level of performance was reported among participants who had attended a typing class in the past and who reported to adopt the goal of typing quickly during everyday typing. Findings suggest that even after several years of experience engagement in an everyday activity can serve as an opportunity for further skill improvement if individuals are willing  to push themselves.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17924799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Med Humanit. 2007 Sep;28(3):135-48.

Medicine and music: three relations considered.

Evans HM.

Centre for Arts and Humanities in Health and Medicine, Durham University, Room 323 Dawson Building, Science Site, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

Two well-recognised, but inherently reductionist, relations between medicine and  music are the attempted neuro-scientific understanding of responses to music and  interest in music's contributions to clinical therapy. This paper proposes a third relation whereby music is seen as an organising metaphor for clinical medicine as a practice. Both music and clinical medicine affirm human well-being, and both do this inter alia through varieties of skilful, crafted yet spontaneous mutual engagement between a 'performer' and an 'audience'. I argue that this organising metaphor offers a corrective to the reductionist influences of the first two relations, illuminates a number of medicine's important features, and reaffirms the existential as being at the core of medicine's telos.

PMID: 17551813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;78(9):949-53. Epub 2007 Jan 19.

Comment in:     J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;78(9):914.

Secondary motor disturbances in 101 patients with musician's dystonia.

Rosset-Llobet J, Candia V, Fŕbregas S, Ray W, Pascual-Leone A.

Institut de Fisiologia i Medicina de l'Art-Terrassa, Ctra de Montcada 668, 08227  Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.

OBJECTIVE: Musician's focal dystonia is usually considered to be task specific but secondary motor disturbances have been reported also. We carried out a detailed evaluation of the incidence of these secondary motor problems in 101 patients. METHOD: Symptoms were assessed using clinical histories, neurological examinations and observation of instrumental manoeuvres. RESULTS: 53.5% of patients reported secondary motor disturbances in activities other than playing their main instrument, with the onset delayed in some cases by up to 12 years from the awareness of dystonic symptoms. 46.5% suffered from simple, 19.8% from complex and 33.7% from progressive cramps. Plucked string players (guitarists) mainly suffered from simple cramps while keyboardists more frequently displayed the progressive form. In all patients, symptoms were focal, and the type of cramp was unrelated to the severity of the perceived symptoms. Those patients playing a second instrument similar to their main instrument showed symptoms which worsened to a higher degree than those playing either only one instrument or whose second  instrument was different. CONCLUSIONS: Longer follow-up assessments may reveal secondary motor symptoms that are not visible over shorter examination periods. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of everyday life motor activities should be considered in any clinical and treatment protocol. We speculate that the avoidance of movements that are similar to the main affected task may be of help  in limiting symptoms. Consequently, focal dystonia may be considered more movement than task specific.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17237142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Voice. 2007 Sep;21(5):568-75. Epub 2006 Jun 27.

Acoustic analysis of the interaction of choral arrangements, musical selection, and microphone location.

Morris RJ, Mustafa AJ, McCrea CR, Fowler LP, Aspaas C.

Department of Communication Disorders, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL  32306-1200, USA.

Acoustic differences were evaluated among three choral arrangements and two choral textures recorded at three microphone locations. A choir was recorded when singing two musical selections of different choral texture, one homophonic and one polyphonic. Both musical selections were sung in three choral arrangements: block sectional, sectional-in-columns, and mixed. Microphones were placed at the  level of the choristers, the conductor, and the audience. The recordings at each  location were analyzed using long-term average spectrum (LTAS). The LTAS from the mixed arrangement exhibited more signal amplitude than the other arrangements in  the range of 1000-3500Hz. When considering the musical selections, the chorus produced more signal amplitude in the region of 1800-2200Hz for the homophonic selection. In addition, the LTAS produced by the choir for the homophonic selection varied across the microphone locations. As for the microphone location, the LTAS of the signal detected directly in front of the chorus had a greater slope than the other two locations. Thus, the acoustic signal near the choristers differed from the signals near the conductor and in the audience. Conductors may  be using acoustic information from the region of the second and third formants when they decide how to arrange a choir for a particular musical selection.

PMID: 16806816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychol Bull. 2007 Sep;133(5):780-99.

Toward a neurophysiological theory of auditory stream segregation.

Snyder JS, Alain C.

Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA.

Auditory stream segregation (or streaming) is a phenomenon in which 2 or more repeating sounds differing in at least 1 acoustic attribute are perceived as 2 or more separate sound sources (i.e., streams). This article selectively reviews psychophysical and computational studies of streaming and comprehensively reviews more recent neurophysiological studies that have provided important insights into the mechanisms of streaming. On the basis of these studies, segregation of sounds is likely to occur beginning in the auditory periphery and continuing at least to primary auditory cortex for simple cues such as pure-tone frequency but at stages as high as secondary auditory cortex for more complex cues such as periodicity pitch. Attention-dependent and perception-dependent processes are likely to take  place in primary or secondary auditory cortex and may also involve higher level areas outside of auditory cortex. Topographic maps of acoustic attributes, stimulus-specific suppression, and competition between representations are among  the neurophysiological mechanisms that likely contribute to streaming. A framework for future research is proposed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 17723030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Sep;11(9):369-72. Epub 2007 Aug 16.

The linguistic benefits of musical abilities.

Patel AD, Iversen JR.

The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Growing evidence points to a link between musical abilities and certain phonetic  and prosodic skills in language. However, the mechanisms that underlie these relations are not well understood. A recent study by Wong et al. suggests that musical training sharpens the subcortical encoding of linguistic pitch patterns.  We consider the implications of their methods and findings for establishing a link between musical training and phonetic abilities more generally.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17698406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Brain Res. 2007 Aug 3;1161:65-78. Epub 2007 Jun 4.

A network for audio-motor coordination in skilled pianists and non-musicians.

Baumann S, Koeneke S, Schmidt CF, Meyer M, Lutz K, Jancke L.

Department of Neuropsychology, Institute for Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Playing a musical instrument requires efficient auditory and motor processing. Fast feed forward and feedback connections that link the acoustic target to the corresponding motor programs need to be established during years of practice. The aim of our study is to provide a detailed description of cortical structures that participate in this audio-motor coordination network in professional pianists and non-musicians. In order to map these interacting areas using functional magnetic  resonance imaging (fMRI), we considered cortical areas that are concurrently activated during silent piano performance and motionless listening to piano sound. Furthermore we investigated to what extent interactions between the auditory and the motor modality happen involuntarily. We observed a network of predominantly secondary and higher order areas belonging to the auditory and motor modality. The extent of activity was clearly increased by imagination of the absent modality. However, this network did neither comprise primary auditory  nor primary motor areas in any condition. Activity in the lateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the pre-supplementary motor cortex (preSMA) was significantly increased for pianists. Our data imply an intermodal transformation network of auditory and motor areas which is subject to a certain degree of plasticity by means of intensive training.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17603027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuron. 2007 Aug 2;55(3):521-32.

Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks.

Sridharan D, Levitin DJ, Chafe CH, Berger J, Menon V.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

The real world presents our sensory systems with a continuous stream of undifferentiated information. Segmentation of this stream at event boundaries is  necessary for object identification and feature extraction. Here, we investigate  the neural dynamics of event segmentation in entire musical symphonies under natural listening conditions. We isolated time-dependent sequences of brain responses in a 10 s window surrounding transitions between movements of symphonic works. A strikingly right-lateralized network of brain regions showed peak response during the movement transitions when, paradoxically, there was no physical stimulus. Model-dependent and model-free analysis techniques provided converging evidence for activity in two distinct functional networks at the movement transition: a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with detecting  salient events, followed in time by a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with maintaining attention and updating working memory. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for dissociable and causally linked ventral and dorsal networks during event segmentation of ecologically valid auditory stimuli.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17678862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Otol Neurotol. 2007 Aug 2;Publish Ahead of Print [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical Assessment of Music Perception in Cochlear Implant Listeners.

Nimmons GL, Kang RS, Drennan WR, Longnion J, Ruffin C, Worman T, Yueh B, Rubinstein JT.

*Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; †Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and ‡VM Bloedel Hearing Research Center, University of Washington; and §University of Washington  Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

OBJECTIVE:: Cochlear implants (CI) have provided tremendous benefit for speech recognition in quiet for patients with severe and profound hearing impairment, but implant users still have great difficulty perceiving music. The purpose of this study was to develop a test to quantify music perception by CI listeners in  a clinically practical manner that could be standardized for administration at any implant center. STUDY DESIGN:: Prospective convenience sample. SETTING:: Hearing research center at an academic hospital. PATIENTS:: Eight CI listeners, including 5 men and 3 women with implant experience ranging from 0.5 to 6 years,  participated in this study. They represented a variety of implant devices and strategies. INTERVENTION:: Administration of the Clinical Assessment of Music Perception test in a standardized sound field. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Music perception was assessed using a computerized test comprising pitch direction discrimination, melody identification, and timbre identification. The pitch subtest used a 2-alternative forced-choice adaptive procedure to determine a threshold interval for discrimination of complex pitch direction change. The melody and timbre subtests assessed recognition of 12 isochronous melodies and 8  musical instruments, respectively. RESULTS:: Testing demonstrated a broad range of perceptual accuracy on all 3 subtests. Test duration averaged less than 45 minutes. CONCLUSION:: Clinical Assessment of Music Perception is an efficient computerized test that may be used to measure 3 different aspects of music perception in CI users in a standardized and clinically practical manner.

PMID: 17704719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Am J Prev Med. 2007 Aug;33(2):124-33.

Young people's exposure to loud music: a summary of the literature.

Vogel I, Brug J, van der Ploeg CP, Raat H.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVES: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published before October 2006) on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and other correlates of risk and protective behaviors for hearing loss in young people aged 12 to 25 years. METHODS: Publications were identified by a structured search in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, and by scrutinizing the reference lists of relevant articles. The protection motivation  theory was used as the theoretical framework for categorizing the psychosocial correlates. RESULTS: Thirty-three papers were included that identified several sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates, such as age, gender, school level,  ethnicity, music preference, physical activity, social influence, and free supply of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: For the development of effective interventions we recommend theory-based longitudinal studies among those frequently exposed to loud music to assess these correlates in greater depth.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17673100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Appl Nurs Res. 2007 Aug;20(3):125-31.

Effects of a theory-driven music and movement program for stroke survivors in a community setting.

Jeong S, Kim MT.

School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205-2110, USA.

Many countries lack effective community-based rehabilitation programs despite the increasing numbers of stroke survivors. Therefore, we have conducted a pilot investigation in South Korea of a newly constructed community-based intervention  program combining rhythmic music and specialized rehabilitation movement. The 8-week program was based on rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) theory, which uses rhythm to enhance stroke survivors' movements. Thirty-three stroke survivors were randomized into one of two groups: The experimental group (n = 16) carried out an 8-week RAS music-movement exercise intervention; the control group (n = 17) received referral information about available usual care services. Participants in the experimental group gained a wider range of motion and flexibility, had more positive moods, and reported increased frequency and quality of interpersonal relationships.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17693215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Arch Neurol. 2007 Aug;64(8):1184-8.

A pianist's recovery from stroke.

Toole JF, Flowers DL, Burdette JH, Absher JR.

Department of Neurology, Stroke Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, The Bowman Gray Campus, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1068, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine alternative neural pathways for restitution of piano playing after right hemispheric infarction causing left arm and hand paralysis. DESIGN: Case report testing coordinated bimanual skills using structured motor skills tests and neuroimaging. SETTING: A professional pianist sustained a lacunar infarction in the posterior limb of his right internal capsule, which resulted in left hemiparesis with immobilized left-hand and -finger movements persisting for 13 weeks. After 6 months, he had recovered bimanual coordinated piano skills by "ignoring" his left hand while concentrating or discussing subjects other than music while playing. PATIENT: A 63-year-old, male professional pianist. INTERVENTION: Detailed neurological examination including computed cranial tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and positron  emission tomography. RESULTS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging activation patterns correlated with rapid movements of fingers in each hand separately and together demonstrating that subcortical and cerebellar pathways were activated during skilled motor function of his left hand. Contralateral cerebral and cerebellar activation occurred with both left- and right-hand movements. During tapping of the left fingers, there was bilateral cerebellar, parietal, and left premotor strip and left thalamic activation. CONCLUSION: Patterns of activation relate to task performance and they are not similar to subjects engaged in simpler tasks such as finger opposition.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17698710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):943-7.

Randomized clinical trial examining the effect of music therapy in stress response to day surgery.

Leardi S, Pietroletti R, Angeloni G, Necozione S, Ranalletta G, Del Gusto B.

Geriatric Surgery, Department of Surgical Science, L'Aquila University, L'Aquila, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Music therapy could reduce stress and the stress response. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of music therapy in alleviating stress during day surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing day surgery were randomized to one of three groups, each containing 20 patients. Before and during surgery, patients in group 1 listened to new age music and those in group 2 listened to a choice of music from one of four styles. Patients in group 3 (control group) heard the normal sounds of the operating theatre. Plasma levels of cortisol and subpopulations of lymphocytes were evaluated before, during and after operation. RESULTS: Plasma cortisol levels decreased during operation in both groups of patients who listened to music, but increased in the control group. Postoperative cortisol levels were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (mean(s.d.) 14.21(6.96) versus 8.63(2.72) ng/dl respectively; P < 0.050). Levels of natural killer lymphocytes decreased during surgery in groups 1 and 2,  but increased in controls. Intraoperative levels of natural killer cells were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3 (mean(s.d.) 212.2(89.3) versus 329.1(167.8) cells/microl; P < 0.050). CONCLUSION: Perioperative music therapy changed the neurohormonal and immune stress response to day surgery, especially when the type of music was selected by the patient. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17636513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Brain Nerve. 2007 Aug;59(8):865-70.


[Article in Japanese]

Midorikawa A.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Chuo University, 742-1 Higashi-Nakano, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0393, Japan.

This report reviewed recent cases of amusia and drew the following conclusions. First, amusia is an ill-defined condition. The classical definition restricted amusia to musical disorders caused by brain lesions. By the end of the last century, however, some researchers included developmental or innate musical disorders in amusia. Second, although recent case reports were based on the classical schema of amusia, there have been an increasing number of case studies  that have described more restricted and specific symptoms, such as receptive amusia for harmony or musical alexia for rhythm notation. Third, although we can  now obtain more accurate information about the brain lesions, we have not taken advantage of this information. Traditionally, it has been thought that the pitch  element of vocal performance is referred to the right frontal or temporal lobe. Lastly, the relationship between musical function and degenerative disease deserves attention. Degenerative diseases can cause either a musical deficit or,  paradoxically, improve musical function. For example, the musical competence of some patients improved after selective atrophy of the left hemisphere. In conclusion, recent ideas concerning the relationship between music and the brain  have been derived from patients with brain damage, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases. However, there is a missing link with respect to amusia. We know a lot about the cognitive aspect of music, but the 'true' function of music from an evolutionary perspective, something that is lacking in amusia, is not known.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 17713122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2007 Aug;11(4):265-9.

Complementary therapies for cancer pain.

Cassileth B, Trevisan C, Gubili J.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Pharmacologic treatment of pain does not always meet patients' needs and may produce difficult side effects. Complementary therapies, which are safe, noninvasive, and generally considered to be relatively free of toxicity, may be used adjunctively with standard pain management techniques to improve outcome and reduce the need for prescription medication. Approaches such as acupuncture, massage therapy, mind-body interventions, and music therapy effectively reduce pain, enhance quality of life, and provide patients with the opportunity to participate in their own care. Such therapies have an important role in modern pain management.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17686389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Epilepsy Behav. 2007 Aug;11(1):152-3. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

The Mozart effect: encore.

Lahiri N, Duncan JS.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, The Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.

A 56-year-old man with refractory gelastic epilepsy who began listening to Mozart regularly experienced improvement in seizure control.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17602882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Aug;26(3):784-90. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

Roye A, Jacobsen T, Schröger E.

Institute of Psychology I, University of Leipzig, Seeburgstrasse 14-20, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of  long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech,  music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we  observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early  part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following  the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a  widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication  in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations,  which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17634070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Aug;26(3):701-3. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Processing of melodic contours in urethane-anaesthetized rats.

Ruusuvirta T, Koivisto K, Wikgren J, Astikainen P.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, PO Box 9, 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The human brain can automatically detect changes even in repeated melodic contours of spectrally varying sounds. However, it is unclear whether this ability is specific to humans. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in urethane-anaesthetized Wistar rats presented with rare pairs of tones ('deviants') interspersed with frequently repeated ones ('standards'). The frequency of the tones varied nonsystematically across their pairs so that deviants stood out from standards only in the melodic ordering (ascending or descending) of the tones of a pair. We found that the absolute amplitude of the ERP was significantly higher to deviants than standards between 106 and 136 ms from the onset of the deviance, suggesting that the ability to automatically detect changes in higher-order invariant attributes that emerge from consecutive  sounds is not specific to humans.

PMID: 17634069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Evid Based Ment Health. 2007 Aug;10(3):77.

Comment on:     Br J Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;189:405-9.

Music therapy improves symptoms in adults hospitalised with schizophrenia.

Gold C.

University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Publication Types:      Comment

PMID: 17652559 [PubMed]


Hear Res. 2007 Aug;230(1-2):80-7. Epub 2007 May 24.

Pitch ranking of complex tones by normally hearing subjects and cochlear implant  users.

Sucher CM, McDermott HJ.

Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne, East Melbourne 3002, Victoria, Australia.

The ability of 10 normally hearing (NH) adults and eight cochlear implant (CI) users to pitch-rank pairs of complex tones was assessed. The acoustically presented stimuli differed in fundamental frequency (F0) by either one or six semitones (F0 range: 98 to 740 Hz). The NH group obtained significantly higher mean scores for both experiments: (NH: one semitone - 81.2%, six semitones - 89.0%; CI: one semitone - 49.0%, six semitones - 60.2%; p<0.001). Prior musical experience was found to be associated with higher pitch-ranking scores for the NH subjects. Those with musical experience ratings <3 obtained significantly lower scores for both interval sizes (p<0.001) than those with higher ratings. Nevertheless, the scores obtained by the musically inexperienced, NH adults were  significantly higher than those obtained by the CI group for both the one-semitone (p=0.022) and six-semitone (p=0.018) intervals. These results suggest that the pitch information CI users obtain from their implant systems is  less accurate than that obtained by NH listeners when listening to the same complex sounds. Furthermore, the relatively poor pitch-ranking ability of at least some CI users may be associated with a more-limited experience of music in  general.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17604582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


HNO. 2007 Aug;55(8):613-9.

[Discrimination of musical pitch with cochlear implants]

[Article in German]

Haumann S, Mühler R, Ziese M, von Specht H.

Abt. Experimentelle Audiologie und Medizinische Physik, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg.

BACKGROUND: Numerous people with cochlear implants (CI) report difficulties in listening to music even though they understand speech quite well. One reason for  this is a limited perception of pitch and timbre. In this study ability of adult  CI subjects to discriminate musical pitch is investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  In two psychoacoustic experiments, each conducted in 10 adult CI subjects provided with MED-EL Combi 40+ cochlear implant devices and a control group of subjects with normal hearing, individual discrimination abilities for musical pitch perception were determined. To investigate the influence of the group of instruments on discrimination ability, stimuli representing four different groups of instruments were used: woodwind (clarinet), brass (trumpet), strings (violin)  and keyboard instruments (piano). RESULTS: The discrimination thresholds determined varied between individual CI subjects, and on average they were significantly higher for the piano than for the other three instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that in subjects with CI pitch perception differs from instrument to instrument and is in general worse than in persons with normal hearing.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     English Abstract

PMID: 17136415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Aug;122(2):1004-13.

Spectral modulation masking patterns reveal tuning to spectral envelope frequency.

Saoji AA, Eddins DA.

Psychoacoustic Laboratory, Center for Hearing and Deafness, Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14314, USA.

Auditory processing appears to include a series of domain-specific filtering operations that include tuning in the audio-frequency domain, followed by tuning  in the temporal modulation domain, and perhaps tuning in the spectral modulation  domain. To explore the possibility of tuning in the spectral modulation domain, a masking experiment was designed to measure masking patterns in the spectral modulation domain. Spectral modulation transfer functions (SMTFs) were measured for modulation frequencies from 0.25 to 14 cycles/octave superimposed on noise carriers either one octave (800-1600 Hz, 6400-12,800 Hz) or six octaves wide (200-12,800 Hz). The resulting SMTFs showed maximum sensitivity to modulation between 1 and 3 cycles/octave with reduced sensitivity above and below this region. Masked spectral modulation detection thresholds were measured for masker  modulation frequencies of 1, 3, and 5 cycles/octave with a fixed modulation depth of 15 dB. The masking patterns obtained for each masker frequency and carrier band revealed tuning (maximum masking) near the masker frequency, which is consistent with the theory that spectral envelope perception is governed by a series of spectral modulation channels tuned to different spectral modulation frequencies.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17672648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Aug;122(2):881-91.

The bag-of-frames approach to audio pattern recognition: a sufficient model for urban soundscapes but not for polyphonic music.

Aucouturier JJ, Defreville B, Pachet F.

Ikegami Lab, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF) to audio pattern recognition represents signals as the long-term statistical distribution of their local spectral features. This approach has proved nearly optimal for simulating the auditory perception of natural and human environments (or soundscapes), and is also the most predominent paradigm to extract high-level descriptions from music signals.  However, recent studies show that, contrary to its application to soundscape signals, BOF only provides limited performance when applied to polyphonic music signals. This paper proposes to explicitly examine the difference between urban soundscapes and polyphonic music with respect to their modeling with the BOF approach. First, the application of the same measure of acoustic similarity on both soundscape and music data sets confirms that the BOF approach can model soundscapes to near-perfect precision, and exhibits none of the limitations observed in the music data set. Second, the modification of this measure by two custom homogeneity transforms reveals critical differences in the temporal and statistical structure of the typical frame distribution of each type of signal. Such differences may explain the uneven performance of BOF algorithms on soundscapes and music signals, and suggest that their human perception rely on cognitive processes of a different nature.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17672638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Aug;122(2):EL29-34.

Effect of filter spacing on melody recognition: acoustic and electric hearing.

Kasturi K, Loizou PC.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson,  Texas 75083-0688, USA.

This paper assesses the effect of filter spacing on melody recognition by normal-hearing (NH) and cochlear implant (CI) subjects. A new semitone filter spacing is proposed for music. The quality of melodies processed by the various filter spacings is also evaluated. Results from NH listeners showed nearly perfect melody recognition with only four channels of stimulation, and results from CI users indicated significantly higher scores with a 12-channel semitone spacing compared to the spacing used in their daily processor. The quality of melodies processed by the semitone filter spacing was preferred over melodies processed by the conventional logarithmic filter spacing.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17672526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Aug;37(7):1355-60. Epub 2006 Dec 5.

Beyond perception: musical representation and on-line processing in autism.

Heaton P, Williams K, Cummins O, Happé FG.

Goldsmiths College, University of London, New Cross, London, SE14 6NW, UK.

Whilst findings from experimental studies suggest that perceptual mechanisms underpinning musical cognition are preserved or enhanced in autism, little is known about how higher-level, structural aspects of music are processed. Twenty participants with autism, together with age and intelligence matched controls, completed a musical priming task in which global and local musical contexts were  manipulated. The results from the study revealed no between-group differences and showed that both global and local musical contexts influenced participants' congruity judgements. The findings were interpreted within the context of studies showing weakened sensitivity to verbal/semantic information in autism.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17146705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Aug;37(7):1264-71. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Use of songs to promote independence in morning greeting routines for young children with autism.

Kern P, Wolery M, Aldridge D.

Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at  Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing the songs during the routine.  The effects were evaluated using a single subject withdrawal design. The results  indicate that the songs, with modifications for one child, assisted the children  in entering the classroom, greeting the teacher and/or peers and engaging in play. For one child, the number of peers who greeted him was also measured, and increased when the song was used.

PMID: 17120150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroradiology. 2007 Aug;49(8):669-79. Epub 2007 Apr 3.

Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the  auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus.

Smits M, Kovacs S, de Ridder D, Peeters RR, van Hecke P, Sunaert S.

Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, 's Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. METHODS: Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P(corrected) < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. CONCLUSION: Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17404721 [PubMed - in process]


Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Aug;105(1):236-42.

Differential skills of perception of frequency.

Schwenzer M, Mathiak K.

RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

This study aimed to develop tests for differentiating auditory perception skills, e.g., to test drug effects. In Exp. 1 (N = 60), discrimination of succeeding frequencies, frequency identification assessed by a choice reaction task, and the perception of pitch contour assessed by frequency deviants in binaural melodies showed zero partial correlations. In Exp. 2 (N = 36), discrimination correlated with performance on a field dependence test; fast frequency identification correlated with verbal fluency. The auditory tests are likely suitable for assessing distinct skills, but correlations with general cognitive abilities require further investigations.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17918570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Aug;105(1):133-42.

Relations of singing talent with voice onset time of trained and untrained female singers.

McCrea CR, Watts C.

Department of Communicative Disorders, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City 37614-1702, USA.

This study examined phonatory-articulatory timing during sung productions by trained and untrained female singers with and without singing talent. 31 untrained female singers were divided into two groups (talented or untalented) based on the perceptual judgments of singing talent by two experienced vocal instructors. In addition to the untrained singers, 24 trained female singers were recorded singing America the Beautiful, and voice onset time was measured for selected words containing /p, b, g, k/. Univariate analyses of variance indicated that phonatory-articulatory timing, as measured with voice onset time, was different among the three groups for /g/, with the untrained-untalented singers displaying longer voice onset time than the trained singers. No other significant differences were observed across the other phonemes. Despite a significant difference observed, relatively small effect sizes and statistical power make it  difficult to draw any conclusions regarding the usefulness of voice onset time as an indicator of singing talent.

PMID: 17918556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurology. 2007 Jul 31;69(5):490-2.

Clinical and anatomic characteristics of humming and singing in partial seizures.

Bartolomei F, McGonigal A, Guye M, Guedj E, Chauvel P.

Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, CHU Timone, Marseille, France.

PMID: 17664411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


New Yorker. 2007 Jul 23;:38-42.

A neurologist's notebook: a bolt from the blue: where do sudden passions come from?

Sacks O.

A case of musicophilia arises after a patient is struck by lighting and experiences an "out-of-body," near-death experience.

Publication Types:      Biography     Historical Article

Personal Name as Subject:      Cicoria T

PMID: 17633781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Voice. 2007 Jul 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Perceived Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Young Female Singers in the Western Classical Tradition.

Ryan M, Kenny DT.

Australian Centre for Applied Research in Music Performance (ACARMP), Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

SUMMARY: This study investigated the perceived effects of the female hormonal cycle on young female classical singers. All the singers, including male controls, were tertiary singing students from the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, Australia, who were selected for entry into vocal study programs by competitive audition. Female participants completed a questionnaire and daily diary in the first and third months of the study. Male controls completed the diary for the first month only. The questionnaire and diary focused on singers' physical symptoms, their mood states, and vocal production. Analysis of the diaries indicated that although 81% of female singers reported regular menstrual cycles and 43% reported using an oral contraceptive, neither of these factors was related to the voice quality variables as measured on the first day of the cycle. Singers who were not taking a contraceptive pill rated their voice quality lower  and their mood higher than those on the pill. There was no relationship between temperature recording in the females and day of cycle. Perceived voice quality for female singers was lower on days 1-3 compared to the remainder of the cycle and there was a trend for ratings to improve through days 1-7. The voice parameters for male singers tended to be slightly flatter over the cycle days than for females. Although voice quality in females indicated a tendency to be lower on average during days 24-4 of the cycle, voice quality for males tended to be more alike during the two phases, days 24-4 and days 5-23. Overall, reduced voice quality was associated with more negative mood experiences. The six most severely affected females completed voice recordings of specific vocal tasks on the first day of the cycle and again in midcycle. These recordings were randomly  presented to both the participants and expert vocal pedagogues to ascertain whether significant differences in vocal quality were perceptually identifiable.  Singers, but not pedagogues, were able to accurately identify the timing of the recordings. Although the singer recognized that greater effort is required to produce the sound during menstruation, discernible differences were not detected  by expert listeners.

PMID: 17658719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Brain Res. 2007 Jul 2;1156:168-73. Epub 2007 Apr 24.

Modification of dichotic listening (DL) performance by musico-linguistic abilities and age.

Milovanov R, Tervaniemi M, Takio F, Hämäläinen H.

Department of English, University of Turku, 20014, Finland.

To increase our understanding of the phonemic processing skills of musical and non-musical subjects, the Dichotic Listening task was performed in children and adults with varying degrees of musical aptitude. The roles of maturation and musical training were also investigated. The results showed superior left ear monitoring skills among the adults who practised music regularly. This may indicate altered hemispheric functioning. Other musically talented subjects did not have the ability to control left ear functioning in an equal manner, for instance, the performance of musical children and their non-musical controls in the forced-left / left ear condition did not differ. Thus, regular music practice may have a modulatory effect on the brain's linguistic organization and therefore, the beneficial effects of music on other cognitive skills should not be underestimated.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17509539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Acta Otolaryngol. 2007 Jul;127(7):711-21.

Musical brains: a study of spontaneous and evoked musical sensations without external auditory stimuli.

Goycoolea MV, Mena I, Neubauer SG, Levy RG, Grez MF, Berger CG.

Clínica Las Condes and Chilean National Conservatory of Music, Santiago, Chile.

CONCLUSIONS: Our observations confirm that musical sensations with no external stimuli, either spontaneous or evoked, occur in normal individuals and that a biological substrate can be demonstrated by brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). OBJECTIVES: There are individuals, usually musicians, who are seemingly able to evoke and/or have spontaneous musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. However, to date there is no available evidence to determine if it is feasible to have musical sensations without using external sensory receptors, or if there is a biological substrate for these sensations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A group of 100 musicians and another of 150 otolaryngologists were asked if they had spontaneous musical auditory sensations  and/or were capable of evoking them. SPECT evaluations with Tc(99m)-HMPAO were conducted in six female musicians while they were evoking these sensations or, in one case, while she was having them spontaneously. In three of them an additional SPECT was conducted in basal conditions (having been asked to avoid evoking music). RESULTS: In all, 97 of 100 musicians had spontaneous musical sensations;  all 100 could evoke and modify them. Of the 150 otolaryngologists, 18 (12%) were  musicians. Of the 132 nonmusicians, spontaneous musical sensations occurred in 52 (39.4%), 72 (54.5%) could evoke and 23 (17.4%) were able to modify them, 58 (43.9%) did not have spontaneous musical sensations nor could they evoke them. The musical sensations of the 72 otolaryngologists that could evoke were less elaborated than those of musicians. NeuroSPECT during voluntary musical autoevocation demonstrated significant (>2 SD) increased activation of executive  frontal cortex in Brodmann areas 9 and 10, secondary visual cortex (area 17), and paracingulate (areas 31 and 32). There was also activation in the para-executive  frontal cortex (areas 45 and 46). In the basal ganglia there was activation in thalamus and lentiform nucleus. Deactivation below 2 SD was demonstrated by mean  values in the cingulate gyrus, Brodmann areas 23 and 24, and subgenual area 25. Deactivation was also demonstrated when minimal values were analyzed in the same  areas plus area 4 and areas 36 and 38, the latter in the pole of the temporal lobes. In three patients comparison of basal state with autoevocation demonstrated activation in executive frontal cortex (areas 8 and 9), para-executive cortex (area 45), primary auditory cortex (area 40), the right thalamus, and lentiform nucleus.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17573567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Aging Ment Health. 2007 Jul;11(4):464-71.

Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.

Bugos JA, Perlstein WM, McCrae CS, Brophy TS, Bedenbaugh PH.

East Carolina University, A-123, AJ Fletcher Greenville, NC 27858, USA.

This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naďve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60-85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 16) or control group (n = 15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered at three time points: pre-training, following six months of intervention, and following a three-month delay. The experimental group significantly improved performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol measures as compared to healthy controls. Results of this study suggest that IPI may serve as an effective cognitive intervention for  age-related cognitive decline.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17612811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2007 Jul-Aug;41(4):34-8.

[The effect of sensory stimuli of varying modality on the human body functioning  and indices of tense muscular activity]

[Article in Russian]

Kaĭdalin VS, Kamchatnikov AG, Sentiabrev NN, Katuntsev VP.

The work had a purpose to study benefits of aromatic blends of tonic and relaxing essences and functional music on some of the psychophysiological properties of the human functional state and motor activeity. Participants were 30 sprinters (18-22 y.o. males) having the first-class and master ranks. The psychophysiological indices of the athletes' functional state were evaluated with the use of the "CAH" and Spilberger situational anxiety tests, calculated Cardeu vegetative index, time for simple motor reaction and reaction to a moving object. Motor activity was evaluated by top running speed determined with a photo-electronic time-keeper and by duration of pedaling on bicycle ergometer at  maximal power. The running step parameters were recorded with electropodography.  It was shown that the positive effect of the aromatic essence blends and functional music on motor activity developed fairly rapidly but did not last long. The article discusses features and possible ways the aromatic blends and music effect human organism.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 18035712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Behav Modif. 2007 Jul;31(4):382-8.

The effects of verbal instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback on correct posture during flute playing.

Dib NE, Sturmey P.

The City University of New York Graduate Center, Queens College, NY, USA.

A behavioral skills training package, including verbal instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, was used to teach children correct posture, defined as keeping feet on the floor, legs parallel to each other, and the back and neck perpendicular to the floor, during flute lessons. Three typically developing girls aged 8 to 9 years participated. All three students' posture improved from 0% during baseline to nearly 100% after training for all sessions, generalization probes, and after a 1- to 2-month follow-up. The training package was proven effective in the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of correct posture  for flute playing.

PMID: 17548536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Biol Psychol. 2007 Jul;75(3):219-28. Epub 2007 Mar 3.

Rhythm perception: Speeding up or slowing down affects different subcomponents of the ERP P3 complex.

Jongsma ML, Meeuwissen E, Vos PG, Maes R.

GW/Department of Cognitive Psychology and Ergonomics, University of Twente, The Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to investigate, by measuring the event related potential (ERP) P3 complex, whether the perception of small accelerations differs from that of small decelerations. Participants had to decide whether the last beat of a short sequence was presented 'too early' or 'too late'. Target beats were accelerated or decelerated with 0%, 2%, 5%, or 10%. Individuals differed in  their capability to detect small tempo changes. We found that good responders were able to identify all tempo changes whereas poor responders were only able to identify large (10%) tempo changes. In addition, we found that tempo changes affected two subcomponents of the ERP P3 in good performers. Accelerations increased a late-P3 amplitude whereas decelerations increased an early-P3 amplitude. These results imply the principle possibility to measure differential  P3 effects within one task. This is important for acquiring more refined knowledge concerning different subcomponents of the ERP P3 complex and the cognitive processes by which they are elicited.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17403564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007 Jul;44(4):424-33.

Stress velopharyngeal incompetence: prevalence, treatment, and management practices.

Malick D, Moon J, Canady J.

Speech Pathology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL  33612, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Stress velopharyngeal incompetence is the unwanted coupling of the oral and nasal cavities while brass and woodwind musicians play their instruments. This study investigated both (1) the prevalence of stress velopharyngeal incompetence in college musicians, delineating symptoms and situations possibly associated with the condition; and (2) physicians' experiences with musicians exhibiting stress velopharyngeal incompetence, including typical treatment and management techniques. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed to 297 brass or woodwind student musicians at three public universities and to 998 plastic surgeons and otolaryngologists. The musician questionnaire focused on demographic data and identification of symptoms that might indicate the presence of stress velopharyngeal incompetence. The physician  questionnaire addressed demographics of the physician and his or her practice, familiarity and experience with stress velopharyngeal incompetence, and treatment and management suggestions for individuals experiencing the condition. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the responding musicians reported symptoms of stress velopharyngeal incompetence, most often after 30 minutes of playing. Forty-five percent of the responding physicians reported being familiar with the term stress velopharyngeal incompetence, although only 27% reported ever having seen a patient with the condition. The seven most frequently reported intervention strategies were referral to a speech language pathologist (47.50%), sphincter pharyngoplasty (30.00%), pharyngeal flap (26.88%), referral to a cleft palate team (24.38%), watch and wait (18.75%), posterior wall fat injection (12.50%), and palatal lift (10.00%). CONCLUSIONS: Stress velopharyngeal incompetence is a potentially career-ending (or career-preventing) problem that currently may be undertreated and that is in need of more systematic study both in terms of its physiologic underpinnings and its management.

PMID: 17608556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2007 Jul;11(4):232-4. Epub 2007 Apr 2.

The cerebellum and cognition.

Gordon N.

Humtlywood, 3 Styal Road, Wilmslow, UK.

The most important function of the cerebellum may be to coordinate motor function so that movements can be performed smoothly, but there are others. It has been shown that the cerebellum is involved in certain aspects of cognition and changes in affect. Also verbal deficits can be found after cerebellar lesions. The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is described, and the evidence for its existence discussed; in particular the use of neuroimaging studies. Different areas of the cerebellum have been identified as serving the various functions, and also their connections to the relevant parts of the cerebral cortex. Certain  conditions merit special attention. The function of spatial navigation needs a major contribution from the cerebellum, and the problems of autism and impaired cognition are no doubt related to the enlarged cerebellum described in this disorder. The cognitive defects found in children with cerebellar ataxia supports its role in learning, and the study of music.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17400009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Fiziol Cheloveka. 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):24-32.

[Biofeedback for the optimization of psychomotor reactivity: Communication I. Comparative analysis of biofeedback and common performance practice]

[Article in Russian]

Bazanova OM, Shtark MB.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17853818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Health (London). 2007 Jul;11(3):349-70.

Creativity, identity and healing: participants' accounts of music therapy in cancer care.

Daykin N, McClean S, Bunt L.

University of West of England, Bristol, UK.

This article reports on findings from a study of the accounts of people participating in music therapy as part of a programme of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in supportive cancer care. The article outlines the perceived effects of music therapy, which shares many characteristics with CAM therapies as well as offering a distinct contribution as a creative therapy. Hence in this article we draw on theories and writings from the sociology of CAM  as well as those relating to music, healing and aesthetics in order to explore participants' accounts. The importance of identity and the role of creativity in  processes of individuation are key themes emerging from the analysis. While music and creativity are often seen uncritically as resources for health and well-being, we draw attention to the challenges and complexity of diverse responses to music, framed by personal biographies that are in turn often situated within socially constructed notions of aesthetics. We argue that in research on music therapy, as well as other CAM therapies, issues of identity can be key to an understanding of questions of therapeutic impact.

PMID: 17606699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 2007 Jul;82(4):213-6.

[A case of pure word deafness after cerebral hemorrhage]

[Article in Japanese]

Koyama S, Shindou J, Maruyama J.

Department of Neurology, Asahikawa Rehabilitation Hospital, Asahikawa 078-8801, Japan.

The authors present the findings of an 81-year-old female who demonstrated pure word deafness after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage. Her speech was well articulated, but she could not comprehend spoken words. She responded correctly to written instructions, environmental noises and music. We consider that pure word deafness in this case was caused by the interruption of auditory inputs to Wernicke's area from both hemispheres by the hemorrhage.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     English Abstract

PMID: 17684945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Holist Nurs Pract. 2007 Jul-Aug;21(4):182-6.

Stress reduction for nurses through Arts-in-Medicine at the University of New Mexico Hospitals.

Repar PA, Patton D.

Department of Music and Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico, 1927 Truman  Street NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110, USA.

Artists-in-medicine at the University of New Mexico help nurses remember and renew the values that originally attracted them to the field of nursing. Exploring their nascent creativity through massage, yoga, art, music, and writing, nurses are encouraged to reconnect emotionally and spiritually with themselves, their patients, and fellow healthcare workers.

Publication Types:      Evaluation Studies

PMID: 17627196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Jul;61(7):1126-30. Epub 2007 Mar 2.

Effects of music on gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy humans.

Lin HH, Chang WK, Chu HC, Huang TY, Chao YC, Hsieh TY.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Neihu, Taipei, Taiwan.

The aim was to study the effects of listening to music on gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy humans. Gastric myoelectrical activity was recorded using surface electrogastrography from 17 healthy volunteers before and for 30 min after they listened to music. All subjects listened to the same music. Ten perceived the music as enjoyable and seven did not. The percentages of normal slow wave, dominant frequency and dominant power did not differ significantly between baseline and during music intervention. An analysis of covariance model that included the subjects' feelings about the music and dominant power showed significantly higher dominant power during music intervention in subjects who enjoyed the music (p < 0.01). In the individuals who enjoyed the music, dominant  power (55.0 +/- 9.2 dB) was significantly higher during music intervention than at baseline (49.5 +/- 6.8 dB, p = 0.03). In the subjects who did not enjoy the music, dominant power was significantly lower during music intervention than at baseline (48.8 +/- 6.8 and 55.7 +/- 6.2 dB, respectively; p < 0.01). Listening to enjoyable music increases the amplitude of gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy humans. Music therapy may improve gastric motility and may be used to stimulate gastric emptying.

PMID: 17343672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Psychophysiol. 2007 Jul;65(1):69-84. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Metabolic and electric brain patterns during pleasant and unpleasant emotions induced by music masterpieces.

Flores-Gutiérrez EO, Díaz JL, Barrios FA, Favila-Humara R, Guevara MA, del Río-Portilla Y, Corsi-Cabrera M.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.

Brain correlates comparing pleasant and unpleasant states induced by three dissimilar masterpiece excerpts were obtained. Related emotional reactions to the music were studied using Principal Component Analysis of validated reports, fMRI, and EEG coherent activity. A piano selection by Bach and a symphonic passage from Mahler widely differing in musical features were used as pleasing pieces. A segment by Prodromidčs was used as an unpleasing stimulus. Ten consecutive 30 s segments of each piece alternating with random static noise were played to 19 non-musician volunteers for a total of 30 min of auditory stimulation. Both brain approaches identified a left cortical network involved with pleasant feelings (Bach and Mahler vs. Prodromidčs) including the left primary auditory area, posterior temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions. While the primary auditory zone may provide an early affective quality, left cognitive areas may contribute to pleasant feelings when melodic sequences follow expected rules. In  contrast, unpleasant emotions (Prodromidčs vs. Bach and Mahler) involved the activation of the right frontopolar and paralimbic areas. Left activation with pleasant and right with unpleasant musical feelings is consistent with right supremacy in novel situations and left in predictable processes. When all musical excerpts were jointly compared to noise, in addition to bilateral auditory activation, the left temporal pole, inferior frontal gyrus, and frontopolar area  were activated suggesting that cognitive and language processes were recruited in general responses to music. Sensory and cognitive integration seems required for  musical emotion.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17466401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):139-55.

A project investigating music therapy referral trends within palliative care: an  Australian perspective.

Horne-Thompson A, Daveson B, Hogan B.

Calvary Health Care Bethlehem, Melbourne, Australia.

The purpose of this project is to analyze music therapy (MT) referral trends from palliative care team members across nine Australian inpatient and community-based palliative care settings. For each referral 6 items were collected: referral source, reason and type; time from Palliative Care Program (PCP) admission to MT  referral; time from MT referral to death/discharge; and profile of referred patient. Participants (196 female, 158 male) were referred ranging in age from 4-98 years and most were diagnosed with cancer (91%, n = 323). Nurses (47%, n = 167) referred most frequently to music therapy. The mean average time in days for all referrals from PCP admission to MT referral was 11.47 and then 5.19 days to time of death. Differences in length of time to referral ranged from 8.19 days (allied health staff) to 43.75 days (families). Forty-eight percent of referrals  (48.5%, n = 172) were completed when the patient was rated at an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance (ECOG) of three. Sixty-nine percent (n = 244) were living with others at the time of referral and most were Australian born. Thirty-six percent (36.7%, n = 130) were referred for symptom-based reasons, and 24.5% (n = 87) for support and coping. Implications for service delivery of music therapy practice, interdisciplinary care and benchmarking of music therapy services shall be discussed.

Publication Types:      Multicenter Study

PMID: 17488175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):123-38.

The effects of orff-based music therapy and social work groups on childhood grief symptoms and behaviors.

Hilliard RE.

Seasons Hospice and Palliative Care, Sate University of New York, New Paltz.

This study evaluated and compared the effects of Orff-based music therapy, social work, and wait-list control groups on behavioral problems and grief symptoms of bereaved school-aged children. Social work and music therapy sessions were provided weekly for one hour over an eight-week period. Participants (N = 26) attended three different public elementary schools, and each school was randomly  assigned to one of the conditions. Pre and posttest measures consisted of the Behavior Rating Index for Children (BRIC) and the Bereavement Group Questionnaire for Parents and Guardians (BP). The BRIC measured behavioral distress and the BP  measured grief symptoms prior to and following participation in the assigned conditions. Statistical analyses indicated that participants in the music therapy group significantly improved in the behaviors and grief symptoms, and those in the social work group experienced a significant reduction in their behavioral problems but not their grief symptoms. Participants in the wait-list control group made no significant improvements in either their grief symptoms or behavioral problems. A reduction in behavioral distress as measured by the BRIC and a reduction in grief symptoms as measured by the BP is the most desired outcome. This study supports the use of Orff-based music therapy interventions for bereaved children in a school-based grief program. Recommendations for future research are included.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17488174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):113-22.

The effect of music therapy on the spirituality of persons in an in-patient hospice unit as measured by self-report.

Wlodarczyk N.

The Florida State University, Big Bend Hospice, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the spirituality of persons in an in-patient hospice unit as measured by self-report. Participants (N = 10) were used as their own control in an ABAB design format. Session A consisted of approximately 30 minutes of music therapy, after which the patient/subject responded to a spiritual well-being questionnaire; Session B consisted of approximately 30 minutes of a nonmusic visit, after which the patient/subject responded to a spiritual well-being questionnaire. The spiritual  well-being questionnaire used in this study is an 18-item, religiously nonspecific, self-report questionnaire using a Likert Scale of 6 degrees adapted  from the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (Ellison & Paloutzian, 1982). All participants gave written consent prior to participation in the study. Data results were graphically and statistically analyzed after four visits and four spiritual well-being questionnaires were completed for each subject. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in spiritual well-being scores on music days.

PMID: 17488173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):90-112.

Pain assessment and management in end of life care: a survey of assessment and treatment practices of hospice music therapy and nursing professionals.

Groen KM.

School of Music, University of Iowa, USA.

The primary focus of this paper is to describe current trends in pain assessment  in end of life care with a secondary focus on music therapy techniques commonly used to address pain for hospice patients. These trends were determined through a survey of 72 board certified music therapists and 92 hospice and palliative nurses. Survey results indicate that most music therapists in the hospice setting incorporate formal pain assessment into their practice; both nursing professionals and music therapists surveyed utilize multiple assessment tools to  assess patient pain. Although there are currently a variety of pain assessment tools used, this study indicates that nursing professionals most frequently use the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and FACES scales, and identified them as appropriate for use by nonnursing members of the interdisciplinary hospice team.  This paper also describes music therapy techniques most often utilized by music therapists with hospice patients to address acute and chronic pain symptoms.

PMID: 17484524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):156-68.

The effect of Bach's magnificat on emotions, immune, and endocrine parameters during physiotherapy treatment of patients with infectious lung conditions.

le Roux FH, Bouic PJ, Bester MM.

Physiotherapy Private Practice, Fish Hoek, South Africa.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Bach's Magnificat on emotions, immune, and endocrine parameters in patients of specific infectious lung conditions. Participants (N = 40; 9 men & 31 women) ranging in age from 40 to 75 participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental and control group. During a 3-day period the experimental group received physiotherapy with the selected music, while the control group only received physiotherapy. ANOVA statistics indicate significant changes in the following parameters: POMS-scale, CD4+:CD8+ ratio, cortisol, and cortisol:DHEA ratio. The intervention of music demonstrates communication between the mind and  body.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17484523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ky Nurse. 2007 Jul-Sep;55(3):10.

Music therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain.

McCutchen A.

Department of Baccalaureate and Graduate Nursing, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, USA.

The results of the study by McCaffrey and Freeman (2003) are pertinent to the group project as they reflect the therapeutic benefit of music therapy. Suggestions for future research include studying music intervention on other types of pain as well as selecting a larger, more random sample to increase rigor and control. The availability of educational funds and the shortage of staffing and other resources are feasibility issues that must be looked at when teaching nursing students about the benefits of music as a nursing intervention.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17707973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nat Neurosci. 2007 Jul;10(7):915-21. Epub 2007 Jun 24.

Comment in:     Curr Biol. 2007 Oct 23;17(20):R892-3.    Nat Neurosci. 2007 Jul;10(7):810-2.

Amusia is associated with deficits in spatial processing.

Douglas KM, Bilkey DK.

Department of Psychology, 95 Union St, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Amusia (commonly referred to as tone-deafness) is a difficulty in discriminating  pitch changes in melodies that affects around 4% of the human population. Amusia  cannot be explained as a simple sensory impairment. Here we show that amusia is strongly related to a deficit in spatial processing in adults. Compared to two matched control groups (musicians and non-musicians), participants in the amusic  group were significantly impaired on a visually presented mental rotation task. Amusic subjects were also less prone to interference in a spatial stimulus-response incompatibility task and performed significantly faster than controls in an interference task in which they were required to make simple pitch discriminations while concurrently performing a mental rotation task. This indicates that the processing of pitch in music normally depends on the cognitive mechanisms that are used to process spatial representations in other modalities.

PMID: 17589505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007 Jul;8(7):547-58.

When the brain plays music: auditory-motor interactions in music perception and production.

Zatorre RJ, Chen JL, Penhune VB.

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Music performance is both a natural human activity, present in all societies, and one of the most complex and demanding cognitive challenges that the human mind can undertake. Unlike most other sensory-motor activities, music performance requires precise timing of several hierarchically organized actions, as well as precise control over pitch interval production, implemented through diverse effectors according to the instrument involved. We review the cognitive neuroscience literature of both motor and auditory domains, highlighting the value of studying interactions between these systems in a musical context, and propose some ideas concerning the role of the premotor cortex in integration of higher order features of music with appropriately timed and organized actions.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Review

PMID: 17585307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroimage. 2007 Jul 1;36(3):889-900. Epub 2007 Mar 24.

Overt and imagined singing of an Italian aria.

Kleber B, Birbaumer N, Veit R, Trevorrow T, Lotze M.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Activation maps of 16 professional classical singers were evaluated during overt  singing and imagined singing of an Italian aria utilizing a sparse sampling functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) technique. Overt singing involved bilateral primary and secondary sensorimotor and auditory cortices but also areas associated with speech and language production. Activation magnitude within the gyri of Heschl (A1) was comparable in both hemispheres. Subcortical motor areas (cerebellum, thalamus, medulla and basal ganglia) were active too. Areas associated with emotional processing showed slight (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula) activation. Cerebral activation sites during imagined singing were centered on fronto-parietal areas and involved primary and secondary sensorimotor areas in both hemispheres. Areas processing emotions showed intense  activation (ACC and bilateral insula, hippocampus and anterior temporal poles, bilateral amygdala). Imagery showed no significant activation in A1. Overt minus  imagined singing revealed increased activation in cortical (bilateral primary motor; M1) and subcortical (right cerebellar hemisphere, medulla) motor as well as in sensory areas (primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral A1). Imagined minus  overt singing showed enhanced activity in the medial Brodmann's area 6, the ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, Wernicke's area and Brocca's area and their homologues were increasingly active during imagery. We conclude that imagined and overt singing involves partly different brain systems in professional singers with more prefrontal and limbic activation and a larger network of higher order associative functions during imagery.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17478107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Noise Health. 2007 Jul-Sep;9(36):55-63.

Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

Bohlin MC, Erlandsson SI.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.

Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to  young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations  correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally  more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more  risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as  often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18025756 [PubMed - in process]


Percept Psychophys. 2007 Jul;69(5):699-708.

Sensorimotor synchronization with chords containing tone-onset asynchronies.

Hove MJ, Keller PE, Krumhansl CL.

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7601, USA.

Musical ensemble performance requires the synchronization of multiple performers, resulting in sequences of chords containing multiple tones with multiple onsets.  Experiments 1 and 2 investigate whether sensorimotor synchronization with chord sequences containing tone-onset asynchronies is affected by (1) the magnitude of  these asynchronies (25, 30, or 50 msec) and (2) the pitch of the leading tone (high vs. low). Participants tapped a finger in synchrony with different types of chord sequences created by crossing these variables, as well as with sequences of chords containing simultaneous onsets. Results indicate that taps were drawn toward the second onset, when present, especially when it was lower in pitch than the first. Additionally, chords with nonsimultaneous onsets increased tapping variability for nonmusicians, but decreased variability for musicians. Experiment 3 measured the perceptual centers of the chords from Experiment 2, and yielded results suggesting that subjective onsets determine the temporal placement of taps during synchronization.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17929693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychol Bull. 2007 Jul;133(4):638-50.

Age of acquisition: its neural and computational mechanisms.

Hernandez AE, Li P.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5022, USA.

The acquisition of new skills over a life span is a remarkable human ability. This ability, however, is constrained by age of acquisition (AoA); that is, the age at which learning occurs significantly affects the outcome. This is most clearly reflected in domains such as language, music, and athletics. This article provides a perspective on the neural and computational mechanisms underlying AoA  in language acquisition. The authors show how AoA modulates both monolingual lexical processing and bilingual language acquisition. They consider the conditions under which syntactic processing and semantic processing may be differentially sensitive to AoA effects in second-language acquisition. The authors conclude that AoA effects are pervasive and that the neural and computational mechanisms underlying learning and sensorimotor integration provide a general account of these effects. Copyright 2007 APA

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Review

PMID: 17592959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Jul;32(6):660-8. Epub 2007 Jun 8.

Saliva testosterone and heart rate variability in the professional symphony orchestra after "public faintings" of an orchestra member.

Theorell T, Liljeholm-Johansson Y, Björk H, Ericson M.

National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, P.O. Box 230, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.

Musicians are sensitive to changes in their work environment. A 2-year longitudinal study with repeated observations was performed in two professional symphony orchestras. A representative sample from each one of them was selected,  15 and 16 members respectively. In one of them a wind player fainted twice in front of the audience shortly preceding and coinciding with the start of the study. Changes in two indicators that reflect regenerative/anabolic and parasympathetic tone, saliva testosterone concentration (STC) and very low-frequency power (VLFP) in heart rate variability were followed in relation to this dramatic change. Saliva samples and 24-h ECG heart rate variability recordings were collected on five occasions every 6 months during a 2-year period. No changes were seen in the control orchestra whereas the levels showed a pronounced rise in the intervention orchestra during the first part of the study, starting from low levels. VLFP showed a similar pattern, with initially low and then rising level in the intervention orchestra and higher stable level in the other group. In the total study group, a rise in STC over the whole observation period was significantly correlated with increase in VLFP and also significantly  correlated with a decrease in low/high-frequency power ratio in heart rate variability. The changes observed in the anabolic/regenerative STC and the parasympathetically influenced VLFP may reflect changes in the work environment associated with the faintings.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17560732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 29;421(3):264-9. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

Roles of proximal-to-distal sequential organization of the upper limb segments in striking the keys by expert pianists.

Furuya S, Kinoshita H.

Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Roles played by the proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) of the multi-joint limb in a relatively slow target-aiming task by the arm were investigated using keystroke motion on the piano. Kinematic recordings were made while experts (N=7) and novices (N=7) of piano players performed an octave keystroke at four linearly-scaled loudness levels with a short tone production (staccato) technique. The temporal relationship of the peak angular velocity at the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints showed a clear PDS organization for the experts, but not for the novices. The result thus confirmed that the PDS occurred in a slow and skilled multi-joint movement. The summation effect of segmental speed in terms of increment of the peak segmental angular velocity was equal for both groups. Similarly, no group difference was found for the total kinetic energy produced by the upper limb during keystroke. The role of the PDS in piano keystroke thus cannot be explained by the exploitation of speed-summation effect  and mechanical efficiency. Compared to the novices, the experts had a longer period and a greater magnitude of deceleration at the shoulder and elbow joints while their adjacent distal joints were accelerating. These results indicated that greater inertial forces had been generated to descend the forearm as well as the hand for the experts. A dominant role of the PDS in pianists can therefore be to effectively exploit motion-dependent interaction torques at the forearm and hand, and thereby reducing muscle-dependent torques to make the keystroke more physiologically efficient.

PMID: 17574744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 27;421(2):126-31. Epub 2007 May 29.

Modulation of cortical activity as a result of task-specific practice.

Slobounov S, Ray W, Cao C, Chiang H.

Department of Kinesiology, 19 Recreation Building, University Park, PA 16802-5702, USA.

This report aims to examine the role of task-specific practice in the modification of finger force enslaving and to provide empirical evidence for specific EEG frequency bands accompanying such practice may be an end-effectors dependent phenomenon. Nine handed naďve subjects without any training in music participated in a pre- and post-practice sessions separated by 12 practice sessions. Subjects performed a series of isometric force production tasks at 10%  and 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with two rates of force development separately by index and ring fingers. Task-specific practice aimed at suppressing the contribution of neighboring fingers was achieved via visual feedback of force traces. Behavioral data (accuracy of force production and amount of force enslaving) and EEG data in frequency domain obtained via Morlet Wavelet transforms were analyzed. The major behavioral finding is that task-specific practice significantly enhanced the accuracy of force production and individuated control of the "most enslaved" ring finger (P<0.01), but not the index finger. The major novel EEG findings are: (a) modulation of EEG activity within alpha band (8-12 Hz) in the central area of the brain as a function of practice was similar for both fingers and (b) after practice, modulation of EEG activity within gamma (30-50 Hz) band was end-effectors specific. Both behavioral and EEG  patterns suggest an effect of task-specific practice on the reduction of force enslaving and that modulation of practice-related plasticity in the human cortex  is end-effectors dependent phenomena.

PMID: 17566654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 13;420(2):179-83. Epub 2007 May 6.

Early music exposure modifies GluR2 protein expression in rat auditory cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

Xu F, Cai R, Xu J, Zhang J, Sun X.

College of Life Sciences, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, East China Normal  University, Shanghai 200062, China.

GluR2, a major subunit in AMPA receptor, plays an important role in brain functional activity. We studied the effect of music exposure during development on the expression level of GluR2 proteins in the auditory cortex (AC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of SD rats. Rats were divided into three groups,  Music1 (exposed to Nostalgy) group, Music2 (exposed to Wishmaster) group, and control (no music exposure) group. For music exposure groups, rats were exposed to music from postnatal day (PND) 14, and the expression levels of GluR2 proteins were determined at PND 28, 42 and 56. For the control group, the expression levels of GluR2 proteins were determined at PND1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56. Results showed an age-dependent expression of GluR2 proteins in control rats. In AC, exposure to Music2 dramatically increased the expression of GluR2, while exposure to Music1 had no effect. In ACC, we found remarkable discrepancies in time-dependent expression of GluR2 between music exposed rats and control rats. These results indicate that exposure to music can modify the expression level of GluR2 protein in AC and ACC.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17543993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 5;104(23):9852-7. Epub 2007 May 24.

Musical intervals in speech.

Ross D, Choi J, Purves D.

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present  study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17525146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;15(6):514-21. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

A comparison of two treatments of agitated behavior in nursing home residents with dementia: simulated family presence and preferred music.

Garland K, Beer E, Eppingstall B, O'Connor DW.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Arts, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two individualized psychosocial treatments in reducing the frequency of physically and verbally agitated behaviors in nursing home residents whose dementia was complicated by marked behavioral disturbance. METHODS: Thirty nursing home residents with frequent, severe behavioral disturbances were observed by research staff before, during, and after multiple, randomized, single-blind exposures to 15-minute audiotapes of simulated family presence (a conversation prepared by a family member about positive experiences from the past), music preferred by the resident in earlier life, and a placebo condition of a reading from a horticultural text. Selected (usually multiple) physical and verbal behaviors were counted as present or absent at regular intervals. All three treatment conditions were compared with usual care. RESULTS: Simulated presence and preferred music both proved effective in reducing counts of physically agitated behaviors. Simulated presence, but not music, resulted in significantly reduced counts of verbally agitated behaviors. The placebo tape proved more effective than expected. Participants' responses to simulated presence and music varied widely. Behavior counts fell by one-half or more in many cases. Other residents became more agitated. CONCLUSION: Participants' better-than-expected responses to the placebo tape suggest that even the simplest technology can improve the lives  of confused, disturbed nursing home residents. Of the two psychosocial treatments, preferred music tapes were easier to make and were clearly helpful in many instances. By contrast, family members often struggled to recall enough happy memories to compile a simulated presence tape. Simulated presence might prove just as effective if relatives speak on topics of their own choosing. Although not all residents were helped by these treatments, adverse effects were  mild and shortlived.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17293386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Body Image. 2007 Jun;4(2):137-45. Epub 2007 Apr 27.

The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction.

Bell BT, Lawton R, Dittmar H.

University of Leeds, UK.

Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present  study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or  learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this  relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 18089259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Brain Inj. 2007 Jun;21(6):593-9.

Music as a diagnostic tool in low awareness states: considering limbic responses.

Magee WL.

Institute of Neuropalliative Rehabilitation, London, UK.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Examining the evidence from contrasting epistemological sources a case is made for the use of music as an assessment medium with patients in low awareness states. Profound brain damage can result in long-term states of  altered consciousness such as vegetative and minimally conscious states. Differential diagnosis with this population is immensely complex requiring diverse approaches. Neuroimaging alone is not, as yet, sufficient to establish diagnosis in this population and must be supplemented by repeated behavioural observation methods from a skilled and diverse treatment team, as there are enormous medico-legal and ethical implications. Evidence from research in neuroimaging and the behavioural health sciences indicates that auditory stimulation can reveal residual functioning and elicit optimal behaviours in such patients, particularly when the stimulation has emotional significance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Behavioural assessment is complicated by limbic behaviours  which can be misinterpreted as purposeful emotional responses. A case vignette using music therapy in a complex case illustrates such complications. CONCLUSIONS: Given the evidence for residual auditory functioning in patients in  low awareness states, music is recommended as a medium for assessment. However, professionals involved in diagnosis must take caution against misinterpreting limbic responses and attributing greater meaning to such behaviours.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17577710 [PubMed - in process]


Brain Nerve. 2007 Jun;59(6):561-6.

[Musician's dystonia]

[Article in Japanese]

Sakamoto T.

Department of Neurology, Kohnodai Hospital, National Center of Neurology & Psychiatry, 1-7-1 Kohnodai, Ichikawa 272-8516, Japan.

It is very complex and stressful task to play musical instruments, creating fine  music. Professional musical players often complain of difficulties in manipulating their instruments skillfully. In these cases the fingers are found to be hyperflexing, upper limbs are in abnormal posture. This phenomena is named  as Musician's dystonia, due to abnormal sensory-motor integration concerning manipulation of musical instruments. It is a regret for the patients that few medical doctors pay attention to the disease and misdiagnose as psychiatric problem or others very often. The hyperactivity of finger muscle should be reduced precisely. Botulinum neurotoxin is effective to treat such hypercontraction of muscles, however, in case of musician's dystonia, too much amount of its effects are not beneficial for the players because of the risk to weaken or paralyze the finger/hand becomes higher. We are trying lidocaine injection into the muscles in charge of dystonic posture/movement successfully.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 17585587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Jun;28(3):412-23.

Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients on pitch perception, melody recognition,  and speech reception in noise.

Gfeller K, Turner C, Oleson J, Zhang X, Gantz B, Froman R, Olszewski C.

School of Music, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Iowa Cochlear Implant Clinical Research Center, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the accuracy of cochlear implant recipients who use different types of devices and signal processing strategies on pitch ranking as a function of size of interval and frequency range and (b) to examine the relations between this pitch perception measure and demographic variables, melody recognition, and speech reception in background noise. DESIGN: One hundred fourteen cochlear implant users and 21 normal-hearing adults were tested on a pitch discrimination task (pitch ranking)  that required them to determine direction of pitch change as a function of base frequency and interval size. Three groups were tested: (a) long electrode cochlear implant users (N = 101); (b) short electrode users that received acoustic plus electrical stimulation (A+E) (N = 13); and (c) a normal-hearing (NH) comparison group (N = 21). Pitch ranking was tested at standard frequencies  of 131 to 1048 Hz, and the size of the pitch-change intervals ranged from 1 to 4  semitones. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was fit to predict pitch ranking and to determine if group differences exist as a function of base frequency and interval size. Overall significance effects were measured with Chi-square tests and individual effects were measured with t-tests. Pitch ranking accuracy was correlated with demographic measures (age at time of testing, length of profound deafness, months of implant use), frequency difference limens, familiar melody recognition, and two measures of speech reception in noise. RESULTS: The long electrode recipients performed significantly poorer on pitch discrimination than the NH and A+E group. The A+E users performed similarly to the NH listeners as a function of interval size in the lower base frequency range, but their pitch discrimination scores deteriorated slightly in the higher  frequency range. The long electrode recipients, although less accurate than participants in the NH and A+E groups, tended to perform with greater accuracy within the higher frequency range. There were statistically significant correlations between pitch ranking and familiar melody recognition as well as with pure-tone frequency difference limens at 200 and 400 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Low-frequency acoustic hearing improves pitch discrimination as compared with traditional, electric-only cochlear implants. These findings have implications for musical tasks such as familiar melody recognition.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17485990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Jun;28(3):302-19.

Melodic contour identification by cochlear implant listeners.

Galvin JJ 3rd, Fu QJ, Nogaki G.

Department of Auditory Implants and Perception, House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, California 90057, USA.

OBJECTIVE: While the cochlear implant provides many deaf patients with good speech understanding in quiet, music perception and appreciation with the cochlear implant remains a major challenge for most cochlear implant users. The present study investigated whether a closed-set melodic contour identification (MCI) task could be used to quantify cochlear implant users' ability to recognize musical melodies and whether MCI performance could be improved with moderate auditory training. The present study also compared MCI performance with familiar  melody identification (FMI) performance, with and without MCI training. METHODS:  For the MCI task, test stimuli were melodic contours composed of 5 notes of equal duration whose frequencies corresponded to musical intervals. The interval between successive notes in each contour was varied between 1 and 5 semitones; the "root note" of the contours was also varied (A3, A4, and A5). Nine distinct musical patterns were generated for each interval and root note condition, resulting in a total of 135 musical contours. The identification of these melodic contours was measured in 11 cochlear implant users. FMI was also evaluated in the same subjects; recognition of 12 familiar melodies was tested with and without rhythm cues. MCI was also trained in 6 subjects, using custom software and melodic contours presented in a different frequency range from that used for testing. RESULTS: Results showed that MCI recognition performance was highly variable among cochlear implant users, ranging from 14% to 91% correct. For most  subjects, MCI performance improved as the number of semitones between successive  notes was increased; performance was slightly lower for the A3 root note condition. Mean FMI performance was 58% correct when rhythm cues were preserved and 29% correct when rhythm cues were removed. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlation between MCI performance and FMI performance (with or without rhythmic cues). However, MCI performance was significantly correlated with vowel recognition performance; FMI performance was not correlated with cochlear implant subjects' phoneme recognition performance. Preliminary results also showed that the MCI training improved all subjects' MCI performance; the improved MCI performance also generalized to improved FMI performance. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data indicate that the closed-set MCI task is a viable approach toward quantifying an important component of cochlear implant users' music perception. The improvement in MCI performance and generalization to FMI performance with training suggests that MCI training may be useful for improving  cochlear implant users' music perception and appreciation; such training may be necessary to properly evaluate patient performance, as acute measures may underestimate the amount of musical information transmitted by the cochlear implant device and received by cochlear implant listeners.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17485980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Jun;28(3):290-7.

The effects of listening environment and earphone style on preferred listening levels of normal hearing adults using an MP3 player.

Hodgetts WE, Rieger JM, Szarko RA.

Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of listening environment and earphone style on the preferred-listening levels (PLLs) measured in users' ear canals with a commercially-available MP3 player. It was hypothesized that listeners would prefer higher levels with earbud headphones as  opposed to over-the-ear headphones, and that the effects would depend on the environment in which the user was listening. A secondary objective was to use the measured PLLs to determine the permissible listening duration to reach 100% daily noise dose. DESIGN: There were two independent variables in this study. The first, headphone style, had three levels: earbud, over-the-ear, and over-the-ear  with noise reduction (the same headphones with a noise reduction circuit). The second, environment, also had 3 levels: quiet, street noise and multi-talker babble. The dependent variable was ear canal A-weighted sound pressure level. A 3 x 3 within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Thirty-eight normal hearing adults were recruited from the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine at the University of Alberta. Each subject listened to the same song and adjusted the level until it "sounded best" to them in each of the 9 conditions. RESULTS: Significant main effects were found for both the headphone style and environment factors. On average, listeners had higher preferred listening levels with the earbud headphones, than with the over-the-ear headphones. When the noise reduction circuit was used with the over-the-ear headphones, the average PLL was even lower. On average, listeners had higher PLLs in street noise than in multi-talker babble and both of these were higher than the PLL for the quiet condition. The interaction between headphone style and environment was also significant. Details of individual contrasts are explored. Overall, PLLs were quite conservative, which would theoretically allow for extended permissible listening durations. Finally, we investigated the maximum output level of the MP3 player in the ear canals of authors 1 and 3 of this paper. Levels were highest with the earbud style, followed by the over-the-ear with noise reduction. The over-the-ear headphone without noise reduction had the  lowest maximum output. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of MP3 players are sold with the earbud style of headphones. Preferred listening levels are higher with this style of headphone compared to the over-the-ear style. Moreover, as the noise level in  the environment increases, earbud users are even more susceptible to background noise and consequently increase the level of the music to overcome this. The result is an increased sound pressure level at the eardrum. However, the levels chosen by our subjects suggest that MP3 listening levels may not be as significant a concern as has been reported recently in the mainstream media.

PMID: 17485978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Endoscopy. 2007 Jun;39(6):507-10.

Music in the endoscopy suite: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

Rudin D, Kiss A, Wetz RV, Sottile VM.

Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York 10305, USA.

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Prior studies have suggested that music therapy can provide stress relief and analgesia. In this meta-analysis we focused on the effects of music therapy on patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search using the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and a manual search led to the inclusion of six randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of music therapy on patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. After data extraction, four separate meta-analyses were performed: in the three studies that did not use pharmacotherapy (group A), anxiety levels were used as a measure of efficacy; in the three studies in which pharmacotherapy was used (group B), sedation and analgesia requirements and procedure duration times were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 641 patients were included in the analysis. In group A, patients receiving music therapy exhibited lower anxiety levels (8.6% reduction,  P = 0.004), compared with controls. In group B, patients receiving music therapy  exhibited statistically significant reductions in analgesia requirements (29.7% reduction, P = 0.001) and procedure times (21% reduction, P = 0.002), and a reduction in sedation requirements that approached significance (15% reduction, P = 0.055), in comparison with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy is an effective tool for stress relief and analgesia in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

Publication Types:      Meta-Analysis

PMID: 17554644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jun;13(5):519-26.

Posturographic changes associated with music listening.

Carrick FR, Oggero E, Pagnacco G.

Carrick Institute for Clinical Ergonomics Rehabilitation and Applied Neuroscience, Cape Canaveral, FL, USA.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether listening to music might cause changes in human stability and be useful in fall prevention and rehabilitation. The aim was also to find what percentage of subjects without neurologic signs or symptoms associated with falling had less than ideal stability. DESIGN: Computer dynamic posturography (CDP) provided stability scores in 266 subjects without a history of falls or vertigo. Subjects were randomized into several different music listening groups and one control group. The music listening groups were given a daily specific music listening task and CDP was obtained 10 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month after the subject's treatment in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: Tests of postural stability have shown that 73% of 266  subjects without neurologic signs or symptoms were found to have balance abnormalities associated with an increased probability of falling. We have demonstrated positive changes in stability scores in these subjects who underwent a variety of music listening tasks, with the music of Nolwenn Leroy found to be significantly superior to other music tested. CONCLUSIONS: Listening to certain types of music has the potential to change human stability and promote change in  the field of fall prevention and rehabilitation with a potential to decrease disability.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17604555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Atheroscler Thromb. 2007 Jun;14(3):151.

Battle for violin exercise promotes "carotid plaque"?

Kibata M, Nozaki R.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Letter

PMID: 17587767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2007 Jun;33(3):743-51.

Tone sequences with conflicting fundamental pitch and timbre changes are heard differently by musicians and nonmusicians.

Seither-Preisler A, Johnson L, Krumbholz K, Nobbe A, Patterson R, Seither S, Lütkenhöner B.

Department of Experimental Audiology, ENT Clinic, Munster University Hospital, Munster, Germany.

An Auditory Ambiguity Test (AAT) was taken twice by nonmusicians, musical amateurs, and professional musicians. The AAT comprised different tone pairs, presented in both within-pair orders, in which overtone spectra rising in pitch were associated with missing fundamental frequencies (F0) falling in pitch, and vice versa. The F0 interval ranged from 2 to 9 semitones. The participants were instructed to decide whether the perceived pitch went up or down; no information  was provided on the ambiguity of the stimuli. The majority of professionals classified the pitch changes according to F0, even at the smallest interval. By contrast, most nonmusicians classified according to the overtone spectra, except  in the case of the largest interval. Amateurs ranged in between. A plausible explanation for the systematic group differences is that musical practice systematically shifted the perceptual focus from spectral toward missing-F0 pitch, although alternative explanations such as different genetic dispositions of musicians and nonmusicians cannot be ruled out. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17563235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Neurosurg. 2007 Jun;106(6):1017-27.

When "abegg" is read and ("A, B, E, G, G") is not: a cortical stimulation study of musical score reading.

Roux FE, Lubrano V, Lotterie JA, Giussani C, Pierroux C, Démonet JF.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 825, Fédérations de Neurochirurgie et de Neurologie, Centres Hospitaliers Universitaires, Toulouse, France.

OBJECT: To spare the cortical areas involved both in musical score reading and in language, the authors used a score reading task during direct cortical stimulation mapping in musicians undergoing operations for brain lesions. The organization of the cortical areas involved in language and score reading, respectively, was analyzed in relation with these surgical data. METHODS: Seven patients with brain lesions were tested using three language tasks and a score-reading task. Preoperatively, none of them had exhibited significant language or musical ability deficits, and all had a special interest in music. All were involved in professional or amateur musical activities. Interference in  score reading was found in small cortical areas, mainly in the dominant parietal  lobe and sometimes in the frontal gyri. During direct stimulation, interference was either language-specific (15 sites), common to language and score-reading tasks (18 sites), or specific to the score-reading task (four sites). Different patterns of score-reading interferences (score-reading arrest, semantic paraphasia) were observed, probably corresponding to different stages of score reading. Postoperatively, some patients showed transitory score-reading difficulties related to the surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The cortical areas involved in score reading can occasionally be distinct from other language areas. This could explain differential word- and score-reading impairments sometimes observed in musicians with brain lesions. Brain mapping for neurosurgical procedures in musicians should ideally be performed using a score-reading task in addition to standard language tasks, especially for mapping in the dominant parietal lobe.

PMID: 17564174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mem Cognit. 2007 Jun;35(4):640-50.

Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

Schendel ZA, Palmer C.

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent  for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled  the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only  when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17848022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mem Cognit. 2007 Jun;35(4):628-39.

Memory decreases for prose, but not for poetry.

Tillmann B, Dowling WJ.

CNRS-UMR 5020, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Memory for details of text generally declines relatively rapidly, whereas memory  for propositional and context-based meanings is generally more resilient over time. In the present study, we investigated short-term memory for two kinds of verbal material: prose and poetry. Participants heard or read prose stories or poems in which aphrase near the start of the passage served as a target. The text continued, and after various delays, memory was tested with a repetition of the target (old verbatim; O), a paraphrased lure (P), or a lure in which the meaning  was changed. For prose, memory for surface details (as measured by O/P discrimination) declined over time (Experiments 2-4), as was expected. For poetry, memory for surface details (O/P discrimination) did not decline with increasing delay (Experiments 1, 3, and 4). This lack of decline in memory for the surface details of poetry is discussed in relation to similar results previously observed for musical excerpts (Dowling, Tillmann, & Ayers, 2001), suggesting that a particular role is played by the temporal organization and rhythmic structure of poetry andmusic.

PMID: 17848021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Jun;104(3 Pt 1):777-84.

Relations of pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals not formally trained as musicians.

Moore RE, Estis JM, Zhang F, Watts C, Marble E.

Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, UCOM 2000, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA.

Research has yielded a relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Good pitch matchers tend to be good pitch discriminators and are  often judged to be vocally talented. Otoacoustic emission suppression measures the function of the efferent auditory system which may affect accuracy for pitch  matching and pitch discrimination. Formally trained musicians show pitch matching and pitch discrimination superior to those of nonmusicians and have greater efferent otoacoustic emission suppression than nonmusicians. This study investigated the relationship among pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals with no formal musical training and who showed varied pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Analysis suggested a significant relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination but not between otoacoustic emission suppression and pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Findings are presented in the context of previous research indicating a significant relationship between otoacoustic emission suppression and musical talent in trained musicians.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17688133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2007 Jun;75(6 Pt 1):061911. Epub 2007 Jun 21.

Brain, music, and non-Poisson renewal processes.

Bianco S, Ignaccolo M, Rider MS, Ross MJ, Winsor P, Grigolini P.

Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, Texas 76203-1427, USA.

In this paper we show that both music composition and brain function, as revealed by the electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, are renewal non-Poisson processes living in the nonergodic dominion. To reach this important conclusion we process  the data with the minimum spanning tree method, so as to detect significant events, thereby building a sequence of times, which is the time series to analyze. Then we show that in both cases, EEG and music composition, these significant events are the signature of a non-Poisson renewal process. This conclusion is reached using a technique of statistical analysis recently developed by our group, the aging experiment (AE). First, we find that in both cases the distances between two consecutive events are described by nonexponential histograms, thereby proving the non-Poisson nature of these processes. The corresponding survival probabilities Psi(t) are well fitted by stretched exponentials [Psi(t) proportional, variant exp (-(gammat){alpha}) , with 0.5<alpha<1 .] The second step rests on the adoption of AE, which shows that these are renewal processes. We show that the stretched exponential, due to its renewal character, is the emerging tip of an iceberg, whose underwater part has slow tails with an inverse power law structure with power index mu=1+alpha. Adopting the AE procedure we find that both EEG and music composition yield mu<2. On the basis of the recently discovered complexity matching effect, according to  which a complex system S with mu{S}<2 responds only to a complex driving signal P with mu{P}< or =mu{S}, we conclude that the results of our analysis may explain the influence of music on the human brain.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17677304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychol Rep. 2007 Jun;100(3 Pt 2):1255-8.

Cartoon music in a candy store: a field experiment.

Le Guellec H, Guéguen N, Jacob C, Pascual A.

Université de Bretagne-Sud, 4 rue Jean Zay BP 92116, 56321 Lorient, France.

An experiment on consumers' behavior was carried out in a new field context. According to a random assignment, 60 customers from ages 12 to 14 years who entered a candy store were exposed to Top Forty music which was usually played in this store, music from cartoons (Captain Flame, Candy, Olive & Tom, etc.), or no  music. Analysis showed that customers spent significantly more time in the store  when cartoon music was played, but the two styles of music were not related to the amount of money spent.

PMID: 17886513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychol Rep. 2007 Jun;100(3 Pt 1):927-38.

Positive mood as a mediator of the relations among musical preference, postconsumption product evaluation, and consumer satisfaction.

Teng CI, Tseng HM, Wu HH.

Chang Gung University, Kweishan Shiang, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

This study of how positive mood mediates the influences of musical preference and postconsumption product evaluation on consumer satisfaction focuses specifically  on a model in which positive mood fully mediates the influences. The proposed model is compared with two competing models, and a structural equation model is used to test and compare the three theory-driven models. This study sampled 247 students majoring in management at a single university. They had mean age of 23 yr. (SD=2.5). This study used questionnaires to measure subjects' evaluations of  a cup of coffee, preference for the music broadcast in the coffee shop, positive  mood, and satisfaction after they had the coffee. Analysis indicated that the proposed model outperformed the two competing models in describing the data using chi-square difference tests. Positive mood was identified as a full mediator of the relationship between musical preference and consumer satisfaction. Moreover,  the results demonstrate for service managers the importance of creating positive  consumer mood.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17688113 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2007 Jun-Jul;54(6):355-8.

[Music versus diazepam to reduce preoperative anxiety: a randomized controlled clinical trial]

[Article in Spanish]

Berbel P, Moix J, Quintana S.

Departamento de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Clínica del Dolor del Hospital Mutua de Terrassa, Barcelona.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of music to that of diazepam in reducing preoperative anxiety. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to 2 groups  to receive diazepam or listen to music on the day of surgery and the previous day. Just before the operation, anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cortisol levels, heart rate, and blood pressure were also recorded. RESULTS: Two hundred seven patients were enrolled. No significant differences in  any of the outcome measures (anxiety, cortisol level, heart rate, or blood pressure) were found between the 2 groups (music vs sedative). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that music is as effective as sedatives for reducing preoperative anxiety.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     English Abstract     Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 17695946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 2007 May 17;:1 [Epub ahead of print]

Action planning in sequential skills: Relations to music performance.

Keller PE, Koch I.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

The hypothesis that planning music-like sequential actions involves anticipating  their auditory effects was investigated in a series of experiments. Participants  with varying levels of musical experience responded to each of four colour-patch  stimuli by producing a unique sequence of three taps on three vertically aligned  keys. Each tap triggered a tone in most experimental conditions. Response-effect  (key-to-tone) mapping was either compatible - taps on the top, middle, and bottom keys triggered high, medium, and low pitched tones, respectively - or incompatible - key-to-tone mapping was scrambled, reversed, or neutral (taps on different keys triggered the same tone). The results suggest that action planning was faster with compatible than with incompatible mappings (and faster than with  no tones). Furthermore, the size of this compatibility effect grew with increasing musical experience, which suggests that improvements in auditory imagery ability that typically accompany musical training may augment the role of anticipatory auditory-effect representations during planning.

PMID: 17853237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Neuropsychologia. 2007 May 15;45(9):2059-65. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

The unusual symmetry of musicians: musicians have equilateral interhemispheric transfer for visual information.

Patston LL, Kirk IJ, Rolfe MH, Corballis MC, Tippett LJ.

Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Level 6, Human Sciences Building, Auckland, New Zealand.

Previous behavioural research has shown that spatial attention is bilaterally represented in musicians, possibly reflecting more equal neural development between the hemispheres. We investigated this theory electrophysiologically with  another measure that has shown asymmetry, interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT).  Sixteen right-handed musicians and 16 matched non-musicians responded to stimuli  presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. Non-musicians showed significantly faster IHTT in the right-to-left  direction than in the left-to-right direction and a shorter N1 latency in the left than in the right hemisphere. In contrast, the musician group showed no directional difference between hemispheres in IHTT, and no hemispheric difference in latency. These results indicate that musicians have more bilateral neural connectivity than non-musicians, reflected in an unusual lack of asymmetry. It is suggested that plastic developmental changes caused by extended musical training  in childhood result in equally efficient connections to both hemispheres.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17374388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 May 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Cross-cultural music phrase processing: An fMRI study.

Nan Y, Knösche TR, Zysset S, Friederici AD.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of musical phrase boundary processing during the perception of music from native and non-native cultures. German musicians performed a cultural categorization task while listening to phrased Western (native) and Chinese (non-native) musical excerpts as well as modified versions of these, where the impression of phrasing has been reduced by removing the phrase boundary marking pause (henceforth called "unphrased"). Bilateral planum temporale was found to be associated with an increased difficulty of identifying  phrase boundaries in unphrased Western melodies. A network involving frontal and  parietal regions showed increased activation for the phrased condition with the orbital part of left inferior frontal gyrus presumably reflecting working memory  aspects of the temporal integration between phrases, and the middle frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus probably reflecting attention processes. Areas more active in the culturally familiar, native (Western) condition included, in addition to the left planum temporale and right ventro-medial prefrontal cortex,  mainly the bilateral motor regions. These latter results are interpreted in light of sensorimotor integration. Regions with increased signal for the unfamiliar, non-native music style (Chinese) included a right lateralized network of angular  gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting higher demands on attention systems, and the right posterior insula suggesting higher loads on basic auditory processing. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 17497646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


J Neurosci. 2007 May 9;27(19):5200-6.

Motorcortical excitability and synaptic plasticity is enhanced in professional musicians.

Rosenkranz K, Williamon A, Rothwell JC.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3B, United Kingdom.

Musicians not only have extraordinary motor and sensory skills, but they also have an increased ability to learn new tasks compared with non-musicians. We examined how these features are expressed in neurophysiological parameters of excitability and plasticity in the motor system by comparing the results of 11 professional musicians and 8 age-matched non-musicians. Parameters of motor excitability were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to measure motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) together with recruitment of corticospinal projections [input-output curve (IOcurve)] and of short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICIcurve). Plasticity, here defined as change of synaptic effectiveness, was tested by measuring MEPs and IOcurves after paired associative stimulation (PAS), which consists of an electric median nerve stimulus repeatedly paired (200 times at 0.25 Hz) with a TMS pulse over the hand motor area. Using an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25) or 10 ms (PAS10), this leads to long-term potentiation- or long-term depression-like plasticity, respectively. Musicians showed steeper recruitment of MEPs and SICI (IOcurve and SICIcurve). Additionally, PAS25 increased and PAS10 decreased the MEP amplitudes and the slope of the IOcurves significantly more in musicians than in non-musicians. This is consistent with a wider modification range of synaptic plasticity in musicians. Together with the steeper recruitment of corticospinal excitatory and  intracortical inhibitory projections, this suggests that they regulate plasticity and excitability with a higher gain than normal. Because some of these changes depend on age at which instrumental playing commenced and on practice intensity,  they may reflect an increase in number and modifiability of synapses within the motor area caused by long-term musical practice.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17494706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Acta Otolaryngol. 2007 May 8;:1-6 [Epub ahead of print]

Speech and music perception with the new fine structure speech coding strategy: preliminary results.

Arnoldner C, Riss D, Brunner M, Durisin M, Baumgartner WD, Hamzavi JS.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Conclusions. Taking into account the excellent results with significant improvements in the speech tests and the very high satisfaction of the patients using the new strategy, this first implementation of a fine structure strategy could offer a new quality of hearing with cochlear implants (CIs). Objective. This study consisted of an intra-individual comparison of speech recognition, music perception and patient preference when subjects used two different speech coding strategies with a MedEl Pulsar CI: continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) and the new fine structure processing (FSP) strategy. In contrast to envelope-based strategies, the FSP strategy also delivers subtle pitch and timing differences of sound to the user and is thereby supposed to enhance speech perception in noise and increase the quality of music perception. Patients and methods. This was a prospective study assessing performance with two different speech coding strategies. The setting was a CI programme at an academic tertiary  referral centre. Fourteen post-lingually deaf patients using a MedEl Pulsar CI with a mean CI experience of 0.98 years were supplied with the new FSP speech coding strategy. Subjects consecutively used the two different speech coding strategies. Speech and music tests were performed with the previously fitted CIS  strategy, immediately after fitting with the new FSP strategy and 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. The main outcome measures were individual performance and subjective assessment of two different speech processors. Results. Speech and music test scores improved statistically significantly after conversion from CIS to FSP strategy. Twelve of 14 patients preferred the new FSP speech processing strategy  over the CIS strategy.

PMID: 17851892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Acta Psychol (Amst). 2007 May;125(1):117-28. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

An investigation into the temporal dimension of the Mozart effect: evidence from  the attentional blink task.

Ho C, Mason O, Spence C.

Crossmodal Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK.

In the present study, we examined whether the 'Mozart effect' would influence participants' temporal attention using a visual attentional blink (AB) task that  provides a reliable measure of the temporal dynamics of visual attention. The 'Mozart effect' refers to the specific claim that listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K.448 can improve the performance in spatio-temporal tasks. Participants had to try and identify two target digits (in their correct order of presentation) presented amongst a stream of distractor letters in three  different conditions (presented in separate blocks of trials): while listening to the Mozart sonata played normally, while listening to the same Mozart sonata played in reverse, and while in silence. The results showed that the participants were able to detect the second target (T2) significantly more accurately (given the correct detection of the first target, T1) in the AB stream when the Mozart sonata was played normally than in either of the other two conditions. Possible explanations for the differential effects of Mozart's music being played normally and in reverse and potential confounds in previous studies reporting a facilitatory 'Mozart effect' are discussed. Our results therefore provide the first empirical demonstration supporting the existence of a purely temporal component to the 'Mozart effect' using a non-spatial visual AB task.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16942739 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Ind Med. 2007 May;50(5):370-6.

Work postures and neck-shoulder pain among orchestra musicians.

Nyman T, Wiktorin C, Mulder M, Johansson YL.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify associations between a work posture with elevated arm position, duration of active playing time, and neck-shoulder pain among orchestra musicians. METHODS: In this study, with a cross-sectional study design, a total of 235 subjects from 12 Swedish orchestras  were categorized into four exposure groups according to arm position and duration of active playing time. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for neck-shoulder pain in the four exposure groups. RESULTS: A higher prevalence of neck-shoulder pain were found in the groups "elevated arm position, <2 hr per workday" [OR 4.15 (1.30-13.22)], and "elevated arm position, >3 hr per  workday" [OR 5.35 (1.96-14.62)] compared to the group "neutral arm position, <2 hr per workday". CONCLUSIONS: Musicians working in an elevated arm position (e.g., violinists, violists, flutists, and trumpet players) had a higher prevalence of neck-shoulder pain than those working in a more neutral position.

PMID: 17427201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2007 May;134(5 Pt 1):445-9.

[Dermatological problems of musicians: a prospective study in musical students]

[Article in French]

Baccouche D, Mokni M, Ben Abdelaziz A, Ben Osman-Dhahri A.

Service de Dermatologie, CHU la Rabta, Tunis, Tunisie.

INTRODUCTION: Musicians are at risk of developing particular skin conditions related to their activity. The purpose of our work was to determine the frequency, describe the clinical aspects and identify the risk factors of specific dermatological problems in musical students. POPULATION AND METHODS: We  carried out a prospective epidemiological study between April 2003 and April 2004 among music students registered in four musical institutes of Tunisia. The musicians were questioned and examined in systematic fashion at their institutes. Demographic data, characteristics of instrumental practice and dermatologic manifestations were collected. Five hundred and ninety-four students were examined. The sex-ratio was 1.6 with a mean age of 22.0 +/- 4.0 years. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software for Windows (version 12.0). RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-five students (49.7%) had at least one dermatologic lesion. In multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly correlated with dermatological problems: male gender, age > or = 20 years, history of musical activity > or = 5 years, practice > or = 10 hours/week  and percussion instruments. Nine types of lesions were determined: corns and calluses, pigmentation abnormalities, irritant contact dermatitis, mechanical acne, erythema, friction bulla, nail diseases, cicatricial alopecia and allergic  contact dermatitis. Corns and calluses were significantly the most frequent (P<0.001). DISCUSSION: The frequency of dermatological lesions was high compared  to data reported in the literature, 20 and 32% respectively in the studies by Onder and Rimmer. This difference could be due to the greater number of percussionists in our study.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17507842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Behav Res Methods. 2007 May;39(2):283-90.

EMuJoy: software for continuous measurement of perceived emotions in music.

Nagel F, Kopiez R, Grewe O, Altenmüller E.

Hanover University of Music and Drama, Hanover, Germany.

An adequate study of emotions in music and film should be based on the real-time  measurement of self-reported data using a continuous-response method. The recording system discussed in this article reflects two important aspects of such research: First, for a better comparison of results, experimental and technical standards for continuous measurement should be taken into account, and second, the recording system should be open to the inclusion of multimodal stimuli. In light of these two considerations, our article addresses four basic principles of the continuous measurement of emotions: (1) the dimensionality of the emotion space, (2) data acquisition (e.g., the synchronization of media and the self-reported data), (3) interface construction for emotional responses, and (4)  the use of multiple stimulus modalities. Researcher-developed software (EMuJoy) is presented as a freeware solution for the continuous measurement of responses to different media, along with empirical data from the self-reports of 38 subjects listening to emotional music and viewing affective pictures.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17695356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Br J Psychol. 2007 May;98(Pt 2):175-85.

Personality and music: can traits explain how people use music in everyday life?

Chamorro-Premuzic T, Furnham A.

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK.

This paper reports the results of a study on the relationship between individual  differences and specific uses of music, referring to why and how people use music in everyday life. Questionnaire data from 341 respondents showed that open and intellectually engaged individuals, and those with higher IQ scores, tended to use music in a rational/cognitive way, while neurotic, introverted and non-conscientious individuals were all more likely to use music for emotional regulation (e.g. change or enhance moods). Results suggest that individual differences in personality and cognitive ability may partly determine the way in  which we experience music. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17456267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2007 May-Jun;50(5-6):643-52.

[Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)]

[Article in German]

Lampert T, Sygusch R, Schlack R.

Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, BRD.

The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences.  For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television  and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background  of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the  health of children and adolescents.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17514448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


350: Emotion. 2007 May;7(2):377-87.

Relationships between musical structure and psychophysiological measures of emotion.

Gomez P, Danuser B.

Institut Universtitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Psychophysiological studies with music have not examined what exactly in the music might be responsible for the observed physiological phenomena. The authors  explored the relationships between 11 structural features of 16 musical excerpts  and both self-reports of felt pleasantness and arousal and different physiological measures (respiration, skin conductance, heart rate). Overall, the  relationships between musical features and experienced emotions corresponded well with those known between musical structure and perceived emotions. This suggests  that the internal structure of the music played a primary role in the induction of the emotions in comparison to extramusical factors. Mode, harmonic complexity, and rhythmic articulation best differentiated between negative and positive valence, whereas tempo, accentuation, and rhythmic articulation best discriminated high arousal from low arousal. Tempo, accentuation, and rhythmic articulation were the features that most strongly correlated with physiological measures. Music that induced faster breathing and higher minute ventilation, skin conductance, and heart rate was fast, accentuated, and staccato. This finding corroborates the contention that rhythmic aspects are the major determinants of physiological responses to music.

PMID: 17516815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Front Biosci. 2007 May 1;12:4473-82.

Music perception.

Deutsch D.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

This chapter explores the relationship between music perception as it is studied  in the laboratory and as it occurs in the real world. We first examine general principles by which listeners group musical tones into perceptual configurations, and how these principles are implemented in music composition and performance. We then show that, for certain types of configuration, the music as it is perceived  can differ substantially from the music that is notated in the score, or as might be imagined from reading the score. Furthermore, there are striking differences between listeners in the perception of certain musical passages. Implications of  these findings are discussed.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17485389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


HNO. 2007 May;55(5):375-83.

[Music therapy for tinnitus patients: an interdisciplinary pilot study of the Heidelberg Model]

[Article in German]

Argstatter H, Plinkert P, Bolay HV.

Deutsches Zentrum für Musiktherapieforschung (Viktor Dulger Institut) DZM e. V.,  Heidelberg.

BACKGROUND: Chronic tinnitus, one of the most common disorders in ENT medicine, requires comprehensive and interdisciplinary treatment. OBJECTIVE: An innovative  music therapy approach, developed at the German Center for Music Therapy Research in cooperation with the ENT clinic of the University of Heidelberg ("Heidelberg Model"), strives to integrate the tinnitus sound into a musically controllable acoustic process. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this current treatment. METHODS: We carried out a prospective, two-armed (music therapy group vs control group) study with 20 patients (10 males, 10 females; mean age 51+/-7 years), suffering from decompensated chronic tinnitus (mean score in the Tinnitus Questionnaire TQ=46.8+/-9.6). The target variables involved TQ values, pre- and post-measurements, and follow-up after 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Group comparison yields a highly statistically and clinically significant decrease in mean TQ-scores pre- and post in the music therapy group by 25 points or 52% on average as compared to 2 points (4%) in the control group  [univariate ANOVA: (F(1,31)=14.19, P=0.001), effect size d=1.73]. Logarithmic regression analysis reveals a fast onset and long lasting effect of music therapy (B=-8.9; F(1,125)=32.11, P=0.000). DISCUSSION: The effectiveness of this highly economic approach was proven as the innovative music therapy concept yields statistically and clinically significant results which remain stable throughout follow-up. Further investigations with larger sample sizes and using brain imaging should strengthen these findings.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     English Abstract

PMID: 17082957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Audiol. 2007 May;46(5):223-31.

Music exposure and audiological findings in Brazilian disc jockeys (DJs).

Santos L, Morata TC, Jacob LC, Albizu E, Marques JM, Paini M.

Department of Communication Disorders, Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to examine the music exposure and hearing of disc jockeys (DJs). We conducted personal noise dosimetry on 30 DJs and interviewed them regarding their hearing and their job. We conducted pure-tone audiometry, and transient and distortion product otoacoustic emissions before their exposure  to music during their work. This first test was preceded by a period of at least  12 hours without exposure to music or noise. We repeated the pure-tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions after their music exposure, and poorer performances were registered in all retests. The nightclubs' average sound level ranged between 93.2 to 109.7 dB(A). Statistical analysis showed significant bilateral temporary threshold shifts at all frequencies between audiometry performed pre- and post-exposure to amplified music. Transient otoacoustic emissions showed a significant difference in bilateral amplitude and reproducibility at all frequency bands tested. The comparison of distortion product otoacoustic emissions results pre- and post-music exposure showed there was a significant difference in amplitude. Music exposure was associated with temporary and permanent auditory dysfunction among professional DJs.

PMID: 17487670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Am Acad Audiol. 2007 May;18(5):417-27.

Influence of music and music preference on acceptable noise levels in listeners with normal hearing.

Gordon-Hickey S, Moore RE.

University of South Alabama, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.

Acceptable noise level (ANL) is defined as the maximum level of background noise  that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background noise does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different  from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background noise than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background noise than twelve-talker babble.

PMID: 17715651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 May;19(5):893-906.

Rhythm and beat perception in motor areas of the brain.

Grahn JA, Brett M.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK.

When we listen to rhythm, we often move spontaneously to the beat. This movement  may result from processing of the beat by motor areas. Previous studies have shown that several motor areas respond when attending to rhythms. Here we investigate whether specific motor regions respond to beat in rhythm. We predicted that the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) would respond in the presence of a regular beat. To establish what rhythm properties induce a beat, we asked subjects to reproduce different types of rhythmic sequences. Improved reproduction was observed for one rhythm type, which had integer ratio relationships between its intervals and regular perceptual accents. A subsequent  functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that these rhythms also elicited higher activity in the basal ganglia and SMA. This finding was consistent across different levels of musical training, although musicians showed activation increases unrelated to rhythm type in the premotor cortex, cerebellum, and SMAs (pre-SMA and SMA). We conclude that, in addition to their role in movement production, the basal ganglia and SMAs may mediate beat perception.

PMID: 17488212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 May;19(5):830-42.

Cortical regions involved in the generation of musical structures during improvisation in pianists.

Bengtsson SL, Csíkszentmihályi M, Ullén F.

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Studies on simple pseudorandom motor and cognitive tasks have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and rostral premotor areas are involved in free response selection. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate  whether these brain regions are also involved in free generation of responses in  a more complex creative behavior: musical improvisation. Eleven professional pianists participated in the study. In one condition, Improvise, the pianist improvised on the basis of a visually displayed melody. In the control condition, Reproduce, the participant reproduced his previous improvisation from memory. Participants were able to reproduce their improvisations with a high level of accuracy, and the contrast Improvise versus Reproduce was thus essentially matched in terms of motor output and sensory feedback. However, the Improvise condition required storage in memory of the improvisation. We therefore also included a condition FreeImp, where the pianist improvised but was instructed not to memorize his performance. To locate brain regions involved in musical creation, we investigated the activations in the Improvise-Reproduce contrast that were also present in FreeImp contrasted with a baseline rest condition. Activated brain regions included the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area, the rostral portion of the dorsal premotor cortex, and the left posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that these regions are part of a network involved in musical creation, and discuss their possible functional roles.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17488207 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Sch Health. 2007 May;77(5):225-31.

Noise and hearing loss: a review.

Daniel E.

Department of Health Science, SUNY College at Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420, USA.

BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss is a major cause of deafness and hearing impairment in the United States. Though genetics and advanced age are major risk  factors, temporary and permanent hearing impairments are becoming more common among young adults and children especially with the increased exposure to portable music players. Though treatment options are limited for most people with noise-related hearing loss, several modifiable health behaviors that should begin in childhood might prevent or delay the onset of hearing impairment. The purpose  of this article is to review modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, comorbidity, and the role of health education in the prevention of noise-induced  hearing loss. METHODS: Review of current literature in the etiology, prevention,  and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss as well as the role of health education. RESULTS: Non-modifiable risk factors related to noise-related hearing  loss include increasing age, genetics, male gender, and race. Modifiable risk factors are voluntary exposure to loud noise, nonuse of hearing protection, smoking, lack of exercise, poor diet, tooth loss, and the presence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: As hearing impairment among children and teenagers rises due to mostly voluntary exposure to loud noise, there are many implications for health education. Health educators need to address barriers to the use of hearing protection, deliberate exposure to loud music, and other modifiable risk factors, which cause and exacerbate hearing loss among those exposed to loud noise.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17430434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Voice. 2007 May;21(3):300-15. Epub 2006 Mar 9.

Intonation drift in a capella soprano, alto, tenor, bass quartet singing with key modulation.

Howard DM.

Media Engineering Research Group, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: When a soprano, alto, tenor, bass (SATB) quartet sings unaccompanied, or a capella, the members of the group will tend to make use of non-equal-tempered intonation to govern their tuning. If the music they are performing visits different keys and they do maintain non-equal-tempered tuning,  then the pitch center will have to shift from its starting point, which is a necessary consequence of the physics behind the use of a non-equal-tempered tuning system. The implication of this shift for tuning in a capella singing is that it is not possible both to maintain accurate non-equal-tempered tuning and to stay in pitch throughout music that modulates in key. METHODS: To test this notion, a set of four-part exercises were written by the author that visit several different key chords in sequential progression. In each case, the starting and finishing chords were either identical or exactly an octave apart. Mean fundamental frequency values for each note were measured using four electrolaryngographs (one per singer), and the f0 data were normalized and plotted with respect to equal-tempered tuning to enable any overall tuning shift  to be observed. RESULTS: The results indicate that singers do (1) tend to non-equal-tempered tuning and (b) do consequentially shift their intonation with  modulation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that pitch drift is potentially a necessary part of staying in-tune. Further work is required to identify items in  the choral repertoire for which this effect is likely and then to inform the choral conducting and singing communities appropriately.

PMID: 16527450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Laterality. 2007 May;12(3):262-72.

Attention in musicians is more bilateral than in non-musicians.

Patston LL, Hogg SL, Tippett LJ.

Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Attention in neurologically intact adults normally errs towards the left side of  space, as documented in studies involving tasks of visual attention (i.e., line bisection). The aim of this study was to further investigate lateralisation of attention in musicians and non-musicians. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to stimuli presented to the left and right of a vertical line in 20 right-handed musicians and 20 matched non-musician controls. While both groups performed more accurately to left-sided stimuli, performance by the musician group was significantly more accurate than the non-musician group for the right-sided stimuli. Musicians also had faster reaction times overall. Consistent with previous research, the results indicate a more balanced attentional capacity in musicians, as well as enhanced visuomotor ability, and are interpreted with reference to extended musical training.

PMID: 17454575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Psychophys. 2007 May;69(4):529-43.

Perceiving the numerosity of rapidly occurring auditory events in metrical and nonmetrical contexts.

Repp BH.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut 06511-6624, USA.

Experiment 1 determined the fastest tempo at which participants could tap in synchrony with every nth tone (n = 2 to 9) in an isochronous sequence. Tapping was difficult with every 5th or 7th tone but easy with every 2nd, 4th, or 8th tone, suggesting that evenly divisible groups of n tones are automatically subdivided into equal groups of 2 or 3-a form of auditory subitizing that generates metrical hierarchies commonly found in Western music. Experiments 2 and 3 sought evidence of subitizing and subdivision in timed explicit enumeration of  short, rapidly presented tone sequences (n = 2 to 10). Enumeration accuracy decreased monotonically with n. Response time increased monotonically up to n = 5 or 6, but less between 2 and 3 than between 3 and 4. Thus, a single group of 2 or 3 tones perhaps can be subitized, but subdivision of larger groups into subgroups of 2 or 3 tones seems to be specific to a repetitive, metrical context.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17727106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychophysiology. 2007 May;44(3):476-90.

Untangling syntactic and sensory processing: an ERP study of music perception.

Koelsch S, Jentschke S, Sammler D, Mietchen D.

Independent Junior Research Group Neurocognition of Music, Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The present study investigated music-syntactic processing with chord sequences that ended on either regular or irregular chord functions. Sequences were composed such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between syntactically regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition, pitch commonality (the major component of "sensory dissonance"), or roughness. Three experiments with independent groups of subjects were conducted: a behavioral experiment and two experiments using electroencephalography. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) under both task-relevant and task-irrelevant conditions. Behaviorally, participants detected around 75% of the irregular chords, indicating that these chords were only moderately salient. Nevertheless, the irregular chords reliably  elicited clear ERP effects. Amateur musicians were slightly more sensitive to musical irregularities than nonmusicians, supporting previous studies demonstrating effects of musical training on music-syntactic processing. The findings indicate that the ERAN is an index of music-syntactic processing and that the ERAN can be elicited even when irregular chords are not detectable based on acoustical factors such as pitch repetition, sensory dissonance, or roughness.

PMID: 17433099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2007 May-Jun;15(3):377-83.

Ambient music in the emergency services: the professionals' perception.

Gatti MF, da Silva MJ.

Adult Emergency Medical Services, Hospital Samaritano, and University of Săo Paulo, College of Nursing, Brazil.

Due to the assistant characteristic of the emergency service, the health professional experiences countless situations that generate anxiety. This study aimed to learn the professionals' perception about the presence of classical music in the working environment. The sample was composed of 49 professionals of  the adult emergency department of a medium sized private hospital. The data were  collected through a questionnaire to evaluate the professional's perception. The  results showed that 78% of the professionals noticed alteration in the atmosphere when the music was present, 41% believed that the music altered their personal performance; 85% believed it altered their performance in a positive way and 15%  in a negative way. Regarding the musical repertoire, 61% of the individuals affirmed they enjoyed the selection, 96% believed that the ambient music should be kept, while 76% of the interviewees suggested other musical genres.

PMID: 17653418 [PubMed - in process]


Brain Res. 2007 Apr 20;1142:169-77. Epub 2007 Jan 23.

Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials.

Leino S, Brattico E, Tervaniemi M, Vuust P.

Apperception and Cortical Dynamics, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.

In Western tonal music, the rules of harmony determine the order and music-structural importance of events in a musical piece: for instance, the tonic chord, built on the first note of the diatonic scale, is usually placed at the end of chord sequences. A brain response termed the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is elicited when a harmonically incongruous chord is inserted within or at the end of a musical sequence. The present study was conducted to test whether the ERAN reflects the processing of harmony rather than the building of a tonal context and whether the ERAN is also elicited by violations of the tuning of the sounds upon which harmony is based. To this aim, ten subjects listened to musical sequences containing either expected chords only, a harmonically incongruous chord in one of three positions within the cadence, or a harmonically congruous but mistuned chord in one of the three positions. Simultaneously, the electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded. Incongruous chords  violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral early anterior negativity, the amplitude of which depended on the degree of the harmony violation. On the contrary, mistuned chords, violating the rule of relations between all the sounds in the sequences, elicited a bilateral fronto-central negativity (the mismatch negativity, or MMN). The MMN was not modulated by the position of the violation within the musical sequence and had a longer peak latency than the anterior negativity elicited by the harmony rule violations. In conclusion, violations of  the harmony and tuning rules of Western tonal music were found to generate specific and distinct electric responses in the human brain.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17300763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Br J Psychol. 2007 Apr 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Synaesthesia, creativity and art: What is the link?

Ward J, Thompson-Lake D, Ely R, Kaminski F.

It has been suggested that individuals with synaesthesia may show heightened creativity as a result of being able to form meaningful associations between disparate stimuli (e.g. colour, sound). In this study, a large sample (N=82) of people with various kinds of synaesthesia were given two psychometric tests of creativity (Remote Associates Test, Alternate Uses Test) and were also asked about the amount of time engaged in creative arts (visual art, music). There was  a significant tendency for synaesthetes to spend more time engaged in creative arts and this was, at least in part, dependent upon the type of synaesthesia experienced. For example, synaesthetes experiencing vision from music were far more likely to play an instrument than their other synaesthetic counterparts. There was no relationship between this tendency and the psychometric measures of  creativity, but synaesthetes did outperform controls on one of the two psychometric measures (Remote Associates). We conclude that the tendency for synaesthetes to be more engaged in art is likely to have a different mechanism to psychometric measures of creativity, and that there is no direct link between them. Although synaesthetes may well perform better on some measures of creativity, we suggest that synaesthetes have better bottom-up access to certain  associations, but are not necessarily better able to use them flexibly (in divergent thinking).

PMID: 17535472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Behav Brain Res. 2007 Apr 16;179(1):50-9. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Anxiolytic effect of music depends on ovarian steroid in female mice.

Chikahisa S, Sano A, Kitaoka K, Miyamoto K, Sei H.

Department of Integrative Physiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

Music is known to be able to elicit emotional changes, including anxiolytic effects. The gonadal steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone have also been reported to play important roles in the modulation of anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether the effect of music on anxiety is related to ovarian steroid in female mice. Behavioral paradigms measuring anxiety were tested in gonadally intact (SHAM) and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice chronically treated  with either placebo (OVX/Placebo), 17beta-estradiol (OVX/E), or progesterone (OVX/P). In the elevated plus maze, light-dark transition, and marble burying tests, SHAM and OVX/P mice exposed to music showed less anxiety than those exposed to white noise or silence while OVX/placebo mice did not show these effects at all. OVX/E mice showed the anxiolytic effect of music only in the marble burying test. Furthermore, pretreatment with progesterone's metabolite inhibitor completely prevented the anxiolytic effect of music in behavioral tests, while pretreatment with a progesterone receptor blocker did not prevent the anxiolytic effect of music. These results suggest that exposure to music reduces anxiety levels, and ovarian steroids, mainly progesterone, may be involved in the anxiolytic effect of music observed in female mice.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17280725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Apr 12;416(2):107-12. Epub 2007 Feb 24.

Auditory stimulation affects renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure  in rats.

Nakamura T, Tanida M, Niijima A, Hibino H, Shen J, Nagai K.

Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Here, we examined the effects of auditory stimulation at 50 dB with white noise (WN) or music (Traeumerei [TM] by Schumann or Etude by Chopin) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in urethane-anesthetized rats. Auditory  stimulation with TM, but not with WN or the Etude, significantly decreased RSNA and BP. Complete bilateral destruction of the cochleae and bilateral lesions of the auditory cortex (AuC) eliminated the effects of TM stimulation on RSNA and BP, but bilateral lesions of primary somatosensory cortex (S1C) had no effect. Bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or intracerebral administration of thioperamide, a histaminergic H3 receptor antagonist, also abolished TM-induced decreases in RSNA and BP. These findings suggest that exposure to music can decrease RSNA and BP through the auditory pathway, histaminergic neurons, and the SCN.

PMID: 17363164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Neurosci. 2007 Apr 4;27(14):3799-806.

Broca's area supports enhanced visuospatial cognition in orchestral musicians.

Sluming V, Brooks J, Howard M, Downes JJ, Roberts N.

School of Health Sciences' Division of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB, United Kingdom.

We provide neurobehavioral evidence supporting the transferable benefit of music  training to alter brain function and enhance cognitive performance in a nonmusical visuospatial task in professional orchestral musicians. In particular, orchestral musicians' performance on a three-dimensional mental rotation (3DMR) task exhibited the behavioral profile normally only attained after significant practice, supporting the suggestion that these musicians already possessed well developed neural circuits to support 3DMR. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that only orchestral musicians showed significantly increased activation in Broca's area, in addition to the well known visuospatial  network, which was activated in both musicians and nonmusicians who were matched  on age, sex, and verbal intelligence. We interpret these functional neuroimaging  findings to reflect preferential recruitment of Broca's area, part of the neural  substrate supporting sight reading and motor-sequence organization underpinning musical performance, to subserve 3DMR in musicians. Our data, therefore, provide  convergent behavioral and neurofunctional evidence supporting the suggestion that development of the sight-reading skills of musical performance alters brain circuit organization which, in turn, confers a wider cognitive benefit, in particular, to nonmusical visuospatial cognition in professional orchestral musicians.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study

PMID: 17409244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Australas Radiol. 2007 Apr;51(2):159-62.

Music therapy as a non-pharmacological anxiolytic for paediatric radiotherapy patients.

O'Callaghan C, Sexton M, Wheeler G.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Outpatient radiotherapy treatment in the paediatric cancer patient can be a traumatic and an anxiety-provoking experience for both the patient and the family. Music therapy has been widely reported to have psychosocial, educational  and physical benefits for the paediatric cancer patient. Using individual case reports, this paper shows the successful use of music therapy as a non-pharmacological anxiolytic in the paediatric radiotherapy, outpatient waiting room setting, by providing the patient and the family with a means of communication, self-expression and creativity.

PMID: 17419862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr;21(2):349-65.

Occupational disorders: non-specific forearm pain.

MacIver H, Smyth G, Bird HA.

Chapel Allerton Hospital, Chapeltown Road, Leeds LS7 4SA, UK.

Work-related upper limb disorder is a non-specific diagnosis for pain in the hand, wrist or, in particular, forearm once more discrete clinical conditions such as epicondylitis, tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome have been excluded. The pathophysiology of the condition is uncertain, although it is normally held to be related to an ergonomic incident. Ergonomic factors either at work or at home remain important and are discussed. Initial management is based on modification of ergonomics with appropriate periods of rest and job rotation.  Treatment, however, remains somewhat unfocused and unsatisfactory. Much can be learnt from the ergonomic study of musicians, where the condition is perhaps at its most refined. Medico-legal aspects and recent thoughts on pathogenesis are also discussed.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17512487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Biol Psychol. 2007 Apr;75(1):19-23. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a  psychophysiological examination.

Kenntner-Mabiala R, Gorges S, Alpers GW, Lehmann AC, Pauli P.

University of Würzburg, Germany.

The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music  stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and  95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

PMID: 17118518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Apr;56(4):243-5.

Clarinetist's cheilitis caused by immediate-type allergy to cane reed.

Ruiz-Hornillos FJ, Alonso E, Zapatero L, Pérez C, Martínez-Molero I.

Allergy Service, Hospital Materno Infantil Gregorio Marańon, C/Dr Esquerdo 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17343632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Dent Update. 2007 Apr;34(3):181-2, 184.

Treatment of temporomandibular disorder in a viola player--a case report.

Shargill I, Davie SJ, Al-ani Z.

University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester M15 6FH, UK.

Viola and violin players seem to be predisposed to TMD. This case report illustrates an example where this occupation caused problems and required treatment.The case was managed with a modified Anterior Repositioning Splint (ARPS) that the patient wore while playing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are common within the population. Certain factors can predispose  or make one more susceptible.This case report highlights viola players who are predisposed to TMD.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17506458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):59S-61S.

Comparisons of quality ratings for music by cochlear implant and hearing aid users.

Looi V, McDermott H, McKay C, Hickson L.

Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the quality ratings by cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid (HA) users in response to musical sounds. DESIGN: The ratings of 15 experienced adult Nucleus CI users (using the Advanced Combination  Encoder (ACE) or Spectral Peak (SPEAK) strategy) were compared with those of 15 experienced adult HA users who met the audiological criteria for implantation. Additionally, nine subjects on the waiting list (WL) for an implant were tested before and after implantation. Three types of musical stimuli were used: single instruments, solo instruments with background accompaniment, and ensembles. For each of these categories, 12 different instruments or ensembles were presented four times each. Subjects were asked to provide a rating out of 10 according to how pleasant each extract sounded, with 10 being "very pleasant." RESULTS: For the WL subjects, ratings provided after implantation were significantly higher than their preimplant ratings obtained when using HAs (p = 0.026). This was consistent with a trend observed from the experienced CI and HA groups, whereby the CI group provided higher ratings than the HA group for all three subtests, although the difference was not statistically significant. For all groups, single-instrument stimuli received significantly higher ratings than those involving multiple instruments (CI and HA subjects: p < 0.001; WL subjects: p = 0.034). With this research being part of a larger study in which identification testing of these stimuli had previously been conducted, significant correlations  were also obtained between the subjects' ability to identify musical stimuli and  the corresponding quality ratings (CI: rho = 0.325, p = 0.029; HA: rho = 0.491, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that although neither device enables highly satisfactory music appreciation, the CI users judged music  to sound more pleasant than the HA users (who had similar levels of hearing impairment). Also, all subject groups appraised music that involved multiple instruments to sound less pleasant, on average, than music played by single instruments.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17496649 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ear Hear. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):29S-33S.

Music recognition, music listening, and word recognition by deaf children with cochlear implants.

Mitani C, Nakata T, Trehub SE, Kanda Y, Kumagami H, Takasaki K, Miyamoto I, Takahashi H.

Graduate Course in Humanistic Studies Specialized Research into Humanistic Studies, Department of Psychology, Nagasaki Junshin Catholic University, Nagasaki, Japan.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the ability of congenitally deaf children to recognize music from incidental exposure and the relations among age at implantation, music listening, and word recognition. DESIGN: Seventeen child implant users who were 4 to 8 yr of age were tested on their recognition and liking of musical excerpts from their favorite television programs. They were also assessed on open-set recognition of three-syllable words. Their parents completed a questionnaire about the children's musical activities. RESULTS: Children identified the musical excerpts at better than chance levels, but only when they heard the original vocal/instrumental versions. Children's initiation of music listening at home was associated with younger ages at implantation and higher word recognition scores.  CONCLUSIONS: Child implant users enjoy music more than adult implant users. Moreover, younger age at implantation increases children's engagement with music, which may enhance their progress in other auditory domains.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17496641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Sports Med. 2007 Apr;28(4):321-5. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite  adolescent volleyball players.

Eliakim M, Meckel Y, Nemet D, Eliakim A.

Child Health and Sport Center, Pediatric Department, Meir General Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

Music is believed to improve athletic performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of arousing music during warm-up on anaerobic performance in elite national level adolescent volleyball players. Twenty-four players (12 males and 12 females) performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test following  a 10-minute warm-up with and without music (two separate occasions, random order). During warm-up with music, mean heart rate was significantly higher. Following the warm-up with music, peak anaerobic power was significantly higher in all volleyball players (10.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 11.1 +/- 0.3 Watts/kg, p < 0.05, without and with music, respectively). Gender did not influence the effect of music on peak anaerobic power. Music had no significant effect on mean anaerobic  output or fatigue index in both genders. Music affects warm-up and may have a transient beneficial effect on anaerobic performance.

PMID: 17024625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Apr;121(4):2376-83.

Discrimination of interval size in short tone sequences.

Hill TJ, Summers IR.

Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, United Kingdom.

This study investigates the discrimination of small changes of interval size in short sequences of musical tones. Major, minor and neutral thirds were varied in  increments of 15 cents. The nine subjects had varying degrees of amateur musical  experience-their level of musical training was lower than that of professional musicians. In some experiments the stimuli were presented purely melodically and  in others they were presented together with a sustained tone at a higher pitch. Some subjects were able to make use of the additional cues from beats in the latter case. Category widths for identification were measured at around 70 cents  and just-noticeable differences in frequency were measured at around 10 cents. Little significant variation of inter-stimulus sensitivity index d' was observed  across the stimulus sets, i.e., there was little evidence for "anchors" or "landmarks" within the range of tunings employed. However, for major thirds, discrimination of the 15 cent increment between 400 and 415 cents was reduced compared to discrimination of other 15 cent increments within the stimulus sets.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17471749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Music Ther. 2007 Spring;44(1):23-37.

The use of music to enhance reading skills of second grade students and students  with reading disabilities.

Register D, Darrow AA, Standley J, Swedberg O.

The University of Kansas, USA.

The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as  a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD)  in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with  a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01).

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17419662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Monit. 2007 Apr;13(4):CR156-64.

Do children with tuberous sclerosis complex have superior musical skill?--A unique tendency of musical responsiveness in children with TSC.

Matsuyama K, Ohsawa I, Ogawa T.

Department of Psychopathology and Psychotherapy, Postgraduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that manifests with symptoms that might include mental retardation, epilepsy, skin lesions, and hamartomas in the heart, brain, and kidneys. Anecdotal reports  have characterized children with TSC as having high music responsiveness despite  their developmental delay. This study is intended to investigate this putative musical skill of children with TSC and to elucidate the presence of non-delayed facets of their development. MATERIAL/METHODS: This study examined 11 children with TSC: 10 children with DSM-IV autism and 92 healthy children who participated as control subjects. Correlation was examined between results obtained using Non-Verbal MMRC, which is a validated musical responsiveness battery, and results of a scientifically accepted standardized pediatric developmental test: the New Edition of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development. Inter-rater reliability  among the three raters was also assessed. RESULTS: The rhythm or melody score on  the Non-Verbal MMRC and DA among children with TSC showed no significant correlation. In contrast, a significant correlation was found among normal children and those with autism. Moreover, the inter-rater reliability was good. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that children with TSC show high responsiveness to musical stimuli despite otherwise delayed development (e.g., language, cognition, motor skills). This report is the first stating that children with TSC have a unique tendency in terms of correlation between music and developmental age. These findings indicate a non-delayed area of TSC children's development and suggest the use of music as therapeutic intervention.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17392644 [PubMed - in process]


Motor Control. 2007 Apr;11(2):151-65.

Visual and tactile information in double bass intonation control.

Lage GM, Borém F, Vieira MN, Barreiros JP.

FUMEC University, Brazil and FUNORTE, Brazil.

Traditionally, the teaching of intonation on the non-tempered orchestral strings  (violin, viola, cello, and double bass) has resorted to the auditory and proprioceptive senses only. This study aims at understanding the role of visual and tactile information in the control of the non-tempered intonation of the acoustic double bass. Eight musicians played 11 trials of an atonal sequence of musical notes on two double basses of different sizes under different sensorial constraints. The accuracy of the played notes was analyzed by measuring their frequencies and comparing them with respective target values. The main finding was that the performance which integrated visual and tactile information was superior in relation to the other performances in the control of double bass intonation. This contradicts the traditional belief that proprioception and hearing are the most effective feedback information in the performance of stringed instruments.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17575339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nat Neurosci. 2007 Apr;10(4):420-2. Epub 2007 Mar 11.

Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns.

Wong PC, Skoe E, Russo NM, Dees T, Kraus N.

The Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3540, USA.

Music and speech are very cognitively demanding auditory phenomena generally attributed to cortical rather than subcortical circuitry. We examined brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch and found that musicians show more robust and faithful encoding compared with nonmusicians. These results not only implicate a  common subcortical manifestation for two presumed cortical functions, but also a  possible reciprocity of corticofugal speech and music tuning, providing neurophysiological explanations for musicians' higher language-learning ability.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17351633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 1;35(2):804-13. Epub 2007 Jan 23.

The mind of expert motor performance is cool and focused.

Milton J, Solodkin A, Hlustík P, Small SL.

Department of Neurology and Brain Research Imaging Center, The University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Extraordinary motor skills required for expert athletic or music performance require longstanding and intensive practice leading to two critical skills, a level of maximal performance that far exceeds that of non-experts and a degree of privileged focus on motor performance that excludes intrusions. This study of motor planning in expert golfers demonstrated their brain activation during their pre-shot routine to be radically different than in novices. The posterior cingulate, the amygdala-forebrain complex, and the basal ganglia were active only in novices, whereas experts had activation primarily in the superior parietal lobule, the dorsal lateral premotor area, and the occipital area. The fact that these differences are apparent before the golfer swings the club suggests that the disparity between the quality of the performance of novice and expert golfers lies at the level of the organization of neural networks during motor planning. In particular, we suggest that extensive practice over a long period of time leads experts to develop a focused and efficient organization of task-related neural networks, whereas novices have difficulty filtering out irrelevant information.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17317223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007 Apr;61(2):190-2.

Donepezil in the treatment of musical hallucinations.

Ukai S, Yamamoto M, Tanaka M, Shinosaki K, Takeda M.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Musical hallucinations (MH) typically occur among elderly individuals and are associated with hearing impairment. The authors describe a patient with features  of typical MH who was successfully treated with donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, as a combination therapy and who has not shown any subsequent cognitive decline for approximately 5 years. The efficacy of donepezil in this patient indicates that age-dependent dysfunction of cholinergic neurons might be  related to the development of MH.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17362438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 2007 Apr;60(4):527-33.

Instrument specificity in experienced musicians.

Drost UC, Rieger M, Prinz W.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Munich, Germany.

Previous studies have shown that experienced pianists have acquired integrated action-effect (A-E) associations. In the present study, we were interested in how specific these associations are for the own instrument by investigating pianists  and guitarists. A-E associations were examined by testing whether the perception  of a "potential" action-effect has an influence on actions. Participants played chords on their instrument in response to visual stimuli, while they were presented task-irrelevant auditory distractors (congruent or incongruent) in varying instrument timbre. In Experiment 1, pianists exhibited an interference effect with timbres of their own instrument category (keyboard instruments: piano and organ). In Experiment 2 guitarists showed an interference effect only with guitar timbre. Thus, integrated A-E associations primarily seem to consist of a specific component on a sensory-motor level involving the own instrument. Additionally, categorical knowledge about how an instrument is played seems to be involved.

PMID: 17455063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Scand J Psychol. 2007 Apr;48(2):87-96.

Effect of skill level on recall of visually presented patterns of musical notes.

Kalakoski V.

Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Expertise effects in music were studied in a new task: the construction of mental representations from separate fragments. Groups of expert musicians and non-musicians were asked to recall note patterns presented visually note by note. Skill-level, musical well-formedness of the note patterns and presentation mode were varied. The musicians recalled note patterns better than the non-musicians,  even though the presentation was visual and successive. Furthermore, only musicians' performance was affected by musical well-formedness of the note patterns when visual gestalt properties, verbal rehearsability, and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. Musicians were also able to use letter names referring to notes as efficiently as visual notes, which indicates that the better recall of musicians cannot be explained by perceptual visual chunking. These results and the effect of skill level on the distribution of recall errors  indicate that the ability to chunk incoming information into meaningful units does not require that complete familiar patterns are accessible to encoding processes, yet previous knowledge stored in long-term memory affects representation construction in working memory. The present method offers a new reliable tool, and its implications to the research on construction of representations and musical imagery are discussed.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17430362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007 Mar 29;127(7):874-7.

[Rock music and hearing disorders]

[Article in Norwegian]

Střrmer CC, Stenklev NC.

Institutt for klinisk medisin, Det medisinske fakultet, Universitetet i Tromsř, 9037 Tromsř.

BACKGROUND: Continued exposition to loud noise is a well-known risk factor for development of various hearing disorders; rock musicians are especially vulnerable. The aim of this paper was to get an overview of hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis among rock musicians. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Medline was systematically searched, using combinations of the terms "hearing", "rock music", "tinnitus" and "hyperacusis". RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Seven publications concerning hearing of rock musicians were identified. Permanent hearing loss occurred in 20% (mean) of the rock musicians; the prevalence varied from 5 to 41%. Tinnitus and hyperacusis appear significantly more often in rock musicians than in non-musicians. Rock musicians have increased resistance against loud music and exposure over time is protective towards hearing loss. Further research is needed to assess rock music's impact on musicians' hearing.

Publication Types:      English Abstract     Review

PMID: 17435808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuropsychologia. 2007 Mar 25;45(6):1208-14. Epub 2006 Dec 12.

Cortical networks of procedural learning: evidence from cerebellar damage.

Torriero S, Oliveri M, Koch G, Lo Gerfo E, Salerno S, Petrosini L, Caltagirone C.

Laboratorio di Neurologia Clinica e Comportamentale, Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The lateral cerebellum plays a critical role in procedural learning that goes beyond the strict motor control functions attributed to it. Patients with cerebellar damage show marked impairment in the acquisition of procedures, as revealed by their performance on the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Here we present the case of a patient affected by ischemic damage involving the left cerebellum who showed a selective deficit in procedural learning while performing the SRTT with the left hand. The deficit recovered when the cortical excitability of an extensive network involving both cerebellar hemispheres and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was decreased by low-frequency repetitive  transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Although inhibition of the right DLPFC  or a control fronto-parietal region did not modify the patient's performance, inhibition of the right (unaffected) cerebellum and the left DLPFC markedly improved task performance. These findings could be explained by the modulation of a set of inhibitory and excitatory connections between the lateral cerebellum and the contralateral prefrontal area induced by rTMS. The presence of left cerebellar damage is likely associated with a reduced excitatory drive from sub-cortical left cerebellar nuclei towards the right DLPFC, causing reduced excitability of the right DLPFC and, conversely, unbalanced activation of the left DLPFC. Inhibition of the left DLPFC would reduce the unbalancing of cortical activation, thus explaining the observed selective recovery of procedural memory.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17166525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuropsychologia. 2007 Mar 25;45(6):1172-86. Epub 2006 Nov 17.

Local and global auditory processing: behavioral and ERP evidence.

Sanders LD, Poeppel D.

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Differential processing of local and global visual features is well established.  Global precedence effects, differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited when attention is focused on local versus global levels, and hemispheric specialization for local and global features all indicate that relative scale of  detail is an important distinction in visual processing. Observing analogous differential processing of local and global auditory information would suggest that scale of detail is a general organizational principle of the brain. However, to date the research on auditory local and global processing has primarily focused on music perception or on the perceptual analysis of relatively higher and lower frequencies. The study described here suggests that temporal aspects of auditory stimuli better capture the local-global distinction. By combining short  (40 ms) frequency modulated tones in series to create global auditory patterns (500 ms), we independently varied whether pitch increased or decreased over short time spans (local) and longer time spans (global). Accuracy and reaction time measures revealed better performance for global judgments and asymmetric interference that were modulated by amount of pitch change. ERPs recorded while participants listened to identical sounds and indicated the direction of pitch change at the local or global levels provided evidence for differential processing similar to that found in ERP studies employing hierarchical visual stimuli. ERP measures failed to provide evidence for lateralization of local and  global auditory perception, but differences in distributions suggest preferential processing in more ventral and dorsal areas respectively.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17113115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rev Neurol. 2007 Mar 2;44 Suppl 2:S43-7.

[Asperger's syndrome, little teachers: special skills.]


[Article in Spanish]


Etchepareborda MC, Diaz-Lucero A, Pascuale MJ, Abad-Mas L, Ruiz-Andres R.

Laboratorio para el estudio de las Funciones Superiores (LAFUN), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

INTRODUCTION. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is characterised by its effects on reciprocal social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, difficulty in accepting changes, inflexible thinking and reduced fields of interest, but also by the presentation of special skills. DEVELOPMENT. On the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Hans Asperger, we briefly review the history of this researcher and offer a short description of the clinical features of the condition, including social interaction, communication, limited concerns and interests, routines and inflexibility, which are key points when it comes to reaching a diagnosis. Later, we also focus on Savant syndrome, which is a very common subgroup within AS and which is characterised by the patient's outstanding ability is certain special skills, such as hypermnesia, hyperlexia and hypercalculia, in mental feats concerning the perpetual calendar and in several branches of the arts, such as drawing, painting, sculpture and music. We discuss  several famous cases of savants and explain some of the theories about its pathophysiology. CONCLUSIONS. Having special skills is a distinguishing mark of AS and identifying and facilitating them would provide us with a potential tool with which to accomplish suitable job opportunities.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17347944 [PubMed - in process]


Am J Crit Care. 2007 Mar;16(2):141-5.

Influence of music on the stress response in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support: a pilot study.

Chlan LL, Engeland WC, Anthony A, Guttormson J.

University of Minnesota School of Nursing, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

BACKGROUND: Music is considered an ideal therapy for reducing stress in patients  receiving mechanical ventilation. Previous studies of the effect of music on stress in such patients have focused solely on indirect markers of the stress response rather than on serum biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of  music on serum biomarkers of the stress response in patients receiving ventilatory support. METHODS: A convenience sample of 10 patients receiving mechanical ventilation was recruited from an 11-bed medical intensive care unit.  Patients were randomly assigned to listen to music or to rest quietly for 60 minutes. Levels of corticotropin, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were  measured 4 times during the 60 minutes. RESULTS: The levels of the 4 biomarkers of the stress response did not differ significantly between patients who listened to music and patients who rested quietly, though the levels of corticotropin and  cortisol showed interesting trends. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed with a larger sample size to evaluate further the influence of music on biochemical markers of the stress response in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. In future studies, confounding factors such as endotracheal  suctioning and administration of medications that influence the stress response should be controlled for.

Publication Types:      Randomized Controlled Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17322014 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ann Fam Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;5(2):164-9.

Jazz and the 'art' of medicine: improvisation in the medical encounter.

Haidet P.

The Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from  jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one's communication), a physician's communicative style (ie, developing one's voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17389542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Mar;32(1):31-50.

Effects of music on the recovery of autonomic and electrocortical activity after  stress induced by aversive visual stimuli.

Sokhadze EM.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 500 Preston Street, Bldg. A., Suite 210, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of music and white noise on  the recovery of physiological measures after stressful visual stimulation. Twenty-nine participants took part in the experiment. Visual stimulation with slides eliciting disgust was followed by subjectively pleasant music, sad music,  and white noise in three consecutive sessions. The spectral power of the frontal  and temporal EEG, skin conductance, heart rate, heart period variability, facial  capillary blood flow, and respiration rate were recorded and analyzed. Aversive visual stimulation evoked heart rate deceleration, increased high frequency component of heart period variability, increased skin conductance level and skin  conductance response frequency, decreased facial blood flow and velocity, decreased temporal slow alpha and increased frontal fast beta power in all three  sessions. Both subjectively pleasant and sad music led to the restoration of baseline levels on most parameters; while white noise did not enhance the recovery process. The effects of pleasant music on post-stress recovery, when compared to white noise, were significantly different on heart rate, respiration  rate, and peripheral blood flow. Both positive and negative music exerted positive modulatory effects on cardiovascular and respiratory activity, namely increased heart rate, balanced heart period variability, increased vascular blood flow and respiration rate during the post-stress recovery. Data only partially supported the "undoing" hypothesis, which states that positive emotions may facilitate the process of physiological recovery following negative emotions.

Publication Types:      Controlled Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17333313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cognition. 2007 Mar;102(3):434-54. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

Hearing a melody in different ways: multistability of metrical interpretation, reflected in rate limits of sensorimotor synchronization.

Repp BH.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.

Music commonly induces the feeling of a regular beat (i.e., a metrical structure) in listeners. However, musicians can also intentionally impose a beat (i.e., a metrical interpretation) on a metrically ambiguous passage. The present study aimed to provide objective evidence for this little-studied mental ability. Participants were prompted with musical notation to adopt different metrical interpretations of a cyclically repeated isochronous 12-note melody while tapping in synchrony with specified target tones in the melody. The target tones either coincided with the imposed beat (on-beat tapping) or did not (off-beat tapping).  An adaptive staircase method was employed to determine the fastest tempo at which each synchronization task could be performed. For each metrical interpretation, a significant advantage for on-beat over off-beat tapping was obtained - except in  a condition in which participants, instead of synchronizing, were in control of the target tones. By showing that a self-imposed beat can affect sensorimotor synchronization, the present results provide objective evidence for endogenous perceptual organization of metrical sequences. It is hypothesized that metrical interpretation rests upon covert rhythmic action.

Publication Types:      Clinical Trial     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 16545791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Conscious Cogn. 2007 Mar;16(1):102-11. Epub 2006 Feb 8.

Pianists duet better when they play with themselves: on the possible role of action simulation in synchronization.

Keller PE, Knoblich G, Repp BH.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Munich/Leipzig, Germany.

Ensemble musicians play in synchrony despite expressively motivated irregularities in timing. We hypothesized that synchrony is achieved by each performer internally simulating the concurrent actions of other ensemble members, relying initially on how they would perform in their stead. Hence, musicians should be better at synchronizing with recordings of their own earlier performances than with others' recordings. We required pianists to record one part from each of several piano duets, and later to play the complementary part in synchrony with their own or others' recordings. The pianists were also asked to identify their own recordings. The pianists were better at synchronizing with  their own than with others' performances, and they were able to recognize their own recordings. Furthermore, synchronization accuracy and recognition were correlated: Pianists who were relatively accurate at synchronizing with their own performances were also good at recognizing them. Thus, action simulation may underlie both synchronization and self-recognition.

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16466932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Gastroenterology. 2007 Mar;132(3):890-8.

Erratum in:     Gastroenterology. 2007 Oct;133(4):1393.

Comment in:     Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007 Aug;9(4):259-60.

Reflux symptoms in professional opera choristers.

Cammarota G, Masala G, Cianci R, Palli D, Capaccio P, Schindler A, Cuoco L, Galli J, Ierardi E, Cannizzaro O, Caselli M, Dore MP, Bendinelli B, Gasbarrini G.

Institute of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Medicine and Surgery, Rome, Italy.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A specific, occupation-related susceptibility of professional singers to experience gastroesophageal reflux was hypothesized. We investigated the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a series of professional opera choristers in comparison with a general population sample. METHODS: A total of 351 professional opera choristers from well-known chorus in different Italian regions were identified and a sample of 578 subjects residing in the same areas with a similar distribution in age and sex was selected. Reflux symptoms in the year preceding the survey together with selected individual characteristics and lifestyle habits were investigated in both study groups through a structured questionnaire. Prevalence rate ratios, adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and other confounding  factors, were computed. RESULTS: Opera choristers reported a statistically significant higher prevalence of heartburn, regurgitation, cough, and hoarse voice than the population sample, with adjusted prevalent rate ratios of 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.94), 1.81 (95% CI, 1.42-2.30), 1.40 (95% CI, 1.18-1.67), and 2.45 (95% CI, 1.97-3.04), respectively. Regurgitation appeared to be associated consistently with the cumulative lifetime duration of singing activity (P = .04) and with the weekly duration of singing activity (P =  .005) when different multivariate models were applied. CONCLUSIONS: Opera choristers reported a higher prevalence of reflux symptoms than the population sample. Future studies will be needed to clarify whether gastroesophageal reflux  in professional opera choristers is stress-induced and therefore may be considered as a work-related disease.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Multicenter Study     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17383418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Georgian Med News. 2007 Mar;(144):18-24.

Interaural pitch perception difference: dependence upon internal and external factors.

Mürbe D, Kevanishvili Z, Kuhlisch E, Hofmann G, Zahnert T.

Technical University, Dresden, Germany;

Tone pulses were presented consecutively to one and the other ear in normally hearing musicians. The frequency of pulses in one, reference ear was fixed. That  in the other, test ear varied to achieve the same pitch of tones in both ears. The frequency deviation of the test tone from the reference one was judged as the interaural pitch perception difference, IPPD. No dissimilarities in IPPDs were found between females and males. On the other hand, in both genders the IPPD scores were greater at higher than at medium and, especially, at lower tone frequencies, 2000, 1000, and 500 Hz, respectively. Also, the IPPDs displayed greater values when the reference tone was administered to the left ear, while the right ear served for the application of the test tone, LrRt, than when the reference tone was delivered to the right ear, while the test tone was applied to the left ear, RrLt. The IPPD differences under LrRt and RrLt stimulus presentations modes were prominent just at higher than at medium and, especially, at lower tone frequencies. The results are interpreted proceeding from the peculiar coding of low- and high-frequency acoustic information into brain auditory structures. Correspondingly, the IPPD is considered to be a consequence  of central neural rather than of peripheral receptor events.

PMID: 17473327 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Audiol. 2007 Mar;46(3):128-33.

Can a hearing education campaign for adolescents change their music listening behavior?

Weichbold V, Zorowka P.

Department of Hearing, Voice, and Speech Disorders, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

This study looked at whether a hearing education campaign would have behavioral effects on the music listening practices of high school students. A total of 1757 students participated in a hearing education campaign. Before the campaign and one year thereafter they completed a survey asking for: (1) average frequency of  discotheque attendance, (2) average duration of stay in the discotheque, (3) use  of earplugs in discotheques, (4) frequency of regeneration breaks while at a discotheque, and (5) mean time per week spent listening to music through headphones. On questions (2), (3) and (5) no relevant post-campaign changes were  reported. On question (1) students' answers indicated that the frequency of discotheque attendance had even increased after the campaign. The only change in  keeping with the purpose of the campaign was an increase in the number of regeneration breaks when at a discotheque. The effect of hearing education campaigns on music listening behavior is questioned. Additional efforts are suggested to encourage adolescents to adopt protective behaviors.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17365066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mem Cognit. 2007 Mar;35(2):242-53.

Learning lyrics: to sing or not to sing?

Racette A, Peretz I.

Départment de psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

According to common practice and oral tradition, learning verbal materials through song should facilitate word recall. In the present study, we provide evidence against this belief. In Experiment 1, 36 university students, half of them musicians, learned an unfamiliar song in three conditions. In the sung-sung  condition, the song to be learned was sung, and the response was sung too. In the sung-spoken condition, the response was spoken. In the divided-spoken condition,  the presented lyrics (accompanied by music) and the response were both spoken. Superior word recall in the sung-sung condition was predicted. However, fewer words were recalled when singing than when speaking. Furthermore, the mode of presentation, whether sung or spoken, had no influence on lyric recall, in either short- or long-term recall. In Experiment 2, singing was assessed with and without words. Altogether, the results indicate that the text and the melody of a song have separate representations in memory, making singing a dual task to perform, at least in the first steps of learning. Interestingly, musical training had little impact on performance, suggesting that vocal learning is a basic and widespread skill.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17645165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Psychophysiology. 2007 Mar;44(2):293-304.

Music and emotion: electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant  and unpleasant music.

Sammler D, Grigutsch M, Fritz T, Koelsch S.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Human emotion and its electrophysiological correlates are still poorly understood. The present study examined whether the valence of perceived emotions  would differentially influence EEG power spectra and heart rate (HR). Pleasant and unpleasant emotions were induced by consonant and dissonant music. Unpleasant (compared to pleasant) music evoked a significant decrease of HR, replicating the pattern of HR responses previously described for the processing of emotional pictures, sounds, and films. In the EEG, pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music was associated with an increase of frontal midline (Fm) theta power. This effect is taken to reflect emotional processing in close interaction with attentional functions. These findings show that Fm theta is modulated by emotion  more strongly than previously believed.

PMID: 17343712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


458: Resuscitation. 2007 Mar;72(3):499. Epub 2007 Jan 22.

Carbon dioxide and teenagers with orthostatic problems during a rock concert.

Oberladstätter D, Breitkopf R, Krappinger D, Reichel E, Wenzel V.

Publication Types:      Letter

PMID: 17240512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mov Disord. 2007 Feb 15;22(3):309-12.

Methods of evaluation of musician's dystonia: critique of measurement tools.

Spector JT, Brandfonbrener AG.

Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19014-4283, USA.

Musician's dystonia is associated with significant morbidity. To assess treatment options, accurate and precise measurements of disease severity are critical. We describe current methods of quantitatively measuring musician's dystonia of the upper extremity including subjective, objective, and automated methods. The degree to which these methods satisfy rigorous measurement criteria, including their reliability, validity, responsiveness to treatment, and practicality, is examined. We report that most of these methods have not been properly evaluated.  Therefore, treatment trials based on these methods are difficult to interpret.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17216638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuroreport. 2007 Feb 12;18(3):261-5.

Modulation of corticospinal activity by strong emotions evoked by pictures and classical music: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Baumgartner T, Willi M, Jäncke L.

Department of Neuropsychology, Laboratory for Neuroeconomics and Social Neurosciences, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and skin conductance responses, we sought to clarify if, and to what extent, emotional experiences of different valences and intensity activate the hand-motor system and the associated corticospinal tract. For that purpose, we applied a newly developed method to evoke strong emotional experiences by the simultaneous presentation of musical and pictorial stimuli of congruent emotional valence. We uncovered enhanced motor-evoked potentials, irrespective of valence, during the simultaneous presentation of emotional music and picture stimuli (Combined conditions) compared with the single presentation of the two modalities (Picture/Music conditions). In contrast, vegetative arousal was enhanced during both the Combined and Music conditions, compared with the Picture conditions, again irrespective of emotional valence. These findings strongly indicate that arousal is a necessary, but not sufficient, prerequisite for triggering the motor system of the brain. We offer a potential explanation for this discrepant, but intriguing, finding in the paper.

PMID: 17314668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurosci Lett. 2007 Feb 2;412(3):217-21. Epub 2006 Dec 18.

Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

Peterson DA, Thaut MH.

Department of Computer Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity  associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word  list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17178191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Brain Cogn. 2007 Feb;63(1):59-69. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

Activation of premotor vocal areas during musical discrimination.

Brown S, Martinez MJ.

Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA.

Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of premotor areas involved in vocal-motor planning and production, namely the somatotopic mouth region of the primary and lateral premotor cortices, Broca's area, the supplementary motor area, and the anterior insula. A perceptual control task involving passive listening alone to monophonic melodies led to activations exclusively in temporal-lobe auditory areas. These results show that, compared to passive listening tasks, discrimination tasks elicit activation in vocal-motor planning areas.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17027134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Feb;121(2):1182-9.

Singing proficiency in the general population.

Dalla Bella S, Gigučre JF, Peretz I.

Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, Ul. Pawia 55, 01-030 Warsaw, Poland.

Most believe that the ability to carry a tune is unevenly distributed in the general population. To test this claim, we asked occasional singers (n=62) to sing a well-known song in both the laboratory and in a natural setting (experiment 1). Sung performances were judged by peers for proficiency, analyzed  for pitch and time accuracy with an acoustic-based method, and compared to professional singing. The peer ratings for the proficiency of occasional singers  were normally distributed. Only a minority of the occasional singers made numerous pitch errors. The variance in singing proficiency was largely due to tempo differences. Occasional singers tended to sing at a faster tempo and with more pitch and time errors relative to professional singers. In experiment 2 15 nonmusicians from experiment 1 sang the same song at a slow tempo. In this condition, most of the occasional singers sang as accurately as the professional  singers. Thus, singing appears to be a universal human trait. However, two of the occasional singers maintained a high rate of pitch errors at the slower tempo. This poor performance was not due to impaired pitch perception, thus suggesting the existence of a purely vocal form of tone deafness.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17348539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Adolesc Health. 2007 Feb;40(2):185-7. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Music videos, pro wrestling, and acceptance of date rape among middle school males and females: an exploratory analysis.

Kaestle CE, Halpern CT, Brown JD.

Department of Human Development, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Exposure to televised music videos and pro wrestling were associated with rape acceptance (lower levels of agreeing with the statement "forcing a partner to have sex is never OK") among males, but not females, in a sample of 904 middle school students (controlling for overall television exposure, parenting style, and demographics).

Publication Types:      Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17259064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Monit. 2007 Feb;13(2):CR57-70.

Recreational music-making modulates natural killer cell activity, cytokines, and  mood states in corporate employees.

Wachiuli M, Koyama M, Utsuyama M, Bittman BB, Kitagawa M, Hirokawa K.

Department of Comprehensive Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School, Tokyo, Japan.

BACKGROUND: With growing evidence linking job stress to illness, finding an effective means of stress management has become a challenging international endeavor. Although music therapy has attracted the attention of various fields as a promising method for alleviating stress, lack of standardization and paucity of data have served as impediments to widespread utilization. MATERIAL/METHODS: The  effects of a Recreational Music-Making (RMM) group drumming protocol was evaluated on Japanese male corporate employees. A total of 20 volunteers participated in a one-hour RMM session while 20 volunteers engaged in leisurely reading for one hour (controls). After a six-month interval, the groups switched  activities and underwent one session each. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected using mood state questionnaires and blood samples. Individual and group mean values for natural killer (NK) cell activity, NK cell percentage, and cytokine gene expression were analyzed. RESULTS: NK cell activity in the RMM group increased among individuals with low pre-intervention levels, and decreased among those with high pre-intervention levels. A significant correlation was established between changes in NK cell activity and the changes in the level of gene expressions for interferon-gamma and interleukin-10. The RMM group demonstrated enhanced mood, lower gene expression levels of the stress-induced cytokine interleukin-10, and higher NK cell activity when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: Based upon documented changes in NK cell activity, coupled  with gene expression changes for interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and improved mood, this RMM protocol has significant potential for utilization in the corporate wellness environment.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17261984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Medsurg Nurs. 2007 Feb;16(1):7-14; quiz 15.

The effect of music therapy on patients' perception and manifestation of pain, anxiety, and patient satisfaction.

Richards T, Johnson J, Sparks A, Emerson H.

West Virginia University Hospitals, Morgantown, WV, USA.

An extensive review and synthesis of current research was completed to identify the clinical benefit of using music therapy in the hospital setting. It demonstrated that music therapy has the potential to improve the hospital experience of patients.

Publication Types:      Review

PMID: 17441624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007 Feb;87(2):236-47. Epub 2006 Oct 13.

Practice strategies of musicians modulate neural processing and the learning of sound-patterns.

Seppänen M, Brattico E, Tervaniemi M.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki,  Finland.

Previous studies suggest that pre-attentive auditory processing of musicians differs depending on the strategies used in music practicing and performance. This study aimed at systematically revealing whether there are differences in auditory processing between musicians preferring and not-preferring aural strategies such as improvising, playing by ear, and rehearsing by listening to records. Participants were assigned to aural and non-aural groups according to how much they employ aural strategies, as determined by a questionnaire. The change-related mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) was used to probe pre-attentive neural discrimination of simple sound features and melody-like patterns. Further, the musicians' behavioral accuracy in sound perception was tested with a discrimination task and the AMMA musicality test. The data indicate that practice strategies do not affect musicians' pre-attentive neural discrimination of changes in simple sound features but do modulate the speed of neural discrimination of interval and contour changes within melody-like patterns. Moreover, while the aural and non-aural groups did not differ in their initial neural accuracy for discriminating melody-like patterns, they differed after a focused training session. A correlation between behavioral and neural measures was also obtained.  Taken together, these results suggest that auditory processing of musicians who prefer aural practice strategies differs in melodic contour and interval processing and perceptual learning, rather than in simple sound processing, in comparison to musicians preferring other practice strategies.

Publication Types:      Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17046293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Feb;104(1):153-4.

Demand characteristics of music affect performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test Of Intelligence.

Verpaelst CC, Standing LG.

Department of Psychology, Bishop's University, Sherbrooke QC, Canada.

This study examined whether demand characteristics concerning music can change subjects' performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test of intelligence. Participants (N= 60) were randomly assigned and informed either that Mozart's music typically enhances cognitive performance or diminishes it. They then completed the Wonderlic Personnel Test while listening to a Mozart piano sonata.  The subjects with a positive set answered significantly more items correctly on the test (14%) than those with a negative set (p = .03). This result may hold implications for the study of the 'Mozart effect'.

PMID: 17450975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2007 Feb;93(2):180-8.

[Dependence of the circadian organization of heart rate regulation by prolonged musical sensory influence]

[Article in Russian]

Kirillova IA, Maliarenko TN, Voronin IM, Govsha IuA.

It's shown that prolonged acoustic sensory influence in the form of classic music may change neurovegetative control of heart rate, enhancing the parasympathetic influences on heart rate variability, especially in night. These alterations increase expression of diurnal rhythm of ergotropic and trophotropic systems activity and lead to normalization of circadian profile of heart rate.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 17461021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Singapore Med J. 2007 Feb;48(2):e68-70.

The psychopathology of musical hallucinations.

Mahendran R.

Institute of Mental Health, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore 539747.

Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in neurological and psychiatric patients. There are clinical case reports and a few studies which describe the condition. Musical hallucinations have a heterogeneous clinical and pathophysiological aetiology, and have been reported in the elderly and in those  with hearing impairment, central nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The psychopathology is reviewed and three cases seen in a psychiatric  setting are reported.

Publication Types:      Case Reports

PMID: 17304385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neuropsychologia. 2007 Jan 28;45(2):236-44. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music.

Gosselin N, Peretz I, Johnsen E, Adolphs R.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, CP 6128, Succ Centre-ville, Montréal, Que, Canada.

The role of the amygdala in recognition of danger is well established for visual  stimuli such as faces. A similar role in another class of emotionally potent stimuli -- music -- has been recently suggested by the study of epileptic patients with unilateral resection of the anteromedian part of the temporal lobe  [Gosselin, N., Peretz, I., Noulhiane, M., Hasboun, D., Beckett, C., & Baulac, M., et al. (2005). Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal  lobe excision. Brain, 128(Pt 3), 628-640]. The goal of the present study was to assess the specific role of the amygdala in the recognition of fear from music. To this aim, we investigated a rare subject, S.M., who has complete bilateral damage relatively restricted to the amygdala and not encompassing other sectors of the temporal lobe. In Experiment 1, S.M. and four matched controls were asked  to rate the intensity of fear, peacefulness, happiness, and sadness from computer-generated instrumental music purposely created to express those emotions. Subjects also rated the arousal and valence of each musical stimulus. An error detection task assessed basic auditory perceptual function. S.M. performed normally in this perceptual task, but was selectively impaired in the recognition of scary and sad music. In contrast, her recognition of happy music was normal. Furthermore, S.M. judged the scary music to be less arousing and the  peaceful music less relaxing than did the controls. Overall, the pattern of impairment in S.M. is similar to that previously reported in patients with unilateral anteromedial temporal lobe damage. S.M.'s impaired emotional judgments occur in the face of otherwise intact processing of musical features that are emotionally determinant. The use of tempo and mode cues in distinguishing happy from sad music was also spared in S.M. Thus, the amygdala appears to be necessary for emotional processing of music rather than the perceptual processing itself.

Publication Types:      Case Reports     Clinical Trial     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16970965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Science. 2007 Jan 19;315(5810):330; author reply 330.

Comment on:     Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):72-4.

Comment on "The geometry of musical chords".

Headlam D, Brown M.

Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, 26 Gibbs Street, Rochester, NY  14604, USA.

Tymoczko (Reports, 7 July 2006, p. 72) proposed that the familiar sonorities of Western tonal music cluster around the center of a multidimensional orbifold. However, this is not true for all tonal progressions. When prototypical three-voice cadential progressions by Bach converge on the tonic, the chords migrate from the center to the edge of the orbifold.

Publication Types:      Comment

PMID: 17234932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 10;27(2):308-14.

Comment in:     J Neurosci. 2007 May 30;27(22):5847-8.

Action representation of sound: audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions.

Lahav A, Saltzman E, Schlaug G.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

The discovery of audiovisual mirror neurons in monkeys gave rise to the hypothesis that premotor areas are inherently involved not only when observing actions but also when listening to action-related sound. However, the whole-brain functional formation underlying such "action-listening" is not fully understood.  In addition, previous studies in humans have focused mostly on relatively simple  and overexperienced everyday actions, such as hand clapping or door knocking. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to ask whether the human action-recognition system responds to sounds found in a more complex sequence of  newly acquired actions. To address this, we chose a piece of music as a model set of acoustically presentable actions and trained non-musicians to play it by ear.  We then monitored brain activity in subjects while they listened to the newly acquired piece. Although subjects listened to the music without performing any movements, activation was found bilaterally in the frontoparietal motor-related network (including Broca's area, the premotor region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the inferior parietal region), consistent with neural circuits that have been associated with action observations, and may constitute the human mirror neuron system. Presentation of the practiced notes in a different order activated the network to a much lesser degree, whereas listening to an equally familiar but motorically unknown music did not activate this network. These findings support the hypothesis of a "hearing-doing" system that is highly dependent on the individual's motor repertoire, gets established rapidly, and consists of Broca's  area as its hub.

Publication Types:      Comparative Study     Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17215391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


An R Acad Nac Med (Madr). 2007;124(2):349-59; discussion 359-60.

[William's syndrome]

[Article in Spanish]

Rubia Vila FJ.

William's syndrome is of great interest to neurosclence as it is expected to help understand the genetic and neural mechanisms that underlie our cognitive systems. Although patients with this syndrome have moderate levels of learning disability, some of them, however, have superior skills in language, auditory memory, face recognition, empathy with others and a passion for music. The theory that best explains this syndrome is that the degeneration of the functions of the left hemisphere generates a compensation via an increase in the functions of the right hemisphere.

Publication Types:      English Abstract

PMID: 18069600 [PubMed - in process]



Neurofeedback sessions for musicians improve creativity, expressivity, and well-being.

"A Matter of Mind" - Neurofeedback services in the San Francisco Bay Area
provides these resources on music neurosciences and therapy.

"A Matter of Mind" Homepage is



The following information is for provided for indexing purposes only.

Services listed include biofeedback, neurofeedback, quantitative electroencephalogram, QEEG, stress reduction, meditation, awareness, consciousness, peak performance, self-awareness, deep states, training, alpha waves, theta waves, beta waves, gamma waves, attention, concentration, creativity, relaxation, heart rate, heart rate variability, HRV, SMR, EEG, GSR, EDR, sEMG, EMG, sensory motor rhythm, slow cortical potential, SCP, galvanic skin response, electrodermal response, surface electromyography, electromyography, and conditioning, mindfulness, vipassana, and shamatha.

Peak performance training is useful for musicians, atheletes, artists, performers, scientists, executives, creators, inventors, writers, painters, sculptors, thinkers who are involved with violin, viola, guitar, bass, trumpet, drums, sitar, table, oboe, strings, brass, woodwinds, synthesizers, pianos, accordian, harmonica, singing, voice, opera, orchestra, chamber orchestra, band, group, jazz, improvisation, song writing, choir, composing, writing, arranging, running, sprinting, track, field, football, soccer, baseball, basketball, gymnastics, ballet, dance, coaching, movement, acting, clowns, performing, drawing, painting, sketching, cartooning, charactiture, architecture, design, implementation, decisions, management, organization, creating, scripting, screenplay, screen play, screen-play, molding, sculpting, shaping, inventing in the fields of music, musicianship, sports, endurance, song writing, entertainment, invention, management, design, fine arts, arts and letters.

Biofeedback and neurofeedback have been succesfully used in the management of attention deficit disorder, ADD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, asthma, depression, hypertension, anxiety, raynaud's syndrome, pain, chronic pain, learning disorders, pelvic floor disorders, addictions, posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, substance abuse, headache, migraine, tension, performance anxiety, stress, chronic stress, posture, coordination, peak performance, athletic performance, musical performance, executive performance, TMJ, etc.

Regions served include California, Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Cupertino, Los Gatos, Fremont, Milpitas, Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Hayward, Oakland, San Mateo, Campbell, Gilroy, Redmond, Burlingame, San Francisco, Northern California, Union City, Santa Cruz, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, South Bay, North Bay, East Bay, Peninsula, Morgan Hill, Saratoga, Sacramento, Monterey, Capitola, Aptos, Carmel, Dublin, Walnut Creek, Concord, Daly City, Burlingame, and Morgan Hill.

End: January 2008